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BDJ Open ; 8(1): 16, 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890158


OBJECTIVE: Sierra Leone (SL), in West Africa, with a population of over 7.5 million people has suffered the effects of a civil war previously, and more recently Ebola & Covid-19. Dental care is very limited, mostly in the capital Freetown and the private sector. No dental education is available in the country. The objective of this research was to investigate the oral health needs of schoolchildren at key ages, to inform future action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This first national oral health survey of schoolchildren at 6-, 12- and 15-years was conducted in urban and rural settings across all four regions using a multi-stage cluster sampling in line with the WHO guidelines, adapted according to contemporary survey methods to include 'International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS)'. Whilst parents were invited to complete a questionnaire for 6-year-old children, 12- and 15-year-olds self-completed a questionnaire. Data were weighted according to age and regional population and analysed using STATA v.15 and SPSS v.22. RESULTS: A total of 1174 children participated across 22 schools from all four regions. Dental caries was prevalent (over 80% of all age-groups having clinical decay; ICDAS score ≥ 2) and largely untreated. No children had fillings and only 4% had missing teeth. Amongst 6, 12 and 15-year-olds, average decay levels at ICDAS > 3 threshold was 3.47 (primary teeth), 2.94 and 4.30 respectively. Almost, 10% (n = 119) of all children reported experiencing pain in their teeth with 7% (n = 86) children having PUFA lesions present. At least one in five children required one or more dental extractions. 'Age' was a significant predictor of dental caries experience and the odds of having dental caries experience was higher in rural areas at D3-6MFT (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The findings demonstrate a vast unmet oral health need in the children of SL. Using ICDAS as an epidemiological tool in a low-income country provides valuable insight to the pattern of oral disease to inform health service planning. Urgent action is required to address this silent epidemic.

J Dent ; 105: 103556, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988321


OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to identify which dental procedures generate droplets and aerosols with subsequent contamination, and for these, characterise their pattern, spread and settle. DATA RESOURCES: Medline(OVID), Embase(OVID), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, Web of Science and LILACS databases were searched for eligible studies from each database's inception to May 2020 (search updated 11/08/20). Studies investigating clinical dental activities that generate aerosol using duplicate independent screening. Data extraction by one reviewer and verified by another. Risk of bias assessed through contamination measurement tool sensitivity assessment. STUDY SELECTION: A total eighty-three studies met the inclusion criteria and covered: ultrasonic scaling (USS, n = 44), highspeed air-rotor (HSAR, n = 31); oral surgery (n = 11), slow-speed handpiece (n = 4); air-water (triple) syringe (n = 4), air-polishing (n = 4), prophylaxis (n = 2) and hand-scaling (n = 2). Although no studies investigated respiratory viruses, those on bacteria, blood-splatter and aerosol showed activities using powered devices produced greatest contamination. Contamination was found for all activities, and at the furthest points studied. The operator's torso, operator's arm and patient's body were especially affected. Heterogeneity precluded inter-study comparisons but intra-study comparisons allowed construction of a proposed hierarchy of procedure contamination risk: higher (USS, HSAR, air-water syringe, air polishing, extractions using motorised handpieces); moderate (slow-speed handpieces, prophylaxis, extractions) and lower (air-water syringe [water only] and hand scaling). CONCLUSION: Gaps in evidence, low sensitivity of measures and variable quality limit conclusions around contamination for procedures. A hierarchy of contamination from procedures is proposed for challenge/verification by future research which should consider standardised methodologies to facilitate research synthesis. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This manuscript addresses uncertainty around aerosol generating procedures (AGPs) in dentistry. Findings indicate a continuum of procedure-related aerosol generation rather than the common binary AGP or non-AGP perspective. The findings inform discussion around AGPs and direct future research to support knowledge and decision making around COVID-19 and dental procedures.

Aerosols , COVID-19 , Dentistry , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
J Dent Res ; 100(3): 261-267, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983614


Since the onset of coronavirus disease 2019, the potential risk of dental procedural generated spray emissions (including aerosols and splatters), for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission, has challenged care providers and policy makers alike. New studies have described the production and dissemination of sprays during simulated dental procedures, but findings lack generalizability beyond their measurements setting. This study aims to describe the fundamental mechanisms associated with spray production from rotary dental instrumentation with particular focus on what are currently considered high-risk components-namely, the production of small droplets that may remain suspended in the room environment for extended periods and the dispersal of high-velocity droplets resulting in formites at distant surfaces. Procedural sprays were parametrically studied with variables including rotation speed, burr-to-tooth contact, and coolant premisting modified and visualized using high-speed imaging and broadband or monochromatic laser light-sheet illumination. Droplet velocities were estimated and probability density maps for all laser illuminated sprays generated. The impact of varying the coolant parameters on heating during instrumentation was considered. Complex structured sprays were produced by water-cooled rotary instruments, which, in the worst case of an air turbine, included droplet projection speeds in excess of 12 m/s and the formation of millions of small droplets that may remain suspended. Elimination of premisting (mixing of coolant water and air prior to burr contact) resulted in a significant reduction in small droplets, but radial atomization may still occur and is modified by burr-to-tooth contact. Spatial probability distribution mapping identified a threshold for rotation speeds for radial atomization between 80,000 and 100,000 rpm. In this operatory mode, cutting efficiency is reduced but sufficient coolant effectiveness appears to be maintained. Multiple mechanisms for atomization of fluids from rotatory instrumentation exist, but parameters can be controlled to modify key spray characteristics during the current crisis.

COVID-19 , Tooth , Aerosols , Dental Instruments , Humans , SARS-CoV-2