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1.
Eur J Intern Med ; 105: 69-76, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The characteristics and outcome of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) are still poorly known. METHODS: The PANDEMIC study was an investigator-initiated, collaborative, individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis of registry-based studies. MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Web of Sciences, and SCOPUS were searched to identify all registry-based studies describing the characteristics and outcome of SARS-CoV-2-positive STEMI patients undergoing PPCI. The control group consisted of SARS-CoV-2-negative STEMI patients undergoing PPCI in the same time period from the ISACS-STEMI COVID 19 registry. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality; the secondary outcome was postprocedural reperfusion assessed by TIMI flow. RESULTS: Of 8 registry-based studies identified, IPD were obtained from 6 studies including 941 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients; the control group included 2005 SARS-CoV-2-negative patients. SARS-CoV-2-positive patients showed a significantly higher in-hospital mortality (p < 0.001) and worse postprocedural TIMI flow (<3, p < 0.001) compared with SARS-CoV-2-negative subjects. The increased risk for SARS-CoV-2-positive patients was significantly higher in males compared to females for both the primary (pinteraction = 0.001) and secondary outcome (pinteraction = 0.023). In SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, age ≥ 75 years (OR = 5.72; 95%CI: 1.77-18.5), impaired postprocedural TIMI flow (OR = 11.72; 95%CI: 2.64-52.10), and cardiogenic shock at presentation (OR = 11.02; 95%CI: 2.84-42.80) were independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In STEMI patients undergoing PPCI, SARS-CoV-2 positivity is independently associated with impaired reperfusion and with a higher risk of in-hospital mortality, especially among male patients. Age ≥ 75 years, cardiogenic shock, and impaired postprocedural TIMI flow independently predict mortality in this high-risk population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Female , Humans , Male , Aged , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Registries , Angioplasty , Treatment Outcome
2.
Angiology ; : 33197221129351, 2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064431

ABSTRACT

SARS-Cov-2 has been suggested to promote thrombotic complications and higher mortality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of SARS-CoV-2 positivity on in-hospital outcome and 30-day mortality in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) enrolled in the International Survey on Acute Coronary Syndromes ST-segment elevation Myocardial Infarction (ISACS-STEMI COVID-19 registry. The 109 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients were compared with 2005 SARS-CoV-2 negative patients. Positive patients were older (P = .002), less often active smokers (P = .002), and hypercholesterolemic (P = .006), they presented more often later than 12 h (P = .037), more often to the hub and were more often in cardiogenic shock (P = .02), or requiring rescue percutaneous coronary intervention after failed thrombolysis (P < .0001). Lower postprocedural Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 3 flow (P = .029) and more thrombectomy (P = .046) were observed. SARS-CoV-2 was associated with a significantly higher in-hospital mortality (25.7 vs 7%, adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) [95% Confidence Interval] = 3.2 [1.71-5.99], P < .001) in-hospital definite in-stent thrombosis (6.4 vs 1.1%, adjusted Odds Ratio [95% CI] = 6.26 [2.41-16.25], P < .001) and 30-day mortality (34.4 vs 8.5%, adjusted Hazard Ratio [95% CI] = 2.16 [1.45-3.23], P < .001), confirming that SARS-CoV-2 positivity is associated with impaired reperfusion, with negative prognostic consequences.

