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1.
Environmental Microbiology ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2001574

ABSTRACT

SARS‐CoV‐2 diagnosis is a cornerstone for the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19). Numerous studies have assessed saliva performance over nasopharyngeal sampling (NPS), but data in young children are still rare. We explored saliva performance for SARS‐CoV‐2 detection by RT‐PCR according to the time interval from initial symptoms or patient serological status. We collected 509 NPS and saliva paired samples at initial diagnosis from 166 children under 12 years of age (including 57 children under 6), 106 between 12 and 17, and 237 adults. In children under 12, overall detection rate for SARS‐CoV‐2 was comparable in saliva and NPS, with an overall agreement of 89.8%. Saliva sensitivity was significantly lower than that of NPS (77.1% compared to 95.8%) in pre‐school and school‐age children but regained 96% when considering seronegative children only. This pattern was also observed to a lesser degree in adolescents but not in adults. Sensitivity of saliva was independent of symptoms, in contrary to NPS, whose sensitivity decreased significantly in asymptomatic subjects. Performance of saliva is excellent in children under 12 at early stages of infection. This reinforces saliva as a collection method for early and unbiased SARS‐CoV‐2 detection and a less invasive alternative for young children. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Environmental Microbiology is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

2.
Environmental Microbiology ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1968040

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis is a cornerstone for the management of Coronavirus disease 2019. Numerous studies have assessed saliva performance over nasopharyngeal sampling (NPS), but data in young children are still rare. We explored saliva performance for SARS-CoV-2 detection by RT-PCR according to the time interval from initial symptoms or patient serological status. We collected 509 NPS and saliva paired samples at initial diagnosis from 166 children under 12?years of age (including 57 children under 6), 106 between 12 and 17, and 237 adults. In children under 12, overall detection rate for SARS-CoV-2 was comparable in saliva and NPS, with an overall agreement of 89.8%. Saliva sensitivity was significantly lower than that of NPS (77.1% compared to 95.8%) in preschool and school children, but regained 96% when considering seronegative children only. This pattern was also observed to a lesser degree in adolescents, but not in adults. Sensitivity of saliva was independent of symptoms, in contrary to NPS whose sensitivity decreased significantly in asymptomatic subjects. Performance of saliva is excellent in children under 12 at early stages of infection. This reinforces saliva as a collection method for early and unbiased SARS-CoV-2 detection and a less invasive alternative for young children. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
J Pediatr ; 2022 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889635

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe neurologic, radiologic and laboratory features in children with central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory disease complicating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. STUDY DESIGN: We focused on CNS inflammatory diseases in children referred from 12 hospitals in the Paris area to Necker-Sick Children Reference Centre. RESULTS: We identified 19 children who had a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and manifest a variety of CNS inflammatory diseases: encephalopathy, cerebellar ataxia, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, or optic neuritis. All patients had a history of SARS-CoV-2 exposure, and all tested positive for circulating antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. At the onset of the neurologic disease, SARS-CoV-2 PCR results (nasopharyngeal swabs) were positive in 8 children. Cerebrospinal fluid was abnormal in 58% (11/19) and magnetic resonance imaging was abnormal in 74% (14/19). We identified an autoantibody co-trigger in 4 children (myelin-oligodendrocyte and aquaporin 4 antibodies), representing 21% of the cases. No autoantibody was found in the 6 children whose CNS inflammation was accompanied by a multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Overall, 89% of patients (17/19) received anti-inflammatory treatment, primarily high-pulse methylprednisolone. All patients had a complete long-term recovery and, to date, no patient with autoantibodies presented with a relapse. CONCLUSIONS: SARS2-CoV-2 represents a new trigger of postinfectious CNS inflammatory diseases in children.

