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1.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases ; 22(5):649-656, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1805380

ABSTRACT

Summary Background Scarce information is available on the duration of the protective effect of COVID-19 vaccination against the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and its severe clinical consequences. We investigated the effect of time since vaccine completion on the SARS-CoV-2 infection and its severe forms. Methods In this retrospective observational analysis using the vaccination campaign integrated platform of the Italian region of Lombardy, 5 351 085 individuals aged 12 years or older who received complete vaccination from Jan 17 to July 31, 2021, were followed up from 14 days after vaccine completion until Oct 20, 2021. Changes over time in outcome rates (ie, SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe illness among vaccinated individuals) were analysed with age-period-cohort models. Trends in vaccine effectiveness (ie, outcomes comparison in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals) were also measured. Findings Overall, 14 140 infections and 2450 severe illnesses were documented, corresponding to incidence rates of 6·7 (95% CI 6·6–6·8) and 1·2 (1·1–1·2) cases per 10 000 person-months, respectively. From the first to the ninth month since vaccine completion, rates increased from 4·6 to 10·2 infections, and from 1·0 to 1·7 severe illnesses every 10 000 person-months. These figures correspond to relative reduction of vaccine effectiveness of 54·9% (95% CI 48·3–60·6) for infection and of 40·0% (16·2–57·0) for severe illness. The increasing infection rate was greater for individuals aged 60 years or older who received adenovirus-vectored vaccines (from 4·0 to 23·5 cases every 10 000 person-months). The increasing severe illness rates were similar for individuals receiving mRNA-based vaccines (from 1·1 to 1·5 every 10 000 person-months) and adenovirus-vectored vaccines (from 0·5 to 0·9 every 10 000 person-months). Interpretation Although the risk of infection after vaccination, and even more of severe illness, remains low, the gradual increase in clinical outcomes related to SARS-CoV-2 infection suggests that the booster campaign should be accelerated and that social and individual protection measures against COVID-19 spread should not be abandoned. Funding None.

2.
Vaccines ; 10(4):623, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1792368

ABSTRACT

Background. Limited evidence exists on the balance between the benefits and harms of the COVID-19 vaccines. The aim of this study is to compare the benefits and safety of mRNA-based (Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna) and adenovirus-vectored (Oxford-AstraZeneca) vaccines in subpopulations defined by age and sex. Methods. All citizens who are newly vaccinated from 27 December 2020 to 3 May 2021 are matched to unvaccinated controls according to age, sex, and vaccination date. Study outcomes include the events that are expected to be avoided by vaccination (i.e., hospitalization and death from COVID-19) and those that might be increased after vaccine inoculation (i.e., venous thromboembolism). The incidence rate ratios (IRR) of vaccinated and unvaccinated citizens are separately estimated within strata of sex, age category and vaccine type. When suitable, number needed to treat (NNT) and number needed to harm (NNH) are calculated to evaluate the balance between the benefits and harm of vaccines within each sex and age category. Results. In total, 2,351,883 citizens are included because they received at least one dose of vaccine (755,557 Oxford-AstraZeneca and 1,596,326 Pfizer/Moderna). A reduced incidence of COVID-19-related outcomes is observed with a lowered incidence rate ranging from 55% to 89% and NNT values ranging from 296 to 3977. Evidence of an augmented incidence of harm-related outcomes is observed only for women aged <50 years within 28 days after Oxford-AstraZeneca (being the corresponding adjusted IRR of 2.4, 95% CI 1.1–5.6, and NNH value of 23,207, 95% CI 10,274–89,707). Conclusions. A favourable balance between benefits and harms is observed in the current study, even among younger women who received Oxford-AstraZeneca.

3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5736, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778634

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study were to characterize new SARS-CoV-2 genomes sampled all over Italy and to reconstruct the origin and the evolutionary dynamics in Italy and Europe between February and June 2020. The cluster analysis showed only small clusters including < 80 Italian isolates, while most of the Italian strains were intermixed in the whole tree. Pure Italian clusters were observed mainly after the lockdown and distancing measures were adopted. Lineage B and B.1 spread between late January and early February 2020, from China to Veneto and Lombardy, respectively. Lineage B.1.1 (20B) most probably evolved within Italy and spread from central to south Italian regions, and to European countries. The lineage B.1.1.1 (20D) developed most probably in other European countries entering Italy only in the second half of March and remained localized in Piedmont until June 2020. In conclusion, within the limitations of phylogeographical reconstruction, the estimated ancestral scenario suggests an important role of China and Italy in the widespread diffusion of the D614G variant in Europe in the early phase of the pandemic and more dispersed exchanges involving several European countries from the second half of March 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Europe/epidemiology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Phylogeography , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 850846, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775681

