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1.
J Perinatol ; 2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972567

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between trimester of SARS-CoV-2 infection, illness severity, and risk for preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data for 6336 pregnant persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020 in the United States. Risk ratios for preterm birth were calculated for illness severity, trimester of infection, and illness severity stratified by trimester of infection adjusted for age, selected underlying medical conditions, and pregnancy complications. RESULT: Pregnant persons with critical COVID-19 or asymptomatic infection, compared to mild COVID-19, in the second or third trimester were at increased risk of preterm birth. Pregnant persons with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 did not show increased risk of preterm birth in any trimester. CONCLUSION: Critical COVID-19 in the second or third trimester was associated with increased risk of preterm birth. This finding can be used to guide prevention strategies, including vaccination, and inform clinical practices for pregnant persons.

2.
Placenta ; 126: 125-132, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914907

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and can have effects on the placenta, even in the absence of severe disease or vertical transmission to the fetus. This study aimed to evaluate histopathologic and molecular effects in the placenta after SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a study of 45 pregnant participants from the Generation C prospective cohort study at the Mount Sinai Health System in New York City. We compared histologic features and the expression of 48 immune and trophoblast genes in placentas delivered from 15 SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody positive and 30 IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibody negative mothers. Statistical analyses were performed using Fisher's exact tests, Spearman correlations and linear regression models. RESULTS: The median gestational age at the time of SARS-CoV-2 IgG serology test was 35 weeks. Two of the IgG positive participants also had a positive RT-PCR nasal swab at delivery. 82.2% of the infants were delivered at term (≥37 weeks), and gestational age at delivery did not differ between the SARS-CoV-2 antibody positive and negative groups. No significant differences were detected between the groups in placental histopathology features. Differential expression analyses revealed decreased expression of two trophoblast genes (PSG3 and CGB3) and increased expression of three immune genes (CXCL10, TLR3 and DDX58) in placentas delivered from SARS-CoV-2 IgG positive participants. DISCUSSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is associated with gene expression changes of immune and trophoblast genes in the placenta at birth which could potentially contribute to long-term health effects in the offspring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Antibodies, Viral , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Outcome , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Trophoblasts/pathology
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information on the severity of COVID-19 attributable to the Delta variant in the United States among pregnant people is limited. We assessed the risk for severe COVID-19 by pregnancy status in the period of Delta variant predominance compared with the pre-Delta period. METHODS: Laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections among symptomatic women of reproductive age (WRA) were assessed. We calculated adjusted risk ratios for severe disease including intensive care unit (ICU) admission, receipt of invasive ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and death comparing the pre-Delta period (January 1, 2020 - June 26, 2021) and the Delta period (June 27, 2021 - December 25, 2021) for pregnant and nonpregnant WRA. RESULTS: Compared with the pre-Delta period, the risk of ICU admission during the Delta period was 41% higher (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 1.41; 95% CI, 1.17-1.69) for pregnant WRA and 9% higher (aRR 1.09; 95% CI, 1.00-1.18) for nonpregnant WRA. The risk of invasive ventilation or ECMO was higher for pregnant (aRR 1.83; 95% CI, 1.26-2.65) and nonpregnant WRA (aRR 1.34; 95% CI, 1.17-1.54) in the Delta period. During the Delta period, the risk of death was 3.33 (95% CI, 2.48-4.46) times the risk in the pre-Delta period among pregnant WRA and 1.62 (95% CI, 1.49-1.77) among nonpregnant WRA. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the pre-Delta period, pregnant and nonpregnant WRA were at increased risk for severe COVID-19 in the Delta period.