3.
European journal of internal medicine ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998641

ABSTRACT

Background The characteristics and outcome of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) are still poorly known. Methods The PANDEMIC study was an investigator-initiated, collaborative, individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis of registry-based studies. MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Web of Sciences, and SCOPUS were searched to identify all registry-based studies describing the characteristics and outcome of SARS-CoV-2-positive STEMI patients undergoing PPCI. The control group consisted of SARS-CoV-2-negative STEMI patients undergoing PPCI in the same time period from the ISACS-STEMI COVID 19 registry. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality;the secondary outcome was postprocedural reperfusion assessed by TIMI flow. Results Of 8 registry-based studies identified, IPD were obtained from 6 studies including 941 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients;the control group included 2005 SARS-CoV-2-negative patients. SARS-CoV-2-positive patients showed a significantly higher in-hospital mortality (p < 0.001) and worse postprocedural TIMI flow (<3, p < 0.001) compared with SARS-CoV-2-negative subjects. The increased risk for SARS-CoV-2-positive patients was significantly higher in males compared to females for both the primary (pinteraction = 0.001) and secondary outcome (pinteraction = 0.023). In SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, age ≥ 75 years (OR = 5.72;95%CI: 1.77–18.5), impaired postprocedural TIMI flow (OR = 11.72;95%CI: 2.64–52.10), and cardiogenic shock at presentation (OR = 11.02;95%CI: 2.84–42.80) were independent predictors of mortality. Conclusions In STEMI patients undergoing PPCI, SARS-CoV-2 positivity is independently associated with impaired reperfusion and with a higher risk of in-hospital mortality, especially among male patients. Age ≥ 75 years, cardiogenic shock, and impaired postprocedural TIMI flow independently predict mortality in this high-risk population.

4.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 207, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is projected to become the third cause of mortality worldwide. COPD shares several pathophysiological mechanisms with cardiovascular disease, especially atherosclerosis. However, no definite answers are available on the prognostic role of COPD in the setting of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), especially during COVID-19 pandemic, among patients undergoing primary angioplasty, that is therefore the aim of the current study. METHODS: In the ISACS-STEMI COVID-19 registry we included retrospectively patients with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between March and June of 2019 and 2020 from 109 high-volume primary PCI centers in 4 continents. RESULTS: A total of 15,686 patients were included in this analysis. Of them, 810 (5.2%) subjects had a COPD diagnosis. They were more often elderly and with a more pronounced cardiovascular risk profile. No preminent procedural dissimilarities were noticed except for a lower proportion of dual antiplatelet therapy at discharge among COPD patients (98.9% vs. 98.1%, P = 0.038). With regards to short-term fatal outcomes, both in-hospital and 30-days mortality occurred more frequently among COPD patients, similarly in pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 era. However, after adjustment for main baseline differences, COPD did not result as independent predictor for in-hospital death (adjusted OR [95% CI] = 0.913[0.658-1.266], P = 0.585) nor for 30-days mortality (adjusted OR [95% CI] = 0.850 [0.620-1.164], P = 0.310). No significant differences were detected in terms of SARS-CoV-2 positivity between the two groups. CONCLUSION: This is one of the largest studies investigating characteristics and outcome of COPD patients with STEMI undergoing primary angioplasty, especially during COVID pandemic. COPD was associated with significantly higher rates of in-hospital and 30-days mortality. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for baseline characteristics. Furthermore, COPD did not significantly affect SARS-CoV-2 positivity. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04412655 (2nd June 2020).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Treatment Outcome
5.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855816

ABSTRACT

Long-COVID-19 refers to the signs and symptoms that continue or develop after the "acute COVID-19" phase. These patients have an increased risk of multiorgan dysfunction, readmission, and mortality. In Long-COVID-19 patients, it is possible to detect a persistent increase in D-Dimer, NT-ProBNP, and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. To verify the dysautonomia hypothesis in Long-COVID-19 patients, we studied heart rate variability using 12-lead 24-h ECG monitoring in 30 Long-COVID-19 patients and 20 No-COVID patients. Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability was lower in Long-COVID-19 patients both for total power (7.46 ± 0.5 vs. 8.08 ± 0.6; p < 0.0001; Cohens-d = 1.12) and for the VLF (6.84 ± 0.8 vs. 7.66 ± 0.6; p < 0.0001; Cohens-d = 1.16) and HF (4.65 ± 0.9 vs. 5.33 ± 0.9; p = 0.015; Cohens-d = 0.76) components. The LF/HF ratio was significantly higher in Long-COVID-19 patients (1.46 ± 0.27 vs. 1.23 ± 0.13; p = 0.001; Cohens-d = 1.09). On multivariable analysis, Long-COVID-19 is significantly correlated with D-dimer (standardized ß-coefficient = 0.259), NT-ProBNP (standardized ß-coefficient = 0.281), HF component of spectral analysis (standardized ß-coefficient = 0.696), and LF/HF ratio (standardized ß-coefficient = 0.820). Dysautonomia may explain the persistent symptoms in Long COVID-19 patients. The persistence of a procoagulative state and an elevated myocardial strain could explain vagal impairment in these patients. In Long-COVID-19 patients, impaired vagal activity, persistent increases of NT-ProBNP, and a prothrombotic state require careful monitoring and appropriate intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Primary Dysautonomias , COVID-19/complications , Electrocardiography , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans
6.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(3)2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732122