ABSTRACT

A relevant portion of patients with disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) experience negative outcome, and several laboratory tests have been proposed to predict disease severity. Among others, dramatic changes in peripheral blood cells have been described. We developed and validated a laboratory score solely based on blood cell parameters to predict survival in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We retrospectively analyzed 1,619 blood cell count from 226 consecutively hospitalized COVID-19 patients to select parameters for inclusion in a laboratory score predicting severity of disease and survival. The score was derived from lymphocyte- and granulocyte-associated parameters and validated on a separate cohort of 140 consecutive COVID-19 patients. Using ROC curve analysis, a best cutoff for score of 30.6 was derived, which was associated to an overall 82.0% sensitivity (95% CI: 78-84) and 82.5% specificity (95% CI: 80-84) for detecting outcome. The scoring trend effectively separated survivor and non-survivor groups, starting 2 weeks before the end of the hospitalization period. Patients' score time points were also classified into mild, moderate, severe, and critical according to the symptomatic oxygen therapy administered. Fluctuations of the score should be recorded to highlight a favorable or unfortunate trend of the disease. The predictive score was found to reflect and anticipate the disease gravity, defined by the type of the oxygen support used, giving a proof of its clinical relevance. It offers a fast and reliable tool for supporting clinical decisions and, most important, triage in terms of not only prioritization but also allocation of limited medical resources, especially in the period when therapies are still symptomatic and many are under development. In fact, a prolonged and progressive increase of the score can suggest impaired chances of survival and/or an urgent need for intensive care unit admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Oxygen , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706402

ABSTRACT

To assess influenza vaccine uptake during the 2020/2021 flu season and compare it with that of the 2019/2020 flu season among respondents to the second phase of the web-based EPICOVID-19 survey, we performed an observational web-based nationwide online survey (January-February 2021) in which respondents to the first survey (April-June 2020) were contacted and asked to complete a second questionnaire. Factors associated with vaccine uptake in the 2020/2021 flu season were assessed by applying a multivariable multinomial logistic regression model. Out of the 198,822 respondents to the first survey, 41,473 (20.9%) agreed to fill out the follow-up questionnaire; of these, 8339 (20.1%) were vaccinated only during the 2020/2021 season, 8828 (21.3%) were vaccinated during both seasons and 22,710 (54.8%) were vaccinated in neither season. Educational level (medium (aOR 1.33 95%CI 1.13-1.56) and high (aOR 1.69 95%CI 1.44-1.97) vs. low) and socio-economic deprivation according to SES scoring (1 point aOR 0.83 (95%CI 0.78-0.89), 2 aOR 0.68 (95%CI 0.60-0.77) points or ≥3 points aOR 0.42 (95%CI 0.28-0.45) vs. 0 points) were found to be associated with flu vaccine uptake. Our study shows that social determinants seemed to affect flu vaccination uptake and identifies specific categories of the population to target during future influenza vaccination campaigns.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323334

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the radiographic key patterns on CXR in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, assessing the prevalence of radiographic signs of interstitial pneumonia. To evaluate pattern variation between a baseline and a follow-up CXR. Materials: and methods. 1117 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection were retrospectively enrolled from four centers in Lombardy region. All patients underwent a CXR at presentation. Follow-up CXR was performed when clinically indicated.Two radiologists in each center reviewed CXR images and classified them as suggestive or not for interstitial pneumonia, recording the presence of ground-glass opacity (GGO), reticular pattern or consolidation and their distribution.Pearson’s chi-square test for categorical variables and McNemar test (chi-square for paired data) were performed. Results: . Patients mean age 63.3 years, 767 were males (65.5%). The main result is the large proportion of positive CXR in COVID-19 patients.Baseline CXR was positive in 940 patients (80.3%), with significant differences in age and sex distribution between patients with positive and negative CXR. 382 patients underwent a follow-up CXR. The most frequent pattern on baseline CXR was the GGO (66.1%), on follow-up was consolidation (53.4%). The most common distributions were peripheral and middle-lower lung zone. Conclusions: . We described key-patterns and their distribution on CXR in a large cohort of COVID-19 patients: GGO was the most frequent finding on baseline CXR, while we found an increase in the proportion of lung consolidation on follow-up CXR. CXR proved to be a reliable tool in our cohort obtaining positive results in 80.3% of the baseline cases.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314810