4.
Public Health Rep ; 137(5): 988-999, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886842

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: National data on COVID-19 vaccination coverage among pregnant women are limited. We assessed COVID-19 vaccination coverage and intent, factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination, reasons for nonvaccination, and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs related to COVID-19 illness and vaccination among pregnant women in the United States. METHODS: Data from an opt-in internet panel survey of pregnant women conducted March 31-April 16, 2021, assessed receipt of ≥1 dose of any COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy. The sample included 1516 women pregnant any time during December 1, 2020-April 16, 2021, who were not fully vaccinated before pregnancy. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine variables independently associated with receipt of COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: As of April 16, 2021, 21.7% of pregnant women had received ≥1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy, 24.0% intended to receive a vaccine, 17.2% were unsure, and 37.1% did not intend to receive a vaccine. Pregnant women with (vs without) a health care provider recommendation (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 4.86), those who lived (vs not) with someone with a condition that could increase risk for serious medical complications of COVID-19 (aPR = 2.11), and those who had received (vs not) an influenza vaccination (aPR = 2.35) were more likely to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Common reasons for nonvaccination included concerns about safety risk to baby (37.2%) or self (34.6%) and about rapid vaccine development (29.7%) and approval (30.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate a continued need to emphasize the benefits of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy and to widely disseminate the recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other clinical professional societies for all pregnant women to be vaccinated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnant Women , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(4): 873-876, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771002

ABSTRACT

The Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network conducts longitudinal surveillance of pregnant persons in the United States with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during pregnancy. Of 6,551 infected pregnant persons in this analysis, 142 (2.2%) had positive RNA tests >90 days and up to 416 days after infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serologic Tests , United States
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(12): 2218-2226, 2022 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data about the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among pregnant individuals are needed to inform infection-prevention guidance and counseling for this population. METHODS: We prospectively followed a cohort of pregnant individuals during August 2020-March 2021 at 3 US sites. The 3 primary outcomes were incidence rates of any SARS-CoV-2 infection, symptomatic infection, and asymptomatic infection, during pregnancy during periods of SARS-CoV-2 circulation. Participants self-collected weekly midturbinate nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing, completed weekly illness symptom questionnaires, and submitted additional swabs with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-like symptoms. An overall SARS-CoV-2 infection incidence rate weighted by population counts of women of reproductive age in each state was calculated. RESULTS: Among 1098 pregnant individuals followed for a mean of 10 weeks, 9% (99/1098) had SARS-CoV-2 infections during the study. Population-weighted incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection were 10.0 per 1000 (95% confidence interval, 5.7-14.3) person-weeks for any infection, 5.7 per 1000 (1.7-9.7) for symptomatic infections, and 3.5 per 1000 (0-7.1) for asymptomatic infections. Among 96 participants with SARS-CoV-2 infections and symptom data, the most common symptoms were nasal congestion (72%), cough (64%), headache (59%), and change in taste or smell (54%); 28% had measured or subjective fever. Median symptom duration was 10 (interquartile range, 6-16) days. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant individuals in this study had a 1% risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection per week, underscoring the importance of COVID-19 vaccination and other prevention measures during pregnancy while SARS-CoV-2 is circulating in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Incidence , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
7.
J Perinatol ; 42(5): 617-623, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692641

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess differences in pregnancy outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the previous year. STUDY DESIGN: In a cross-sectional study of delivery hospitalizations in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release, we assessed differences in selected maternal and pregnancy outcomes occurring April-December in 2019 and 2020 in the United States. RESULT: Among 663,620 deliveries occurring in 2019 and 614,093 deliveries occurring in 2020, we observed an increase in in-hospital maternal death from 2019 to 2020, which was no longer statistically significant after excluding deliveries with a COVID-19 diagnosis. Intensive care unit admission and preterm birth decreased from 2019 to 2020. There was no difference in the prevalence of most other outcomes examined. CONCLUSION: The full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal and pregnancy outcomes remains to be understood. Most outcomes investigated experienced minimal change from 2019 to 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(3): 510-517, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686417

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease in neonates is rare. We analyzed clinical, laboratory, and autopsy findings from a neonate in the United States who was delivered at 25 weeks of gestation and died 4 days after birth; the mother had asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and preeclampsia. We observed severe diffuse alveolar damage and localized SARS-CoV-2 by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy of the lungs of the neonate. We localized SARS-CoV-2 RNA in neonatal heart and liver vascular endothelium by using in situ hybridization and detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in neonatal and placental tissues by using reverse transcription PCR. Subgenomic reverse transcription PCR suggested viral replication in lung/airway, heart, and liver. These findings indicate that in utero SARS-CoV-2 transmission contributed to this neonatal death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Autopsy , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Lung , Placenta , Pregnancy , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(12): 1673-1680, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665857

