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1.
Hematol Oncol ; 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935680

ABSTRACT

The impact of secondary infections (SI) on COVID-19 outcome in patients with hematological malignancies (HM) is scarcely documented. To evaluate incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of SI, we analyzed the microbiologically documented SI in a large multicenter cohort of adult HM patients with COVID-19. Among 1741 HM patients with COVID-19, 134 (7.7%) had 185 SI, with a 1-month cumulative incidence of 5%. Median time between COVID-19 diagnosis and SI was 16 days (IQR: 5-36). Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and lymphoma/plasma cell neoplasms (PCN) were more frequent diagnoses in SI patients compared to patients without SI (AML: 14.9% vs. 7.1%; lymphoma/PCN 71.7% vs. 65.3%). Patients with SI were older (median age 70 vs. 66 years, p = 0.002), with more comorbidities (median Charlson Comorbidity Index 5 vs. 4, p < 0.001), higher frequency of critical COVID-19 (19.5% vs. 11.5%, p = 0.046), and more frequently not in complete remission (75% vs. 64.7% p = 0.024). Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage were the main sites of isolation for SI. Etiology of infections was bacterial in 80% (n = 148) of cases, mycotic in 9.7% (n = 18) and viral in 10.3% (n = 19); polymicrobial infections were observed in 24 patients (18%). Escherichia coli represented most of Gram-negative isolates (18.9%), while coagulase-negative Staphylococci were the most frequent among Gram-positive (14.2%). The 30-day mortality of patients with SI was higher when compared to patients without SI (69% vs. 15%, p < 0.001). The occurrence of SI worsened COVID-19 outcome in HM patients. Timely diagnosis and adequate management should be considered to improve their prognosis.

2.
Blood Adv ; 6(1): 327-338, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622201

ABSTRACT

Lymphoma represents a heterogeneous hematological malignancy (HM), which is characterized by severe immunosuppression. Patients diagnosed of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the course of HM have been described to have poor outcome, with only few reports specifically addressing lymphoma patients. Here, we investigated the clinical behavior and clinical parameters of a large multicenter cohort of adult patients with different lymphoma subtypes, with the aim of identifying predictors of death. The study included 856 patients, of whom 619 were enrolled prospectively in a 1-year frame and were followed-up for a median of 66 days (range 1-395). Patients were managed as outpatient (not-admitted cohort, n = 388) or required hospitalization (n = 468), and median age was 63 years (range 19-94). Overall, the 30- and 100-days mortality was 13% (95% confidence interval (CI), 11% to 15%) and 23% (95% CI, 20% to 27%), respectively. Antilymphoma treatment, including anti-CD20 containing regimens, did not impact survival. Patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma had the more favorable survival, but this was partly related to significantly younger age. The time interval between lymphoma diagnosis and COVID-19 was inversely related to mortality. Multivariable analysis recognized 4 easy-to-use factors (age, gender, lymphocyte, and platelet count) that were associated with risk of death, both in the admitted and in the not-admitted cohort (HR 3.79 and 8.85 for the intermediate- and high-risk group, respectively). Overall, our study shows that patients should not be deprived of the best available treatment of their underlying disease and indicates which patients are at higher risk of death. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04352556.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphoma , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Humans , Lymphoma/diagnosis , Lymphoma/therapy , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
3.
Biomedicines ; 9(10)2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470793

ABSTRACT

Immunization with mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines has been highly recommended and prioritized in fragile subjects, including patients with myelofibrosis (MF). Available data on the vaccine immune response developed by MF patients and the impact of ruxolitinib treatment are still too fragmented to support an informed decision on a third dose for this category of subjects. Here, we show that 76% of MF patients develop spike-specific IgG after the second mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose, but the response has a slower kinetics compared to healthy subjects, suggesting a reduced capability of their immune system to promptly react to vaccination. A reduced ACE2/RBD binding inhibition activity of spike-specific antibodies was also observed, especially in ruxolitinib-treated patients. Our results, showing slow kinetics of antibody responses in MF patients following vaccination with mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, support the need for a third vaccine dose.