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was the reconstruction of SARS-CoV-2 evolutionary dynamics in time and space in Italy and Europe between February and June 2020. The cluster analysis showed that pure Italian clusters were observed mainly after the lockdown and distancing measures were adopted. Lineage B and B.1 spread between late January and early February 2020, from China to Veneto and Lombardy, respectively. Lineage B.1.1 most probably evolved within Italy and spread from central to south Italian regions, and to European countries. The lineage B.1.1.1 entered Italy only in the second half of March and remained localized in Piedmont until June 2020. In conclusion, the reconstructed ancestral scenario suggests a central role of China and Italy in the widespread diffusion of the D614G variant in Europe in the early phase of the pandemic and more dispersed exchanges involving several European countries from the second half of March 2020.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314809

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study were to characterize new SARS-CoV-2 genomes sampled all over Italy and to reconstruct the origin and the evolutionary dynamics in Italy and Europe between February and June 2020. The cluster analysis showed only small clusters including <80 Italian isolates, while most of the Italian strains were intermixed in the whole tree. Pure Italian clusters were observed mainly after the lockdown and distancing measures were adopted. Lineage B and B.1 spread between late January and early February 2020, from China to Veneto and Lombardy, respectively. Lineage B.1.1 most probably evolved within Italy and spread from central to south Italian regions, and to European countries. The lineage B.1.1.1 developed most probably in other European countries entering Italy only in the second half of March and remained localized in Piedmont until June 2020. In conclusion, the reconstructed ancestral scenario suggests a central role of China and Italy in the widespread diffusion of the D614G variant in Europe in the early phase of the pandemic and more dispersed exchanges involving several European countries from the second half of March 2020.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314808

ABSTRACT

A growing number of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants is being identified worldwide, potentially impacting the effectiveness of current vaccines. We report the data obtained in several Italian regions involved in the SARS-CoV-2 variant monitoring from the beginning of the epidemic and spanning the period from October 2020 to March 2021.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311147

ABSTRACT

Background: To assess differences in the probability of COVID-19-related death between native Italians and immigrants hospitalised with COVID-19. Methods This was a retrospective study of prospectively collected data conducted at the ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco Hospital in Milan, Italy, between 21 February and 31 November 2020. Uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the impact of the patients' origin on the probability of COVID-19-related death. Results The study population consisted of 1,179 COVID-19 patients: 921 Italians (78.1%) and 258 immigrants (21.9%) from Latin America (99, 38.4%), Asia (72, 27.9%), Africa (50, 19.4%) and central/eastern Europe (37, 14.3%). The Italians were older (p < 0.001) and more frequently affected by co-morbidities (p < 0.001). Mortality was significantly greater among the Italians than the immigrants as a whole (26.6% vs 12.8%;p < 0.001), and significantly greater among the immigrants from Latin America than among those from Asia, Africa and central/eastern Europe (21.2% vs 8.3%, 6% and 8.1%, respectively;p = 0.016). Multivariate analyses showed that a Latin American origin was independently associated with an increased risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio 1.95, 95% confidence interval 1.17–3.23). Conclusions Our findings support the need to strengthen COVID-19 information and prevention initiatives in the Latin American community living in Milan.

11.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 52, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The evolution of SARS-CoV-2 has led to the emergence of several new variants, and few data are available on the impact of vaccination on SARS-CoV-2 variants. We aimed to assess the association between natural (previous infection) and induced (partial or complete vaccination) exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and the onset of new infection supported by the delta variant, and of comparing it with that supported by alpha. METHODS: We performed a test-negative case-control study, by linking population-based registries of confirmed diagnoses of infection with SARS-CoV-2, vaccinations against Covid-19 and healthcare utilization databases of the Italian Lombardy Region. Four hundred ninety-six persons who between 27 December 2020 and 16 July 2021 had an infection by the delta variant were 1:1 matched with citizens affected by alphavariant and 1:10 matched with persons who had a negative molecular test, according to gender, age and date of molecular ascertainment. We used a conditional logistic regression for estimating relative risk reduction of either variants associated with natural and/or induced immunization and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Previous infection was associated with 91% (95% CI 85% to 95%) reduced relative risk of reinfection, without evidence of significant differences between delta and alpha cases (p=0.547). Significant lower vaccinal protection against delta than alpha variant infection was observed with reduced relative risk associated with partial vaccination respectively of 29% (7% to 45%), and 62% (48% to 71%) (p=0.001), and with complete vaccination respectively of 75% (66% to 82%) and 90% (85% to 94%) (p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Lower protection towards infections caused by the delta variant with respect to alpha variant was noticed, even after the completion of the vaccination cycle. This finding would support efforts to maximize both vaccine uptake with two doses and fulfilment with individual protection measures, especially as the delta variant is rampant worldwide presently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Vaccination
12.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(12): 4747-4754, 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655943

