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1.
J Clin Med ; 11(9)2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Electrocardiogram (ECG) offers a valuable resource easily available in the emergency setting. OBJECTIVE: Aim of the study was to describe ECG alterations on emergency department (ED) presentation or that developed during hospitalization in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients and their association with 28-day mortality. METHODS: A retrospective, single-center study including hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 was conducted. ECG was recorded on ED admission to determine: heart rhythm, rate, and cycle; atrio-ventricular and intra-ventricular conduction; right ventricular strain; and ventricular repolarization. A specialized cardiologist blinded for the outcomes performed all 12-lead ECG analyses and their interpretation. RESULTS: 190 patients were included, with a total of 24 deaths (12.6%). Age (p < 0.0001) and comorbidity burden were significantly higher in non-survivors (p < 0.0001). Atrial fibrillation (AF) was more frequent in non-survivors (p < 0.0001), alongside a longer QTc interval (p = 0.0002), a lower Tp-e/QTc ratio (p = 0.0003), and right ventricular strain (p = 0.013). Remdesivir administration was associated with bradycardia development (p = 0.0005) but no increase in mortality rates. In a Cox regression model, AF (aHR 3.02 (95% CI 1.03-8.81); p = 0.042), QTc interval above 451 ms (aHR 3.24 (95% CI 1.09-9.62); p = 0.033), and right ventricular strain (aHR 2.94 (95% CI 1.01-8.55); p = 0.047) were associated with higher 28-day mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: QTc interval > 451 ms, right ventricular strain, and AF are associated with higher mortality risk in SARS-CoV-2 hospitalized patients. ECG recording and its appropriate analysis offers a simple, quick, non-expensive, and validated approach in the emergency setting to guide COVID-19 patients' stratification.

2.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760849

ABSTRACT

This monocentric, retrospective, two-stage observational study aimed to recognize the risk factors for a poor outcome in patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to develop and validate a risk score that identifies subjects at risk of worsening, death, or both. The data of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first wave of the pandemic were collected and analyzed as a derivation cohort. Variables with predictive properties were used to construct a prognostic score, which was tried out on a validation cohort enrolled during the second wave. The derivation cohort included 494 patients; the median age was 62 and the overall fatality rate was 22.3%. In a multivariable analysis, age, oxygen saturation, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase were independent predictors of death and composed the score. A cutoff value of 3 demonstrated a sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 93.5%, 68.5%, 47.4% and 97.2% for death, and 84.9%, 84.5%, 79.6% and 87.9% for worsening, respectively. The validation cohort included 415 subjects. The score application showed a Se, Sp, PPV and NPV of 93.4%, 61.6%, 29.5% and 98.1% for death, and 81%, 76.3%, 72.1% and 84.1% for worsening, respectively. We propose a new clinical, easy and reliable score to predict the outcome in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318316

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There is the need of a simple but highly reliable score system for stratifying the risk of mortality and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) transfer in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia at the Emergency Room. Purpose: In this study, the ability of CURB-65, extended CURB-65, PSI and CALL scores and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) to predict intra-hospital mortality and ICU admission in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated. Methods: : During March-May 2020, a retrospective, single-center study including all consecutive adults patients with diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia was conducted. Clinical, laboratory and radiological data as well as CURB-65, expanded CURB-65, PSI and CALL scores were calculated based on data recorded at hospital admission. Results: Overall, 224 patients with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection were included in the study. As for intra-hospital mortality (24/224, 11%), PSI performed better than all the other tested scores, which showed lower AUC values (AUC=0.890 for PSI versus AUC=0.885, AUC=0.858 and AUC=0.743 for expanded CURB-65, CURB-65 and CALL scores, respectively). Of note, the addition of hypoalbuminemia to the CURB-65 score increased the prediction value of intra-hospital mortality (AUC=0.905). All the tested scores performed worse in predicting the need of ICU transfer (26/224, 12%), with the best AUC for extended CURB-65 score (AUC= 0.708). Conclusion: The addition of albumin level to the easy-to-calculate CURB-65 score at hospital admission is able to improve the quality of prediction of intra-hospital mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.

5.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601782

ABSTRACT

Aims A possible interference between ACE-i or ARBs with ACE-2 receptor and SARS-CoV-2 pathway has been raised. Despite data have shown no clinical impact of therapy with ACE-I or ARBs on COVID-19, these drugs are often discontinued upon hospitalization or diagnosis. To evaluate the effects of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and prior outpatient therapy with RAAS inhibitors on the chest CT severity score performed within 24 h of diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection (before stopping medications or starting specific therapy for COVID-19) and on 1-year survival. Methods and results This is a multicentre, prospective, observational study. All admitted patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection who performed chest CT within 24 h of arrival were consecutively enrolled from 1 March to 1 June 2020. A severity score was attributed to Chest CT by two radiologists in blind to the patient’s clinical information and a cut-off value of 19.5 was considered to define severe radiological pneumonia. A 1-year telephone follow-up was performed in order to evaluate the determinants of 1-year survival. 590 patients with a mean age of 63 ± 14 years were included. Seventy-three (12.4%) patients were treated with ACE-I, 85 (14.4%) with ARBs and 62 (10.5%) with CCB. Cox regression analysis showed that male gender (OR: 1.4;95% CI: from 1.02 to 2.07;P = 0.035), diabetes (OR: 1.6;95% CI: from 1.03 to 2.7;P = 0.037), age (OR: 1.02;95% CI: from 1.008 to 1.033;P = 0.001), and obesity (OR: 3.04;95% CI: from 1.3 to 6.7;P < 0.001) were independently associated with a severe CT score. Of note, while prior outpatient therapy with ACE-I and ARBs was not independently associated with severe CT score, therapy with CCB was independently associated with a severe CT score (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: from 1.05 to 3.4, P = 0.033). Severe chest CT severity score (OR: 1.05;95% CI: from 1.02 to 1.08;P < 0.001), P/F ratio (OR: 0.998;95% CI: from 0.994 to 0.998;P < 0.001), and older age (OR: 1.06;95% CI: from 1.03 to 1.1;P < 0.001) were independently associated with mortality at 1-year follow-up. Neither ACE-I, ARBs, and CCB were associated with mortality at 1 year follow-up. Conclusions ACE-I and ARBs do not influence the chest CT presentation of COVID-19 patients at the time of diagnosis. Furthermore, ACE-I and ARBs do not influence 1-year survival of COVID-19 survivors.