4.
Br J Haematol ; 196(3): 559-565, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462747

ABSTRACT

Limited information is available on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the management of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). The Campus CML network collected retrospective information on 8 665 CML patients followed at 46 centres throughout Italy during the pandemic between February 2020 and January 2021. Within this cohort, we recorded 217 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients (2·5%). Most patients (57%) were diagnosed as having SARS-CoV-2 infection during the second peak of the pandemic (September 2020 to January 2021). The majority (35%) was aged between 50 and 65 years with a male prevalence (73%). Fifty-six percent of patients presented concomitant comorbidities. The median time from CML diagnosis to SARS-CoV-2 infection was six years (three months to 18 years). Twenty-one patients (9·6%) required hospitalization without the need of respiratory assistance, 18 (8·2%) were hospitalized for respiratory assistance, 8 (3·6%) were admitted to an intensive care unit, while 170 (78%) were only quarantined. Twenty-three percent of patients discontinued tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy during the infection. Twelve patients died due to COVID-19 with a mortality rate of 5·5% in the positive cohort and of 0·13% in the whole cohort. We could also document sequelae caused by the SARS-CoV-2 infection and an impact of the pandemic on the overall management of CML patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/mortality , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
5.
Pharmacol Res ; 157: 104866, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318930

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a medical emergency, with 20 % of patients presenting with severe clinical manifestations. From the pathogenetic point of view, COVID-19 mimics two other well-known diseases characterized by cytokine storm and hyper-activation of the immune response, with consequent organ damage: acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Hematologists are confident with these situations requiring a prompt therapeutic approach for switching off the uncontrolled cytokine release; here, we discuss pros and cons of drugs that are already employed in hematology in the light of their possible application in COVID-19. The most promising drugs might be: Ruxolitinib, a JAK1/2 inhibitor, with a rapid and powerful anti-cytokine effect, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), with their good anti-inflammatory properties, and perhaps the anti-Cd26 antibody Begelomab. We also present immunological data from gene expression experiments where TKIs resulted effective anti-inflammatory and pro-immune drugs. A possible combined treatment algorithm for COVID-19 is here proposed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hematology/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Graft vs Host Disease/drug therapy , Humans , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Br J Haematol ; 195(3): 371-377, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314037

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with high mortality in patients with haematological malignancies (HM) and rate of seroconversion is unknown. The ITA-HEMA-COV project (NCT04352556) investigated patterns of seroconversion for SARS-CoV-2 IgG in patients with HMs. A total of 237 patients, SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive with at least one SARS-CoV-2 IgG test performed during their care, entered the analysis. Among these, 62 (26·2%) had myeloid, 121 (51·1%) lymphoid and 54 (22·8%) plasma cell neoplasms. Overall, 69% of patients (164 of 237) had detectable IgG SARS-CoV-2 serum antibodies. Serologically negative patients (31%, 73 of 237) were evenly distributed across patients with myeloid, lymphoid and plasma cell neoplasms. In the multivariable logistic regression, chemoimmunotherapy [odds ratio (OR), 3·42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1·04-11·21; P = 0·04] was associated with a lower rate of seroconversion. This effect did not decline after 180 days from treatment withdrawal (OR, 0·35; 95% CI: 0·11-1·13; P = 0·08). This study demonstrates a low rate of seroconversion in HM patients and indicates that treatment-mediated immune dysfunction is the main driver. As a consequence, we expect a low rate of seroconversion after vaccination and thus we suggest testing the efficacy of seroconversion in HM patients.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Seroconversion , Young Adult
7.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1428, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-782025

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the viral agent responsible for the pandemic that in the first months of 2020 caused about 400,000 deaths. Among compounds proposed to fight the SARS-CoV-2-related disease (COVID-19), tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), already effective in Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), have been proposed on the basis of their antiviral action already demonstrated against SARS-CoV-1. Very few cases of COVID-19 have been reported in Ph+ ALL and in CML Italian cohorts; authors suggested that this low rate of infections might depend on the use of TKIs, but the biological causes of this phenomenon remain unknown. In this study, the CML model was used to test if TKIs would sustain or not the viral replication and if they could damage patient immunity. Firstly, the infection and replication rate of torquetenovirus (TTV), whose load is inversely proportional to the host immunological control, have been measured in CML patients receiving nilotinib. A very low percentage of subjects were infected at baseline, and TTV did not replicate or at least showed a low replication rate during the follow-up, with a mean load comparable to the measured one in healthy subjects. Then, after gene expression profiling experiments, we found that several "antiviral" genes, such as CD28 and IFN gamma, were upregulated, while genes with "proviral" action, such as ARG-1, CEACAM1, and FUT4, were less expressed during treatment with imatinib, thus demonstrating that TKIs are not detrimental from the immunological point of view. To sum up, our data could offer some biological explanations to the low COVID-19 occurrence in Ph+ ALL and CML patients and sustain the use of TKIs in COVID-19, as already proposed by several international ongoing studies.