ABSTRACT

This report provides historical context and rationale for coordinated, systematic, and evidence-based public health emergency preparedness and response (EPR) activities to address the needs of women of reproductive age. Needs of pregnant and postpartum women, and infants-before, during, and after public health emergencies-are highlighted. Four focus areas and related activities are described: (1) public health science; (2) clinical guidance; (3) partnerships, communication, and outreach; and (4) workforce development. Finally, the report summarizes major activities of the Division of Reproductive Health's EPR Team at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Subject(s)
Civil Defense , Disaster Planning , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Communication , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Public Health , Reproductive Health , United States
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(12): 2217-2225, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595231

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated patients with potential severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reinfection in the United States during May-July 2020. METHODS: We conducted case finding for patients with potential SARS-CoV-2 reinfection through the Emerging Infections Network. Cases reported were screened for laboratory and clinical findings of potential reinfection followed by requests for medical records and laboratory specimens. Available medical records were abstracted to characterize patient demographics, comorbidities, clinical course, and laboratory test results. Submitted specimens underwent further testing, including reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), viral culture, whole genome sequencing, subgenomic RNA PCR, and testing for anti-SARS-CoV-2 total antibody. RESULTS: Among 73 potential reinfection patients with available records, 30 patients had recurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms explained by alternative diagnoses with concurrent SARS-CoV-2 positive RT-PCR, 24 patients remained asymptomatic after recovery but had recurrent or persistent RT-PCR, and 19 patients had recurrent COVID-19 symptoms with concurrent SARS-CoV-2 positive RT-PCR but no alternative diagnoses. These 19 patients had symptom recurrence a median of 57 days after initial symptom onset (interquartile range: 47-76). Six of these patients had paired specimens available for further testing, but none had laboratory findings confirming reinfections. Testing of an additional 3 patients with recurrent symptoms and alternative diagnoses also did not confirm reinfection. CONCLUSIONS: We did not confirm SARS-CoV-2 reinfection within 90 days of the initial infection based on the clinical and laboratory characteristics of cases in this investigation. Our findings support current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidance around quarantine and testing for patients who have recovered from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Laboratories , Reinfection
12.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S345-S345, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564381

ABSTRACT

Background Antenatal care is a unique opportunity to assess SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and antibody response in pregnant people, including those with previously unknown infection. Methods Pregnant people were screened for SARS-CoV-2 IgG during antenatal care or delivery in Seattle, Washington with Abbott Architect chemiluminescent immunoassay which provides quantitative index (positive ≥1.4). Participants with IgG+ results or identified with RT-PCR+ results via medical records were invited to enroll in a longitudinal evaluation of antibody responses. We report preliminary results of an ongoing seroprevalence and longitudinal study with planned 18-month follow-up. Results Between September 9, 2020–May 7, 2021, we screened 1304 pregnant people;62 (4.8%) tested SARS-CoV-2 IgG+, including 28 (45%) with known prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among participants testing IgG+, median age was 32 years (interquartile range [IQR] 26–35) and median gestational age was 21 weeks (IQR 12–38) at screening;median IgG index was 3.2 (IQR 2.1–4.9, range 1.4–9.9), including 3.9 (IQR 2.3–5.8) among those with vs. 2.7 (IQR 1.9–4.2) among those without prior RT-PCR+ results (p=0.05 by Wilcoxon rank-sum). Of 30 longitudinal study participants enrolled, 24 tested IgG+ at baseline (75% with prior RT-PCR+ result) and 6 tested IgG- on enrollment but were identified as previously RT-PCR+ via medical records;24/30 (80%) reported previous symptoms. Of 24 participants testing IgG+ at baseline, 14 (58%) had first follow-up IgG results at median of 66 days (IQR 42–104) since initial testing, with median IgG index of 2.0 (IQR 1.0–3.8). 9/14 (64%) participants with repeat IgG testing remained IgG+ at first follow-up (≤280 days after first RT-PCR+ result for those with and ≥104 days after first IgG detection for those without prior RT-PCR+ results), while 5/14 (26%) had a negative Abbott IgG test at a median of 81 days (IQR 75–112) since initial testing. Conclusion Nearly half of pregnant people testing SARS-CoV-2 IgG+ reported no known prior SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis or symptoms. SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody response and durability in pregnancy has implications for maternal and neonatal protection and susceptibility and highlights potential benefits of vaccination in this population. Disclosures Sylvia LaCourse, MD, Merck (Grant/Research Support) Alisa Kachikis, MD, MS, GlaxoSmithKline (Consultant)Pfizer (Consultant) Alexander L. Greninger, MD, PhD, Abbott (Grant/Research Support)Gilead (Grant/Research Support)Merck (Grant/Research Support) Janet A. Englund, MD, AstraZeneca (Consultant, Grant/Research Support)GlaxoSmithKline (Research Grant or Support)Meissa Vaccines (Consultant)Pfizer (Research Grant or Support)Sanofi Pasteur (Consultant)Teva Pharmaceuticals (Consultant) Alison Drake, PhD, MPH, Merck (Grant/Research Support)