5.
Pathogens ; 10(11)2021 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480905

ABSTRACT

Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) were implemented to reduce the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A first national lockdown was decided in France on the 17 March 2020. These measures had an impact on other viral and non-viral infectious diseases. We aimed to assess this impact on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. We performed a quasi-experimental interrupted time series analysis. We used data from a French prospective surveillance system of six pediatric emergency departments (PEDs). All visits from 1 January 2017 to 31 December 2020 were included. Pre-intervention period was before 17 March 2020 and post-intervention period was after 18 March 2020. We estimated the impact on the weekly number of visits for CAP and CAP admission using quasi-Poisson regression modeling. A total of 981,782 PEDs visits were analyzed; among them, 8318 visits were associated with CAP, and 1774 of these were followed by a hospital admission. A major decrease was observed for CAP visits (-79.7% 95% CI [-84.3; -73.8]; p < 0.0001), and CAP admission (-71.3% 95 CI [-78.8; -61.1]; p < 0.0001). We observed a dramatic decrease of CAP in children following NPIs implementation. Further studies are required to assess the long-term impact of these measures.

7.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1919042, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192434

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 lockdowns have deeply impacted teaching programs. Online teaching has suddenly become the main form of medical education, a form that may be used as long as the pandemic continues. We aimed at analyzing how online teaching was perceived by both teachers and learners to help determine how to adapt curricula in the next few years. An anonymous cross-sectional survey of medical students, pediatric residents, neonatal fellows, and their respective teachers was conducted between June and August 2020 to assess feelings about quality, attendance, equivalence, and sustainability of online teaching programs. 146 Students and 26 teachers completed the survey. 89% of students agreed that the offered online teaching was an appropriate way of teaching during the pandemic. Less than half of learners and teachers felt they have received or provided a training of an equivalent level and quality as in usual courses. About one-third thought that this online teaching should continue after the crisis ends. Medical school students had significantly more mixed opinions on online teaching than residents and fellows did. Attendance of learners significantly improved with synchronous online classes (p < 0.001), and among more advanced learners (p < 0.002). Our study is the first of this kind to assess simultaneously the feelings of learners at different levels (medical students, residents, and fellows) and their respective teachers of pediatric on programs taught online. It showed that online programs were perceived as appropriate ways of teaching during the COVID pandemic. Further studies are, however, needed to assess the efficacy of such teaching methods on medical skills and communication capabilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Education, Medical/methods , Faculty, Medical/psychology , Students, Medical/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , France , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(4): 256-264, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180151

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The extent to which very young children contribute to the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is unclear. We aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in daycare centres that remained open for key workers' children during a nationwide lockdown in France. METHODS: Children and staff who attended one of 22 daycare centres during a nationwide lockdown in France (between March 15 and May 9, 2020) were included in this cross-sectional, multicentre, seroprevalence study. Hospital staff not occupationally exposed to patients with COVID-19, or to children, were enrolled in a comparator group. The primary outcome was SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in children, daycare centre staff, and the comparator group. The presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in capillary whole blood was measured with a rapid chromatographic immunoassay. We computed raw prevalence as the percentage of individuals with a positive IgG or IgM test, and used Bayesian smoothing to account for imperfect sensitivity and specificity of the assay. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04413968. FINDINGS: Between June 4 and July 3, 2020, we enrolled 327 children (mean age 1·9 [SD 0·9] years; range 5 months to 4·4 years), 197 daycare centre staff (mean age 40 [12] years), and 164 adults in the comparator group (42 [12] years). Positive serological tests were observed for 14 children (raw seroprevalence 4·3%; 95% CI 2·6-7·1) and 14 daycare centre staff (7·7%; 4·2-11·6). After accounting for imperfect sensitivity and specificity of the assay, we estimated that 3·7% (95% credible interval [95% CrI] 1·3-6·8) of the children and 6·8% (3·2-11·5) of daycare centre staff had SARS-CoV-2 infection. The comparator group fared similarly to the daycare centre staff; nine participants had a positive serological test (raw seroprevalence 5·5%; 95% CI 2·9-10·1), leading to a seroprevalence of 5·0% (95% CrI 1·6-9·8) after accounting for assay characteristics. An exploratory analysis suggested that seropositive children were more likely than seronegative children to have been exposed to an adult household member with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (six [43%] of 14 vs 19 [6%] of 307; relative risk 7·1 [95% CI 2·2-22·4]). INTERPRETATION: According to serological test results, the proportion of young children in our sample with SARS-CoV-2 infection was low. Intrafamily transmission seemed more plausible than transmission within daycare centres. Further epidemiological studies are needed to confirm this exploratory hypothesis. FUNDING: Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris; Mairie de Paris, Conseil Départemental de Seine Saint Denis. TRANSLATIONS: For the French translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/transmission , Child Day Care Centers , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , France/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , Seroepidemiologic Studies
9.
Euro Surveill ; 26(13)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167263