8.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(10): e737-e745, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712017

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several small studies on patients with COVID-19 and haematological malignancies are available showing a high mortality in this population. The Italian Hematology Alliance on COVID-19 aimed to collect data from adult patients with haematological malignancies who required hospitalisation for COVID-19. METHODS: This multicentre, retrospective, cohort study included adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with diagnosis of a WHO-defined haematological malignancy admitted to 66 Italian hospitals between Feb 25 and May 18, 2020, with laboratory-confirmed and symptomatic COVID-19. Data cutoff for this analysis was June 22, 2020. The primary outcome was mortality and evaluation of potential predictive parameters of mortality. We calculated standardised mortality ratios between observed death in the study cohort and expected death by applying stratum-specific mortality rates of the Italian population with COVID-19 and an Italian cohort of 31 993 patients with haematological malignancies without COVID-19 (data up to March 1, 2019). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify factors associated with overall survival. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04352556, and the prospective part of the study is ongoing. FINDINGS: We enrolled 536 patients with a median follow-up of 20 days (IQR 10-34) at data cutoff, 85 (16%) of whom were managed as outpatients. 440 (98%) of 451 hospitalised patients completed their hospital course (were either discharged alive or died). 198 (37%) of 536 patients died. When compared with the general Italian population with COVID-19, the standardised mortality ratio was 2·04 (95% CI 1·77-2·34) in our whole study cohort and 3·72 (2·86-4·64) in individuals younger than 70 years. When compared with the non-COVID-19 cohort with haematological malignancies, the standardised mortality ratio was 41·3 (38·1-44·9). Older age (hazard ratio 1·03, 95% CI 1·01-1·05); progressive disease status (2·10, 1·41-3·12); diagnosis of acute myeloid leukaemia (3·49, 1·56-7·81), indolent non-Hodgin lymphoma (2·19, 1·07-4·48), aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (2·56, 1·34-4·89), or plasma cell neoplasms (2·48, 1·31-4·69), and severe or critical COVID-19 (4·08, 2·73-6·09) were associated with worse overall survival. INTERPRETATION: This study adds to the evidence that patients with haematological malignancies have worse outcomes than both the general population with COVID-19 and patients with haematological malignancies without COVID-19. The high mortality among patients with haematological malignancies hospitalised with COVID-19 highlights the need for aggressive infection prevention strategies, at least until effective vaccination or treatment strategies are available. FUNDING: Associazione italiana contro le leucemie, linfomi e mieloma-Varese Onlus.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Inpatients , Italy/epidemiology , Leukemia/epidemiology , Leukemia/therapy , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/epidemiology , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Myeloproliferative Disorders/epidemiology , Myeloproliferative Disorders/therapy , Neoplasms, Plasma Cell/epidemiology , Neoplasms, Plasma Cell/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(10)2020 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324354

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 global pandemic is caused by SARS-CoV-2, and represents an urgent medical and social issue. Unfortunately, there is still not a single proven effective drug available, and therefore, current therapeutic guidelines recommend supportive care including oxygen administration and treatment with antibiotics. Recently, patients have been also treated with off-label therapies which comprise antiretrovirals, anti-inflammatory compounds, antiparasitic agents and plasma from convalescent patients, all with controversial results. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is important for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis, and plays a pivotal role in viral replication processes. In this review, we discuss several aspects of the UPS and the effects of its inhibition with particular regard to the life cycle of the coronaviruses (CoVs). In fact, proteasome inhibition by various chemical compounds, such as MG132, epoxomycin and bortezomib, may reduce the virus entry into the eucariotic cell, the synthesis of RNA, and the subsequent protein expression necessary for CoVs. Importantly, since UPS inhibitors reduce the cytokine storm associated with various inflammatory conditions, it is reasonable to assume that they might be repurposed for SARS-CoV-2, thus providing an additional tool to counteract both virus replication as well as its most deleterious consequences triggered by abnormal immunological response.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Proteasome Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/drug effects , Humans , Oligopeptides/pharmacology , Oligopeptides/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Proteasome Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
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