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: Pre-existing atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent comorbidity in hospitalized patients with COVID-19; however, little is still known about its prognostic role in infected patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether the pre-existing AF as comorbidity would contribute to increase the risk for severe forms of COVID-19, worse prognosis, or even higher mortality. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated all consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to the emergency department of nine Italian Hospitals from 1 March to 30 April 2020.The prevalence and the type of pre-existing AF have been collected. The correlation between the history and type of AF and the development of severe ARDS and in-hospital mortality has been evaluated. Results: In total, 467 patients (66.88 ± 14.55 years; 63% males) with COVID-19 were included in the present study. The history of AF was noticed in 122 cases (26.1%), of which 12 (2.6%) with paroxysmal, 57 (12.2%) with persistent and 53 (11.3%) with permanent AF. Among our study population, COVID-19 patients with AF history were older compared to those without AF history (71.25 ± 12.39 vs. 65.34 ± 14.95 years; p < 0.001); however, they did not show a statistically significant difference in cardiovascular comorbidities or treatments. Pre-existing AF resulted in being independently associated with an increased risk of developing severe ARDS during the hospitalization; in contrast, it did not increase the risk of in-hospital mortality. Among patients with AF history, no significant differences were detected in severe ARDS and in-hospital mortality between patients with permanent and non-permanent AF history. Conclusions: Pre-existing AF is a frequent among COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital, accounting up to 25% of cases. It is independently associated with an increased risk of severe ARDS in hospitalized COVID-19 patients; in contrast, it did not affect the risk of death. The type of pre-existing AF (permanent or non-permanent) did not impact the clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
7.
J Clin Med ; 11(3)2022 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650323

ABSTRACT

Though the acute effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been extensively reported, the long-term effects are less well described. Specifically, while clinicians endure to battle COVID-19, we also need to develop broad strategies to manage post-COVID-19 symptoms and encourage those affected to seek suitable care. This review addresses the possible involvement of the lung, heart and brain in post-viral syndromes and describes suggested management of post-COVID-19 syndrome. Post-COVID-19 respiratory manifestations comprise coughing and shortness of breath. Furthermore, arrhythmias, palpitations, hypotension, increased heart rate, venous thromboembolic diseases, myocarditis and acute heart failure are usual cardiovascular events. Among neurological manifestations, headache, peripheral neuropathy symptoms, memory issues, lack of concentration and sleep disorders are most commonly observed with varying frequencies. Finally, mental health issues affecting mental abilities and mood fluctuations, namely anxiety and depression, are frequently seen. Finally, long COVID is a complex syndrome with protracted heterogeneous symptoms, and patients who experience post-COVID-19 sequelae require personalized treatment as well as ongoing support.