13.
Am J Perinatol ; 39(1): 75-83, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447396

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate pregnant women's attitudes toward COVID-19 illness and vaccination and identify factors associated with vaccine acceptability. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional survey among pregnant women enrolled in a prospective COVID-19 cohort study in Salt Lake City, UT, Birmingham, AL, and New York, NY, from August 9 to December 10, 2020. Women were eligible if they were 18 to 50 years old and <28 weeks of gestation. Upon enrollment, women completed surveys regarding concerns about COVID-19 illness and likelihood of getting COVID-19 vaccine if one were available during pregnancy. Vaccine acceptability was defined as a response of "very likely" or "somewhat likely" on a 4-point Likert scale. Factors associated with vaccine acceptability were assessed with multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 939 pregnant women eligible for the main cohort study, 915 (97%) consented to participate. Among these 915 women, 39% self-identified as White, 23% Black, 33% Hispanic, and 4% Other. Sixty-two percent received an influenza vaccine last season. Seventy-two percent worried about getting sick with COVID-19. If they were to get sick, 92% worried about harm to their pregnancy and 80% about harm to themselves. Only 41% reported they would get a vaccine. Of women who were unlikely to get vaccinated, the most frequently cited concern was vaccine safety for their pregnancy (82%). Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic women had lower odds of accepting a vaccine compared with non-Hispanic White women (adjusted odds ratios [aOR] 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.6 for both). Receipt of influenza vaccine during the previous season was associated with higher odds of vaccine acceptability (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-3.0). CONCLUSION: Although most pregnant women worried about COVID-19 illness, <50% were willing to get vaccinated during pregnancy. Racial and ethnic disparities in plans to accept COVID-19 vaccine highlight the need to prioritize strategies to address perceived barriers among groups at high risk for COVID-19. KEY POINTS: · Less than half of pregnant patients stated they would get a COVID-19 vaccine.. · Protecting their baby was the most common reason for acceptance and refusal of the COVID-19 vaccine.. · Patients of minority race/ethnicity and those without prior influenza vaccination were less likely to accept the COVID-19 vaccine..


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(25): 769-775, 2020 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389845

ABSTRACT

As of June 16, 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in 2,104,346 cases and 116,140 deaths in the United States.* During pregnancy, women experience immunologic and physiologic changes that could increase their risk for more severe illness from respiratory infections (1,2). To date, data to assess the prevalence and severity of COVID-19 among pregnant U.S. women and determine whether signs and symptoms differ among pregnant and nonpregnant women are limited. During January 22-June 7, as part of COVID-19 surveillance, CDC received reports of 326,335 women of reproductive age (15-44 years) who had positive test results for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Data on pregnancy status were available for 91,412 (28.0%) women with laboratory-confirmed infections; among these, 8,207 (9.0%) were pregnant. Symptomatic pregnant and nonpregnant women with COVID-19 reported similar frequencies of cough (>50%) and shortness of breath (30%), but pregnant women less frequently reported headache, muscle aches, fever, chills, and diarrhea. Chronic lung disease, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease were more commonly reported among pregnant women than among nonpregnant women. Among women with COVID-19, approximately one third (31.5%) of pregnant women were reported to have been hospitalized compared with 5.8% of nonpregnant women. After adjusting for age, presence of underlying medical conditions, and race/ethnicity, pregnant women were significantly more likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (aRR = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-1.8) and receive mechanical ventilation (aRR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2-2.4). Sixteen (0.2%) COVID-19-related deaths were reported among pregnant women aged 15-44 years, and 208 (0.2%) such deaths were reported among nonpregnant women (aRR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.5-1.5). These findings suggest that among women of reproductive age with COVID-19, pregnant women are more likely to be hospitalized and at increased risk for ICU admission and receipt of mechanical ventilation compared with nonpregnant women, but their risk for death is similar. To reduce occurrence of severe illness from COVID-19, pregnant women should be counseled about the potential risk for severe illness from COVID-19, and measures to prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2 should be emphasized for pregnant women and their families.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(12): 2218-2226, 2022 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364782