ABSTRACT

In Italy, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign prioritized healthcare workers (HCWs) to receive two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine, irrespective of a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this real-life study, we compared the humoral response to BNT162b2 vaccine in HCWs with and without a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of the 407 HCWs enrolled, 334 (82.1%) were SARS-CoV-2-naive and 73 (17.9%) SARS-CoV-2-experienced. Post-vaccine humoral response was detectable in more than 98% of HCWs. Overall, the median level of anti-S IgG in SARS-COV-2-experienced HCWs was twice as high as those of SARS-CoV-2-naive subjects (24641.0 AU/mL [IQR: 15273.0->40000.0] versus 13053.8 [IQR: 7303.3-20105.8]; p < .001), irrespective of the time elapsed from SARS-CoV-2 previous infection. In a subgroup of SARS-CoV-2-naive and -experienced subjects who received only one dose of the vaccine, the latter showed 32 times higher levels of anti-S IgG compared to the former. Although no serious adverse events have been reported, mild to moderate side effects occurred more frequently after the first dose in the SARS-CoV-2-experienced than in naive subjects (67% versus 42%, respectively; p < .001). Notably, post-vaccination anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG levels ≥20,000 AU/mL were independently associated with the risk of fever ≥38°C (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.122, 95% CI 2.368-11.080, p < .0001).Our study showed high responsiveness of BNT162b2 vaccine and a relationship between levels of antibody response and reactogenicity. It suggests that a single dose of mRNA vaccine might evoke effective protection in SARS-CoV-2-experienced subjects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , RNA, Messenger , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
13.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Scarce information is available on the duration of the protective effect of COVID-19 vaccination against the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and its severe clinical consequences. We investigated the effect of time since vaccine completion on the SARS-CoV-2 infection and its severe forms. METHODS: In this retrospective observational analysis using the vaccination campaign integrated platform of the Italian region of Lombardy, 5 351 085 individuals aged 12 years or older who received complete vaccination from Jan 17 to July 31, 2021, were followed up from 14 days after vaccine completion until Oct 20, 2021. Changes over time in outcome rates (ie, SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe illness among vaccinated individuals) were analysed with age-period-cohort models. Trends in vaccine effectiveness (ie, outcomes comparison in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals) were also measured. FINDINGS: Overall, 14 140 infections and 2450 severe illnesses were documented, corresponding to incidence rates of 6·7 (95% CI 6·6-6·8) and 1·2 (1·1-1·2) cases per 10 000 person-months, respectively. From the first to the ninth month since vaccine completion, rates increased from 4·6 to 10·2 infections, and from 1·0 to 1·7 severe illnesses every 10 000 person-months. These figures correspond to relative reduction of vaccine effectiveness of 54·9% (95% CI 48·3-60·6) for infection and of 40·0% (16·2-57·0) for severe illness. The increasing infection rate was greater for individuals aged 60 years or older who received adenovirus-vectored vaccines (from 4·0 to 23·5 cases every 10 000 person-months). The increasing severe illness rates were similar for individuals receiving mRNA-based vaccines (from 1·1 to 1·5 every 10 000 person-months) and adenovirus-vectored vaccines (from 0·5 to 0·9 every 10 000 person-months). INTERPRETATION: Although the risk of infection after vaccination, and even more of severe illness, remains low, the gradual increase in clinical outcomes related to SARS-CoV-2 infection suggests that the booster campaign should be accelerated and that social and individual protection measures against COVID-19 spread should not be abandoned. FUNDING: None.