8.
J Pers Med ; 12(2)2022 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649806

ABSTRACT

The characteristics and clinical course of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been widely described, while long-term data are still poor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term clinical outcome and its association with right ventricular (RV) dysfunction in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. This was a prospective multicenter study of consecutive COVID-19 patients hospitalized at seven Italian Hospitals from 28 February to 20 April 2020. The study population was divided into two groups according to echocardiographic evidence of RV dysfunction. The primary study outcome was 1-year mortality. The propensity score matching was performed to balance for potential baseline confounders. The study population consisted of 224 patients (mean age 69 ± 14, male sex 62%); RV dysfunction was diagnosed in 63 cases (28%). Patients with RV dysfunction were older (75 vs. 67 years, p < 0.001), had higher prevenance of coronary artery disease (27% vs. 11%, p = 0.003), and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (50% vs. 55%, p < 0.001). The rate of 1-year mortality (67% vs. 28%; p ≤ 0.001) was significantly higher in patients with RV dysfunction compared with patients without. After propensity score matching, patients with RV dysfunction showed a worse long-term survival (62% vs. 29%, p < 0.001). The multivariable Cox regression model showed an independent association of RV dysfunction with 1-year mortality. RV dysfunction is a relatively common finding in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and it is independently associated with an increased risk of 1-year mortality.

9.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602512

ABSTRACT

Aims Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recently recognized viral infective disease which can be complicated by acute respiratory stress syndrome (ARDS) and cardiovascular complications including severe arrhythmias, acute coronary syndromes, myocarditis, and pulmonary embolism. The aim of the present study was to identify the clinical conditions and echocardiographic parameters associated with in-hospital mortality in COVID-19. Methods and results This is a multicentre retrospective observational study including seven Italian centres. Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 from 1 March to 22 April 2020, were included into the study population. The association between baseline variables and the risk of in-hospital mortality was assessed through multivariable logistic regression and competing risk analyses. Out of 1401 patients admitted at the participating centres with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, 226 (16.1%) underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and were included in the present analysis. The mean age was 68.9 ± 13.9 years and male sex was reported in 141 patients (62.4%). Admission in intensive care unit was required for 72 patients (31.9%);in-hospital death occurred in 68 patients (30.1%). At multivariable analysis, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, P < 0.001), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE, P < 0.001), and ARDS (P < 0.001) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. At competing risk analysis, we found a significantly higher risk of mortality in patients with ARDS vs. those without ARDS (HR: 7.66;CI: 3.95–14.8), in patients with TAPSE ≤ 17 mm vs. those with TAPSE > 17 mm (HR: 5.08;CI: 3.15–8.19), and in patients with LVEF ≤ 50% vs. those with LVEF > 50% (HR: 4.06;CI: 2.50–6.59) (Figure). Conclusions TTE might be a useful tool in risk stratification of patients with COVID-19. In particular, reduced LVEF as well as reduced TAPSE may help to identify patients at higher risk of death during hospitalization. Our preliminary findings need to be confirmed in larger, prospective studies.618 Figure 1

10.
J Pers Med ; 11(12)2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542636

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Pulmonary involvement in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may affect right ventricular (RV) function and pulmonary pressures. The prognostic value of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAPS), and TAPSE/PAPS ratios have been poorly investigated in this clinical setting. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a multicenter Italian study, including consecutive patients hospitalized for COVID-19. In-hospital mortality and pulmonary embolism (PE) were identified as the primary and secondary outcome measures, respectively. The study included 227 (16.1%) subjects (mean age 68 ± 13 years); intensive care unit (ICU) admission was reported in 32.2%. At competing risk analysis, after stratifying the population into tertiles, according to TAPSE, PAPS, and TAPSE/PAPS ratio values, patients in the lower TAPSE and TAPSE/PAPS tertiles, as well as those in the higher PAPS tertiles, showed a significantly higher incidence of death vs. the probability to be discharged during the hospitalization. At univariable logistic regression analysis, TAPSE, PAPS, and TAPSE/PAPS were significantly associated with a higher risk of death and PE, both in patients who were and were not admitted to ICU. At adjusted multivariable regression analysis, TAPSE, PAPS, and TAPSE/PAPS resulted in independently associated risk of in-hospital death (TAPSE: OR 0.85, CI 0.74-0.97; PAPS: OR 1.08, CI 1.03-1.13; TAPSE/PAPS: OR 0.02, CI 0.02 × 10-1-0.2) and PE (TAPSE: OR 0.7, CI 0.6-0.82; PAPS: OR 1.1, CI 1.05-1.14; TAPSE/PAPS: OR 0.02 × 10-1, CI 0.01 × 10-2-0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiographic evidence of RV systolic dysfunction, increased PAPS, and poor RV-arterial coupling may help to identify COVID-19 patients at higher risk of mortality and PE during hospitalization.