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data about the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among pregnant individuals are needed to inform infection-prevention guidance and counseling for this population. METHODS: We prospectively followed a cohort of pregnant individuals during August 2020-March 2021 at 3 US sites. The 3 primary outcomes were incidence rates of any SARS-CoV-2 infection, symptomatic infection, and asymptomatic infection, during pregnancy during periods of SARS-CoV-2 circulation. Participants self-collected weekly midturbinate nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing, completed weekly illness symptom questionnaires, and submitted additional swabs with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-like symptoms. An overall SARS-CoV-2 infection incidence rate weighted by population counts of women of reproductive age in each state was calculated. RESULTS: Among 1098 pregnant individuals followed for a mean of 10 weeks, 9% (99/1098) had SARS-CoV-2 infections during the study. Population-weighted incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection were 10.0 per 1000 (95% confidence interval, 5.7-14.3) person-weeks for any infection, 5.7 per 1000 (1.7-9.7) for symptomatic infections, and 3.5 per 1000 (0-7.1) for asymptomatic infections. Among 96 participants with SARS-CoV-2 infections and symptom data, the most common symptoms were nasal congestion (72%), cough (64%), headache (59%), and change in taste or smell (54%); 28% had measured or subjective fever. Median symptom duration was 10 (interquartile range, 6-16) days. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant individuals in this study had a 1% risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection per week, underscoring the importance of COVID-19 vaccination and other prevention measures during pregnancy while SARS-CoV-2 is circulating in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Incidence , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S17-S23, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364779

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at increased risk for severe illness compared with nonpregnant women. Data to assess risk factors for illness severity among pregnant women with COVID-19 are limited. This study aimed to determine risk factors associated with COVID-19 illness severity among pregnant women with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: Pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by molecular testing were reported during 29 March 2020-5 March 2021 through the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET). Criteria for illness severity (asymptomatic, mild, moderate-to-severe, or critical) were adapted from National Institutes of Health and World Health Organization criteria. Crude and adjusted risk ratios for moderate-to-severe or critical COVID-19 illness were calculated for selected demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Among 7950 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, moderate-to-severe or critical COVID-19 illness was associated with age 25 years and older, healthcare occupation, prepregnancy obesity, chronic lung disease, chronic hypertension, and pregestational diabetes mellitus. Risk of moderate-to-severe or critical illness increased with the number of underlying medical or pregnancy-related conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Older age and having underlying medical conditions were associated with increased risk of moderate-to-severe or critical COVID-19 illness among pregnant women. This information might help pregnant women understand their risk for moderate-to-severe or critical COVID-19 illness and can inform targeted public health messaging.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Mothers , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S24-S31, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence on risk for adverse outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among pregnant women is still emerging. We examined the association between COVID-19 at delivery and adverse pregnancy outcomes, maternal complications, and severe illness, and whether these associations differ by race/ethnicity, and describe discharge status by COVID-19 diagnosis and maternal complications. METHODS: Data from 703 hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database during March-September 2020 were included. Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) overall and stratified by race/ethnicity were estimated using Poisson regression with robust standard errors. Proportion not discharged home was calculated by maternal complications, stratified by COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: Among 489 471 delivery hospitalizations, 6550 (1.3%) had a COVID-19 diagnosis. In adjusted models, COVID-19 was associated with increased risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (aRR, 34.4), death (aRR, 17.0), sepsis (aRR, 13.6), mechanical ventilation (aRR, 12.7), shock (aRR, 5.1), intensive care unit admission (aRR, 3.6), acute renal failure (aRR, 3.5), thromboembolic disease (aRR, 2.7), adverse cardiac event/outcome (aRR, 2.2), and preterm labor with preterm delivery (aRR, 1.2). Risk for any maternal complications or for any severe illness did not significantly differ by race/ethnicity. Discharge status did not differ by COVID-19; however, among women with concurrent maternal complications, a greater proportion of those with (vs without) COVID-19 were not discharged home. CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasize the importance of implementing recommended prevention strategies to reduce risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and further inform counseling and clinical care for pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(5): 1505-1508, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262597