14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649176

ABSTRACT

Digital technologies have been extensively employed in response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic worldwide. This study describes the methodology of the two-phase internet-based EPICOVID19 survey, and the characteristics of the adult volunteer respondents who lived in Italy during the first (April-May 2020) and the second wave (January-February 2021) of the epidemic. Validated scales and ad hoc questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic, medical and behavioural characteristics, as well as information on COVID-19. Among those who provided email addresses during phase I (105,355), 41,473 participated in phase II (mean age 50.7 years ± 13.5 SD, 60.6% females). After a median follow-up of ten months, 52.8% had undergone nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) testing and 13.2% had a positive result. More than 40% had undergone serological test (ST) and 11.9% were positive. Out of the 2073 participants with at least one positive ST, 72.8% had only negative results from NPS or never performed it. These results indicate that a large fraction of individuals remained undiagnosed, possibly contributing to the spread of the virus in the community. Participatory online surveys offer a unique opportunity to collect relevant data at individual level from large samples during confinement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Female , Humans , Internet , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 63, 2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To compare differences in the probability of COVID-19-related death between native Italians and immigrants hospitalised with COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective study of prospectively collected data was conducted at the ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco Hospital in Milan, Italy, between 21 February and 31 November 2020. Uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the impact of the patients' origin on the probability of COVID-19-related death. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 1,179 COVID-19 patients: 921 Italians (78.1%) and 258 immigrants (21.9%) who came from Latin America (99, 38%), Asia (72, 28%), Africa (50, 19%) and central/eastern Europe (37, 14%). The Italians were significantly older than the immigrants (median age 70 years, interquartile range (IQR) 58-79 vs 51 years, IQR 41-60; p < 0.001), and more frequently had one or more co-morbidities (79.1% vs 53.9%; p < 0.001). Mortality was significantly greater among the Italians than the immigrants as a whole (26.6% vs 12.8%; p < 0.001), and significantly greater among the immigrants from Latin America than among those from Asia, Africa or central/eastern Europe (21% vs 8%, 6% and 8%; p = 0.016). Univariable analysis showed that the risk of COVID-19-related death was lower among the immigrants (hazard ratio [HR] 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.30-0.63; p < 0.0001], but the risk of Latin American immigrants did not significantly differ from that of the Italians (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.47-1.15; p = 0.183). However, after adjusting for potential confounders, multivariable analysis showed that there was no difference in the risk of death between the immigrants and the Italians (adjusted HR [aHR] 1.04, 95% CI 0.70-1.55; p = 0.831), but being of Latin American origin was independently associated with an increased risk of death (aHR 1.95, 95% CI 1.17-3.23; p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: Mortality was lower among the immigrants hospitalised with COVID-19 than among their Italian counterparts, but this difference disappeared after adjusting for confounders. However, the increased risk of death among immigrants of Latin American origin suggests that COVID-19 information and prevention initiatives need to be strengthened in this sub-population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Aged , Hospitals , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602288

ABSTRACT

Aims Epidemiological evidence suggests that anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory properties of statins may reduce the risk of infections and infection-related complications. In this observational multi-centre study, we aimed to assess the impact of prior statin use on coronavirus disease (COVID-19) severity and mortality. Methods and results Consecutive patients hospitalized for COVID-19 were considered and enrolled in four tertiary referral hospitals (Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan;Policlinico Umberto I Hospital, Rome;Spedali Civili Hospital, Brescia;Humanitas Gavazzeni Hospital;Bergamo) From 23 February 2020 to 31 March 2020, in-hospital mortality and severity of COVID-19 assessed with National Early Warning Score (NEWS) were deemed primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. Among 842 patients enrolled, 179 (21%) were treated with statins before admission. Statin patients showed more comorbidities and more severe COVID-19 [NEWS 4 (IQR: 2–6) vs. 3 (IQR: 2–5), P < 0.001]. Despite having similar rates of intensive care unit admission, noninvasive ventilation, and mechanical ventilation, statin users appeared to show higher mortality rates. After balancing pre-existing relevant clinical conditions that could affect COVID-19 prognosis with propensity score matching, statin therapy confirmed its association with a more severe disease (NEWS ≥ 5;61% vs. 48%, P = 0.025) but not with in-hospital mortality (26% vs. 28%, P = 0.185). At univariate logistic regression analysis, statin use was confirmed not to be associated with mortality (OR: 0.901;95% CI: 0.537–1.51;P = 0.692) and to be associated with a more severe disease (NEWS ≥ 5 OR: 1.7;95% CI: 1.067–2.71;P = 0.026). Conclusions Our results did not confirm the supposed favourable effects of statin therapy on COVID-19 outcomes. Conversely, they suggest that statin use should be considered as a proxy of underlying comorbidities, which indeed expose to increased risks of more severe COVID-19.538 Figure 1

18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 793191, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608200