11.
Heart ; 108(6): 458-466, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495503

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The initial data of the International Study on Acute Coronary Syndromes - ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction COVID-19 showed in Europe a remarkable reduction in primary percutaneous coronary intervention procedures and higher in-hospital mortality during the initial phase of the pandemic as compared with the prepandemic period. The aim of the current study was to provide the final results of the registry, subsequently extended outside Europe with a larger inclusion period (up to June 2020) and longer follow-up (up to 30 days). METHODS: This is a retrospective multicentre registry in 109 high-volume primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) centres from Europe, Latin America, South-East Asia and North Africa, enrolling 16 674 patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing PPPCI in March/June 2019 and 2020. The main study outcomes were the incidence of PPCI, delayed treatment (ischaemia time >12 hours and door-to-balloon >30 min), in-hospital and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: In 2020, during the pandemic, there was a significant reduction in PPCI as compared with 2019 (incidence rate ratio 0.843, 95% CI 0.825 to 0.861, p<0.0001). This reduction was significantly associated with age, being higher in older adults (>75 years) (p=0.015), and was not related to the peak of cases or deaths due to COVID-19. The heterogeneity among centres was high (p<0.001). Furthermore, the pandemic was associated with a significant increase in door-to-balloon time (40 (25-70) min vs 40 (25-64) min, p=0.01) and total ischaemia time (225 (135-410) min vs 196 (120-355) min, p<0.001), which may have contributed to the higher in-hospital (6.5% vs 5.3%, p<0.001) and 30-day (8% vs 6.5%, p=0.001) mortality observed during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous revascularisation for STEMI was significantly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, with a 16% reduction in PPCI procedures, especially among older patients (about 20%), and longer delays to treatment, which may have contributed to the increased in-hospital and 30-day mortality during the pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04412655.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiologists/trends , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Aged , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/mortality , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
12.
Diabet Epidemiol Manag ; 4: 100022, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, concerns have been arisen on the use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASI) due to the potentially increased expression of Angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE)2 and patient's susceptibility to SARS-CoV2 infection. Diabetes mellitus have been recognized favoring the coronavirus infection with consequent increase mortality in COVID-19. No data have been so far reported in diabetic patients suffering from ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), a very high-risk population deserving of RASI treatment. METHODS: The ISACS-STEMI COVID-19 registry retrospectively assessed STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) in March/June 2019 and 2020 in 109 European high-volume primary PCI centers. This subanalysis assessed the prognostic impact of chronic RASI therapy at admission on mortality and SARS-CoV2 infection among diabetic patients. RESULTS: Our population is represented by 3812 diabetic STEMI patients undergoing mechanical reperfusion, 2038 in 2019 and 1774 in 2020. Among 3761 patients with available data on chronic RASI therapy, between those ones with and without treatment there were several differences in baseline characteristics, (similar in both periods) but no difference in the prevalence of SARS-CoV2 infection (1.6% vs 1.3%, respectively, p = 0.786). Considering in-hospital medication, RASI therapy was overall associated with a significantly lower in-hospital mortality (3.3% vs 15.8%, p < 0.0001), consistently both in 2019 and in 2010. CONCLUSIONS: This is first study to investigate the impact of RASI therapy on prognosis and SARS-CoV2 infection of diabetic patients experiencing STEMI and undergoing PPCI during the COVID-19 pandemic. Both pre-admission chronic RASI therapy and in-hospital RASI did not negatively affected patients' survival during the hospitalization, neither increased the risk of SARS-CoV2 infection. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04412655.