6.
Infez Med ; 29(3): 408-415, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444695

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is the need of a simple but highly reliable score system for stratifying the risk of mortality and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) transfer in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia at the Emergency Room. PURPOSE: In this study, the ability of CURB-65, extended CURB-65, PSI and CALL scores and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) to predict intra-hospital mortality and ICU admission in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were evaluated. METHODS: During March-May 2020, a retrospective, single-center study including all consecutive adult patients with diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia was conducted. Clinical, laboratory and radiological data as well as CURB-65, expanded CURB-65, PSI and CALL scores were calculated based on data recorded at hospital admission. RESULTS: Overall, 224 patients with documented SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were included in the study. As for intrahospital mortality (24/224, 11%), PSI performed better than all the other tested scores, which showed lower AUC values (AUC=0.890 for PSI versus AUC=0.885, AUC=0.858 and AUC=0.743 for expanded CURB-65, CURB-65 and CALL scores, respectively). Of note, the addition of hypoalbuminemia to the CURB-65 score increased the prediction value of intra-hospital mortality (AUC=0.905). All the tested scores were less predictive for the need of ICU transfer (26/224, 12%), with the best AUC for extended CURB-65 score (AUC= 0.708). CONCLUSION: The addition of albumin level to the easy-to-calculate CURB-65 score at hospital admission is able to improve the quality of prediction of intra-hospital mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.

7.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335021

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 may show no peculiar signs and symptoms that may differentiate it from other infective or non-infective etiologies; thus, early recognition and prompt management are crucial to improve survival. The aim of this study was to describe clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients compared to those with other infective or non-infective etiologies. METHODS: We performed a prospective study from March 2020 to February 2021. All patients hospitalized for suspected or confirmed COVID-19 were prospectively recruited. All patients were evaluated according to a predefined protocol for diagnosis of suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection. The primary endpoint was evaluation of clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics associated or not with COVID-19 etiology at time of hospitalization in an emergency department. RESULTS: A total of 1036 patients were included in the study: 717 (69%) patients with confirmed COVID-19 and 319 (31%) without COVID-19, hospitalized for other causes. The main causes of hospitalization among non-COVID-19 patients were acute heart failure (44%) and bacterial pneumonia (45.8%). Overall, 30-day mortality was 9% among the COVID-19 group and 35% in the non-COVID-19 group. Multivariate analysis showed variables (fever > 3 days, dry cough, acute dyspnea, lymphocytes < 1000 × 103/µL, and ferritin > 250 ng/mL) independently associated with COVID-19 etiology. A decision tree was elaborated to early detect COVID-19 patients in the emergency department. Finally, Kaplan-Meier curves on 30-day survival in COVID-19 patients during the first wave (March-May 2020, n = 289 patients) and the second wave (October-February 2021, n = 428 patients) showed differences between the two study periods (p = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 may show peculiar characteristics at time of hospitalization that could help physicians to distinguish from other infective or non-infective etiologies. Finally, a different 30-day mortality rate was observed during different periods of the pandemic.

8.
Int J Cardiol ; 339: 235-242, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can occur in COVID-19 and has impact on clinical course. Data on CVD prevalence in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and sequelae in survivors is limited. Aim of this prospective study carried out on consecutive unselected COVID-19 population, was to assess: 1) CVD occurrence among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 2) persistence or new onset of CVD at one-month and one-year follow-up. METHODS: Over 30 days n = 152 COVID-19 patients underwent cardiovascular evaluation. Standard electrocardiogram (ECG), Troponin and echocardiography were integrated by further tests when indicated. Medical history, arterial blood gas, blood tests, chest computed tomography and treatment were recorded. CVD was defined as the occurrence of a new condition during the hospitalization for COVID-19. Survivors attended a one-month follow-up visit and a one-year telephone follow-up. RESULTS: Forty-two patients (28%) experienced a wide spectrum of CVD with acute myocarditis being the most frequent. Death occurred in 32 patients (21%) and more frequently in patients who developed CVD (p = 0.032). After adjustment for confounders, CVD was independently associated with death occurrence. At one-month follow-up visit, 7 patients (9%) presented persistent or delayed CVD. At one-year telephone follow-up, 57 patients (48%) reported persistent symptoms. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular evaluation in COVID-19 patients is crucial since the occurrence of CVD in hospitalized COVID-19 patients is common (28%), requires specific treatment and increases the risk of in-hospital mortality. Persistence or delayed presentation of CVD at 1-month (9%) and persistent symptoms at 1-year follow-up (48%) suggest the need for monitoring COVID-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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