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To compare SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific antibody production and plasma neutralizing capacity against B.1 wild-type-like strain, and Gamma/P.1 and Delta/B.1.617.2 variants-of-concern, in subjects with different Covid-19 disease and vaccination histories. Methods: Adult subjects were: 1) Unvaccinated/hospitalized for Covid-19; 2) Covid-19-recovered followed by one BNT162b2 vaccine dose; and 3) Covid-19-naïve/2-dose BNT162b2 vaccinated. Multiplex Luminex® immunoassays measured IgG, IgA, and IgM plasma levels against SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD), spike-1 (S), and nucleocapsid proteins. Neutralizing activity was determined in Vero E6 cytopathic assays. Results: Maximum anti-RBD IgG levels were similar in Covid-19­recovered individuals 8‒10 days after single-dose vaccination and in Covid-19-naïve subjects 7 days after 2nd vaccine dosing; both groups had ≈2­fold higher anti-RBD IgG levels than Unvaccinated/Covid-19 subjects tracked through 2 weeks post-symptom onset. Anti-S IgG expression patterns were similar to RBD within each group, but with lower signal strengths. Viral antigen-specific IgA and IgM levels were more variable than IgG patterns. Anti-nucleocapsid immunoglobulins were not detected in Covid-19-naïve subjects. Neutralizing activity against the B.1 strain, and Gamma/P.1 and Delta/B.1.617.2 variants, was highest in Covid­19-recovered/single-dose vaccinated subjects; although neutralization against the Delta variant in this group was only 26% compared to B.1 neutralization, absolute anti-Delta titers suggested maintained protection. Neutralizing titers against the Gamma and Delta variants were 33‒77% and 26‒67%, respectively, versus neutralization against the B.1 strain (100%) in the three groups. Conclusion: These findings support SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine usefulness regardless of Covid-19 history, and confirm remarkable protection provided by a single vaccine dose in people who have recovered from Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccination/methods , Vero Cells
19.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 88(3): 299-304, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574388

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on HIV suppression rates in people living with HIV (PLWH) attending a large Italian HIV clinic. SETTING: The HIV outpatient clinic of the Infectious Diseases Department of Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy, which serves more than 5000 PLWH per year. METHODS: A before and after quasi-experimental study design was used to make a retrospective assessment of the monthly trend of HIV-RNA determinations of ≥50 among the PLWH attending our clinic, with "before" being the period from January 1, 2016 to February 20, 2020, and "after" being the period from February 21, 2020 to December 31, 2020 (the COVID-19 period). Interrupted time series analysis was used to evaluate any changes in the trend. RESULTS: During the study period, 70,349 HIV-RNA viral load determinations were made, and the percentage of HIV-RNA viral load determinations of <50 copies/mL increased from 88.4% in 2016 to 93.2% in 2020 (P < 0.0001). There was a significant monthly trend toward a decrease in the number of HIV-RNA determinations of ≥50 copies/mL before the pandemic (ß -0.084; standard error 0.015; P < 0.001), and this did not significantly change after it started (ß -0.039, standard error 0.161; P = 0.811). CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of viral suppression was maintained among the PLWH referring to our clinic, despite the structural barriers raised by the COVID-19 pandemic. The use of simplified methods of delivering care (such as teleconsultations and multiple antiretroviral treatment prescriptions) may have contributed to preserving this continuum.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Delivery of Health Care/methods , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1 , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load/drug effects
20.
Anat Sci Educ ; 15(2): 261-280, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565173

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, the Covid-19 pandemic spread caused restrictions in business and social spheres. Higher education was also severely affected: universities and medical schools moved online to distance learning and laboratory facilities closed. Questions arise about the long-term effects of this pandemic on anatomical education. In this systematic review, the authors investigated whether or not anatomical educators were able to deliver anatomical knowledge during this pandemic. They also discuss the challenges that anatomical education has faced over the last year. The search strategy was conducted between July 2020 and July 2021. Two hundred and one records were identified, and a total of 79 studies were finally included. How best to deliver anatomy to students remains a moot point. In the last years, the advent of new technologies has raised the question of the possible overcoming of dissection as the main instrument in anatomical education. The Covid-19 pandemic further sharpened the debate. Remote learning enhanced the use of technologies other than cadaveric dissection to teach anatomy. Moreover, from the analyzed records it appears that both from students' perspective as well as teachers' there is a clear tear between those who endorse dissection and those who believe it could be easily overcome or at least integrated by virtual reality and online learning. The authors strongly believe that the best anatomy teaching practice requires the careful adaptation of resources and methods. Nevertheless, they support cadaveric dissection and hope that it will not be replaced entirely as a result of this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anatomy , COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Students, Medical , Anatomy/education , Curriculum , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Teaching
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