13.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 4936571, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394269

ABSTRACT

Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are frequently reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and may impact patient clinical course and mortality. Although the underlying pathogenesis remains unclear, several potential mechanisms have been hypothesized, including oxygen supply/demand imbalance, direct viral cellular damage, systemic inflammatory response with cytokine-mediated injury, microvascular thrombosis, and endothelial dysfunction. The severe hypoxic state, combined with other conditions frequently reported in COVID-19, namely sepsis, tachyarrhythmias, anemia, hypotension, and shock, can induce a myocardial damage due to the mismatch between oxygen supply and demand and results in type 2 myocardial infarction (MI). In addition, COVID-19 promotes atherosclerotic plaque instability and thrombus formation and may precipitate type 1 MI. Patients with severe disease often show decrease in platelets count, higher levels of d-dimer, ultralarge von Willebrand factor multimers, tissue factor, and prolongation of prothrombin time, which reflects a prothrombotic state. An endothelial dysfunction has been described as a consequence of the direct viral effects and of the hyperinflammatory environment. The expression of tissue factor, von Willebrand factor, thromboxane, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promotes the prothrombotic status. In addition, endothelial cells generate superoxide anions, with enhanced local oxidative stress, and endothelin-1, which affects the vasodilator/vasoconstrictor balance and platelet aggregation. The optimal management of COVID-19 patients is a challenge both for logistic and clinical reasons. A deeper understanding of ACS pathophysiology may yield novel research insights and therapeutic perspectives in higher cardiovascular risk subjects with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/physiopathology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/virology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Atherosclerosis ; 332: 48-54, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: SARS-Cov-2 predisposes patients to thrombotic complications, due to excessive inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, and coagulation/fibrinolysis disturbances. The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinical characteristics and prognostic impact of SARS-CoV-2 positivity among STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). METHODS: We selected SARS-CoV-2 positive patients included in the ISACS-STEMI COVID-19, a retrospective multicenter European registry including 6609 STEMI patients treated with PPCI from March 1st until April 30th, in 2019 and 2020. As a reference group, we randomly sampled 5 SARS-Cov-2 negative patients per each SARS-CoV-2 positive patient, individually matched for age, sex, and hospital/geographic area. Study endpoints were in-hospital mortality, definite stent thrombosis, heart failure. RESULTS: Our population is represented by 62 positive SARS-CoV-2 positive patients who were compared with a matched population of 310 STEMI patients. No significant difference was observed in baseline characteristics or the modality of access to the PCI center. In the SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, the culprit lesion was more often located in the RCA (p < 0.001). Despite similar pre and postprocedural TIMI flow, we observed a trend in higher use of GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors and a significantly higher use of thrombectomy in the SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. SARS-CoV-2 positivity was associated with a remarkably higher in hospital mortality (29% vs 5.5%, p < 0.001), definite in-stent thrombosis (8.1% vs 1.6%, p = 0.004) and heart failure (22.6% vs 10.6%, p = 0.001) that was confirmed after adjustment for confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that among STEMI patients, SARS-CoV-2 positivity is associated with larger thrombus burden, a remarkably higher mortality but also higher rates of in-stent thrombosis and heart failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Registries , Reperfusion , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Treatment Outcome
15.
Cardiol Ther ; 10(2): 377-396, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287469

