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Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S503-S504, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602634

ABSTRACT

Background During the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), policy at a Minnesota hospital changed to state that environmental services would not clean rooms of patients with confirmed or suspected SARS-CoV-2 infections, requiring nursing staff to perform these duties. Investigation of a cluster of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) in patients hospitalized in the same or adjoining rooms on the medical intensive care unit (MICU) raised concern over whether SARS-CoV-2 cleaning practices and non-conventional personal protective equipment (PPE) use led to transmission of multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs). Methods Infection Prevention conducts passive surveillance for MDRO acquisition in inpatient units. Passive surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 was performed early in the pandemic. Active surveillance SARS-CoV-2 testing on admission was initiated in July 2020 and active surveillance testing for admitted patients every 7 days was initiated in December. Incident cases of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing organisms (ESBL), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and CRE were determined for hospitalized patients between March 1, 2020 and February 28, 2021, excluding patients with infection on admission. Rates of hospitalized patients testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 per 100 patient days were compared to rates of patients testing positive for VRE, ESBL, MRSA, and CRE per 100 patient days respectively. The same rate comparisons were completed for the MICU. Using the F-Test Two-Sample to determine variance, the Two-Sample T-test assuming unequal variances was applied to each comparison. Results Correlation was significant between rates of SARS-CoV-2 and VRE (p< 0.005), ESBL (p< 0.005), MRSA (p< 0.005), and CRE (p< 0.005) (Table 1). MICU correlation was significant between rates of SARS-CoV-2 and VRE (p< 0.005), ESBL (p< 0.005), MRSA (p< 0.005), and CRE (p< 0.005) (Table 2). Table 1: Two-sample T-test results assuming unequal variances: Hospital COVID rates per 100 patient days vs. rates of incident positive tests for VRE, ESBL, MRSA, and CRE per 100 patient days Table 2: Two-sample T-test results assuming unequal variances: MICU COVID rates per 100 patient days vs. rates of incident positive tests for VRE, ESBL, MRSA, and CRE per 100 patient days Conclusion The relationships between the rates of SARS-CoV-2 and four MDROs were statistically significant. It can be inferred from this data that changes in hospital cleaning and non-conventional PPE use may have led to an increase in transmission of MDROs in this facility. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

2.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(7): ofaa271, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-632358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel pathogen causing the current worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Due to insufficient diagnostic testing in the United States, there is a need for clinical decision-making algorithms to guide testing prioritization. METHODS: We recruited participants nationwide for a randomized clinical trial. We categorized participants into 3 groups: (1) those with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, (2) those with probable SARS-CoV-2 infection (pending test or not tested but with a confirmed COVID-19 contact), and (3) those with possible SARS-CoV-2 infection (pending test or not tested and with a contact for whom testing was pending or not performed). We compared the frequency of self-reported symptoms in each group and categorized those reporting symptoms in early infection (0-2 days), midinfection (3-5 days), and late infection (>5 days). RESULTS: Among 1252 symptomatic persons screened, 316 had confirmed, 393 had probable, and 543 had possible SARS-CoV-2 infection. In early infection, those with confirmed and probable SARS-CoV-2 infection shared similar symptom profiles, with fever most likely in confirmed cases (P = .002). Confirmed cases did not show any statistically significant differences compared with unconfirmed cases in symptom frequency at any time point. The most commonly reported symptoms in those with confirmed infection were cough (82%), fever (67%), fatigue (62%), and headache (60%), with only 52% reporting both fever and cough. CONCLUSIONS: Symptomatic persons with probable SARS-CoV-2 infection present similarly to those with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. There was no pattern of symptom frequency over time.

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