ABSTRACT

BackgroundChildren have a low rate of COVID-19 and secondary severe multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) but present a high prevalence of symptomatic seasonal coronavirus infections.AimWe tested if prior infections by seasonal coronaviruses (HCoV) NL63, HKU1, 229E or OC43 as assessed by serology, provide cross-protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection.MethodsWe set a cross-sectional observational multicentric study in pauci- or asymptomatic children hospitalised in Paris during the first wave for reasons other than COVID (hospitalised children (HOS), n = 739) plus children presenting with MIS (n = 36). SARS-CoV-2 antibodies directed against the nucleoprotein (N) and S1 and S2 domains of the spike (S) proteins were monitored by an in-house luciferase immunoprecipitation system assay. We randomly selected 69 SARS-CoV-2-seropositive patients (including 15 with MIS) and 115 matched SARS-CoV-2-seronegative patients (controls (CTL)). We measured antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV as evidence for prior corresponding infections and assessed if SARS-CoV-2 prevalence of infection and levels of antibody responses were shaped by prior seasonal coronavirus infections.ResultsPrevalence of HCoV infections were similar in HOS, MIS and CTL groups. Antibody levels against HCoV were not significantly different in the three groups and were not related to the level of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the HOS and MIS groups. SARS-CoV-2 antibody profiles were different between HOS and MIS children.ConclusionPrior infection by seasonal coronaviruses, as assessed by serology, does not interfere with SARS-CoV-2 infection and related MIS in children.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Paris , Seasons , Serologic Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(2): 319-322, 2021 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050127

ABSTRACT

A time series analysis of 871 543 pediatric emergency visits revealed that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown and school closures were associated with a significant decrease in infectious diseases disseminated through airborne or fecal-oral transmission: common cold, gastroenteritis, bronchiolitis, and acute otitis. No change was found for urinary tract infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
11.
Pediatrics ; 147(3)2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978953

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Initial reports on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in children suggested that very young age and comorbidities may increase risk of severe evolution, but these findings remained to be confirmed. We aimed to analyze the clinical spectrum of hospitalized pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection and predictors of severe disease evolution. METHODS: We conducted a French national prospective surveillance of children hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We included all children with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in 60 hospitals during February 15 to June 1, 2020. The main outcome was the proportion of children with severe disease, defined by hemodynamic or ventilatory (invasive or not) support requirement. RESULTS: We included 397 hospitalized children with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We identified several clinical patterns, ranging from paucisymptomatic children, admitted for surveillance, to lower respiratory tract infection or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Children <90 days old accounted for 37% of cases (145 of 397), but only 4 (3%) had severe disease. Excluding children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (n = 29) and hospitalized for a diagnosis not related to SARS-CoV-2 (n = 62), 23 of 306 (11%) children had severe disease, including 6 deaths. Factors independently associated with severity were age ≥10 years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-10.3), hypoxemia (OR = 8.9 [2.6-29.7]), C-reactive protein level ≥80 mg/L (OR = 6.6 [1.4-27.5]). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast with preliminary reports, young age was not an independent factor associated with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, and children <90 days old were at the lowest risk of severe disease evolution. This may help physicians to better identify risk of severe disease progression in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hemodynamics , Humans , Infant , Male , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
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