ABSTRACT

Several forms of cardiovascular involvement have been described in patients with Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19): myocardial injury, acute coronary syndrome, acute heart failure, myocarditis, pericardial diseases, arrhythmias, takotsubo syndrome, and arterial and venous atherothrombotic and thromboembolic events. Data on long-term outcome of these patients are still sparse, and the type and real incidence of cardiovascular sequelae are poorly known. It is plausible that myocardial injury may be the initiator of an inflammatory cascade, edema, and subsequent fibrosis, but also a consequence of systemic inflammation. The extent and distribution of ongoing inflammation may be the basis for ventricular dysfunction and malignant arrhythmias. Indeed, preliminary observational findings seem to emphasize the importance of close monitoring of COVID-19 patients with myocardial injury after discharge. Residual subclinical disease may be effectively investigated by using second-level imaging modalities such as cardiac magnetic resonance, which allows better characterization of the type and extension of myocardial damage, as well as of the ongoing inflammation after the acute phase. In patients with venous thromboembolism, a very common complication of COVID-19, the type and the duration of anticoagulation therapy after the acute phase should be tailored to the patient and based on the estimation of the individual thromboembolic and hemorrhagic risk. Large randomized clinical trials are ongoing to address this clinical question. Whether the severity of cardiovascular involvement, the type of treatments adopted during the acute phase, and the hemodynamic response, may influence the long-term outcome of patients recovered from COVID-19 is unknown. An etiological diagnosis of myocardial injury during the hospitalization is the first step for an appropriate follow-up in these patients. After discharge, the screening for residual left and right ventricular dysfunction, arrhythmias, residual thrombosis, and myocardial scar should be considered on a case-by-case basis, whereas an active clinical surveillance is mandatory in any patient.

16.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 36(4): 705-712, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227866

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The clinical course of COVID-19 may be complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and thromboembolic events, which are associated with high risk of mortality. Although previous studies reported a lower rate of death in patients treated with heparin, the potential benefit of chronic oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT) remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between OAT with the risk of ARDS and mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a multicenter retrospective Italian study including consecutive patients hospitalized for COVID-19 from March 1 to April 22, 2020, at six Italian hospitals. Patients were divided into two groups according to the chronic assumption of oral anticoagulants. RESULTS: Overall, 427 patients were included; 87 patients (19%) were in the OAT group. Of them, 54 patients (13%) were on treatment with non-vitamin k oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and 33 (8%) with vitamin-K antagonists (VKAs). OAT patients were older and had a higher rate of hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease compared to No-OAT group. The rate of ARDS at admission (26% vs 28%, P=0.834), or developed during the hospitalization (9% vs 10%, P=0.915), was similar between study groups; in-hospital mortality (22% vs 26%, P=0.395) was also comparable. After balancing for potential confounders by using the propensity score matching technique, no differences were found in term of clinical outcome between OAT and No-OAT patients CONCLUSION: Oral anticoagulation therapy, either NOACs or VKAs, did not influence the risk of ARDS or death in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Vitamin K
17.
Life (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143529

ABSTRACT

Recent scientific literature has investigated the cardiovascular implications of COVID-19. The mechanisms of cardiovascular damage seem to involve the protein angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), to which severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus-2 (CoV-2) binds to penetrate cells and other mechanisms, most of which are still under study. Cardiovascular sequelae of COVID-19 include heart failure, cardiomyopathy, acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmias, and venous thromboembolism. This article aims to collect scientific evidence by exploiting PubMed, Scopus, and Pedro databases to highlight the cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 and to define the physiotherapy treatment recommended for these patients. Exercise training (ET), an important part of cardiac rehabilitation, is a powerful tool in physiotherapy, capable of inducing significant changes in the cardiovascular system and functional in the recovery of endothelial dysfunction and for the containment of thromboembolic complications. In conclusion, due to the wide variety of possible exercise programs that can be obtained by combining intensity, duration, and speed in various ways, and by adjusting the program based on continuous patient monitoring, exercise training is well suited to the treatment of post-COVID patients with an impaired cardiovascular system of various degrees.