ABSTRACT

We evaluated nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) for Zika virus on whole-blood specimens compared with NAAT on serum and urine specimens among asymptomatic pregnant women during the 2015-2016 Puerto Rico Zika outbreak. Using NAAT, more infections were detected in serum and urine than in whole blood specimens.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Puerto Rico , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S24-S31, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence on risk for adverse outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among pregnant women is still emerging. We examined the association between COVID-19 at delivery and adverse pregnancy outcomes, maternal complications, and severe illness, and whether these associations differ by race/ethnicity, and describe discharge status by COVID-19 diagnosis and maternal complications. METHODS: Data from 703 hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database during March-September 2020 were included. Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) overall and stratified by race/ethnicity were estimated using Poisson regression with robust standard errors. Proportion not discharged home was calculated by maternal complications, stratified by COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: Among 489 471 delivery hospitalizations, 6550 (1.3%) had a COVID-19 diagnosis. In adjusted models, COVID-19 was associated with increased risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (aRR, 34.4), death (aRR, 17.0), sepsis (aRR, 13.6), mechanical ventilation (aRR, 12.7), shock (aRR, 5.1), intensive care unit admission (aRR, 3.6), acute renal failure (aRR, 3.5), thromboembolic disease (aRR, 2.7), adverse cardiac event/outcome (aRR, 2.2), and preterm labor with preterm delivery (aRR, 1.2). Risk for any maternal complications or for any severe illness did not significantly differ by race/ethnicity. Discharge status did not differ by COVID-19; however, among women with concurrent maternal complications, a greater proportion of those with (vs without) COVID-19 were not discharged home. CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasize the importance of implementing recommended prevention strategies to reduce risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and further inform counseling and clinical care for pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(12): 2217-2225, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087722

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated patients with potential severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reinfection in the United States during May-July 2020. METHODS: We conducted case finding for patients with potential SARS-CoV-2 reinfection through the Emerging Infections Network. Cases reported were screened for laboratory and clinical findings of potential reinfection followed by requests for medical records and laboratory specimens. Available medical records were abstracted to characterize patient demographics, comorbidities, clinical course, and laboratory test results. Submitted specimens underwent further testing, including reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), viral culture, whole genome sequencing, subgenomic RNA PCR, and testing for anti-SARS-CoV-2 total antibody. RESULTS: Among 73 potential reinfection patients with available records, 30 patients had recurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms explained by alternative diagnoses with concurrent SARS-CoV-2 positive RT-PCR, 24 patients remained asymptomatic after recovery but had recurrent or persistent RT-PCR, and 19 patients had recurrent COVID-19 symptoms with concurrent SARS-CoV-2 positive RT-PCR but no alternative diagnoses. These 19 patients had symptom recurrence a median of 57 days after initial symptom onset (interquartile range: 47-76). Six of these patients had paired specimens available for further testing, but none had laboratory findings confirming reinfections. Testing of an additional 3 patients with recurrent symptoms and alternative diagnoses also did not confirm reinfection. CONCLUSIONS: We did not confirm SARS-CoV-2 reinfection within 90 days of the initial infection based on the clinical and laboratory characteristics of cases in this investigation. Our findings support current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidance around quarantine and testing for patients who have recovered from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Laboratories , Reinfection
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