18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 138: 111469, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Concerns have been raised on a potential interaction between renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASI) and the susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). No data have been so far reported on the prognostic impact of RASI in patients suffering from ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during COVID-19 pandemic, which was the aim of the present study. METHODS: STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) and enrolled in the ISACS-STEMI COVID-19 registry were included in the present sub-analysis and divided according to RASI therapy at admission. RESULTS: Our population is represented by 6095 patients, of whom 3654 admitted in 2019 and 2441 in 2020. No difference in the prevalence of SARSCoV2 infection was observed according to RASI therapy at admission (2.5% vs 2.1%, p = 0.5), which was associated with a significantly lower mortality (adjusted OR [95% CI]=0.68 [0.51-0.90], P = 0.006), confirmed in the analysis restricted to 2020 (adjusted OR [95% CI]=0.5[0.33-0.74], P = 0.001). Among the 5388 patients in whom data on in-hospital medication were available, in-hospital RASI therapy was associated with a significantly lower mortality (2.1% vs 16.7%, OR [95% CI]=0.11 [0.084-0.14], p < 0.0001), confirmed after adjustment in both periods. Among the 62 SARSCoV-2 positive patients, RASI therapy, both at admission or in-hospital, showed no prognostic effect. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to investigate the impact of RASI therapy on the prognosis and SARSCoV2 infection of STEMI patients undergoing PPCI during the COVID-19 pandemic. Both pre-admission and in-hospital RASI were associated with lower mortality. Among SARSCoV2-positive patients, both chronic and in-hospital RASI therapy showed no impact on survival.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Myocardial Reperfusion , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Prognosis , Registries , Renin-Angiotensin System , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
19.
Thromb Res ; 198: 34-39, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125220

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The incidence, characteristics, and prognosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been poorly investigated. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and the correlates with the occurrence of PE as well as the association between PE and the risk of mortality in COVID-19. METHODS: Retrospective multicenter study on consecutive COVID-19 patients hospitalized at 7 Italian Hospitals. At admission, all patients underwent medical history, laboratory and echocardiographic evaluation. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 224 patients (mean age 69 ± 14, male sex 62%); PE was diagnosed in 32 cases (14%). Patients with PE were hospitalized after a longer time since symptoms onset (7 IQR 3-11 days, 3 IQR 1-6 days; p = 0.001) and showed higher D-dimers level (1819 IQR 568-5017 ng/ml vs 555 IQR 13-1530 ng/ml; p < 0.001) and higher prevalence of myocardial injury (47% vs 28%, p = 0.033). At multivariable analysis, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE; HR = 0.84; 95% CI 0.66-0.98; p = 0.046) and systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP; HR = 1.12; 95% CI 1.03-1.23; p = 0.008) resulted the only parameters independently associated with PE occurrence. Mortality rates (50% vs 27%; p = 0.010) and cardiogenic shock (37% vs 14%; p = 0.001) were significantly higher in PE as compared with non-PE patients. At multivariate analysis PE was significant associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: PE is relatively common complication in COVID-19 and is associated with increased mortality risk. TAPSE and sPAP resulted the only parameters independently associated with PE occurrence in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/epidemiology
20.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 23, 2021 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059712

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors including age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, and tobacco use, has been reported in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who experienced adverse outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: MEDLINE, Cochrane, Web of Sciences, and SCOPUS were searched for retrospective or prospective observational studies reporting data on cardiovascular risk factors and in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19. Univariable and multivariable age-adjusted analyses were conducted to evaluate the association between cardiovascular risk factors and the occurrence of in-hospital death. RESULTS: The analysis included 45 studies enrolling 18,300 patients. The pooled estimate of in-hospital mortality was 12% (95% CI 9-15%). The univariable meta-regression analysis showed a significant association between age (coefficient: 1.06; 95% CI 1.04-1.09; p < 0.001), diabetes (coefficient: 1.04; 95% CI 1.02-1.07; p < 0.001) and hypertension (coefficient: 1.01; 95% CI 1.01-1.03; p = 0.013) with in-hospital death. Male sex and smoking did not significantly affect mortality. At multivariable age-adjusted meta-regression analysis, diabetes was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (coefficient: 1.02; 95% CI 1.01-1.05; p = 0.043); conversely, hypertension was no longer significant after adjustment for age (coefficient: 1.00; 95% CI 0.99-1.01; p = 0.820). A significant association between age and in-hospital mortality was confirmed in all multivariable models. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that older age and diabetes are associated with higher risk of in-hospital mortality in patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. Conversely, male sex, hypertension, and smoking did not independently correlate with fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Hospital Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Factors , Analysis of Variance , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Humans , Hypertension/mortality , Male , Observational Studies as Topic , Publication Bias , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Smoking/mortality
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