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Journal of Vascular Access ; 22(6):11NP, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582632


Background: In hemodialysis (HD) patients, central venous catheter (CVC) related bloodstream infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hygienic precautions are a key aspect of dialysis care for infection prevention, but they are not sufficient to avoid the occurrence of CVC related infections. During the COVID-19 pandemic, hygienic precautions for preventing viral transmission have been reinforced. We evaluated their effects on CVC-related infection rates. Materials and Methods: An observational mono-centric retrospective study was conducted in our hemodialysis unit. In the last year, we treated 137 chronic hemodialysis patients, 54 of whom (39%) using either a tunneled-CVC or a not-tunneled-CVC. In the CVC cohort, we compared data on catheter-related infection rates during the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy (February to December 2020) with data from the whole of 2019. Results: In 2019, we recorded a catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) rate of 0.94 (95% CI 0.52-1.56)/1000 days and a tunnel and exitsite infection rate of 1.3 (95% CI 0.79-2.01)/1000 days. Infection rates drastically decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, with just three catheter- related bloodstream infections being recorded. Catheter-related bloodstream infection rates showed a significant reduction to 0.26 (95% CI 0.06-0.72)/1000 days (p = 0.03) and a non-significant reduction in tunnel and exit-site infections to 0.8 (95% CI 0.45-1.58)/1000 days. Conclusions: The observed 72% reduction in catheter-related bloodstream infections compared to the whole of 2019 (IRR 0.28 (95% CI 0.06-0.92) suggests that a stricter implementation of hygienic precautions in the dialysis setting can markedly improve the problem of CVCrelated infections.

Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ; 36(SUPPL 1):i20, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1402539


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients on kidney replacement therapy (KRT) are at high risk of developing severe COVID-19 illness and often require high intensity care and utilisation of hospital resources. During the ongoing pandemic, the optimal care pathway and triage for KRT patients presenting with varying severity of COVID-19 illness is unknown. We studied clinical factors and outcomes associated with admission, readmission and short-term outcomes. METHOD: Data from the European Renal Association COVID-19 Database (ERACODA) was analysed. This database includes granular data on dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 from all over Europe. The clinical and laboratory features at first presentation of hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients and those who returned for second presentation were studied. In addition, possible predictors of outcome in those who were not hospitalized at first presentation were identified. RESULTS: Among 1,423 KRT patients (haemodialysis;1017/kidney transplant;406) with COVID-19, 25% (n=355) were not hospitalized at first presentation. Of them, only 10% (n=36), presented for a second time in the hospital. The median interval between the first and second presentation was 5 days (Interquartile interval: 2-7 days). Patients who re-presented had worsening of pulmonary symptoms, a fall in oxygen saturation (97% to 90%), and an increase in C-reactive protein (26 mg/L to 73 mg/L) between their attendances. Patients who re-presented after initial assessment were older (72 vs. 63 years) and initially more often had pulmonary symptoms and abnormalities on lung imaging compared with those who did not present for a second time. The 28-day mortality rate of patients admitted at the second presentation was similar to that of patients admitted at first presentation (26.5% vs. 29.7%, p=0. 61). Among patients who were not hospitalized at first presentation (mortality 6%), age, prior smoking, clinical frailty scale, and shortness of breath at first presentation were identified as predictors of mortality. CONCLUSION: KRT patients with COVID-19 and mild pulmonary abnormalities and no signs of pulmonary insufficiency can be safely returned without hospitalization. These patients should be advised to seek immediate contact when they develop respiratory distress. Our findings provide support for a risk-stratified clinical approach to admissions of KRT patients presenting with COVID-19. The study findings may be valuable for clinical triage and optimising hospital capacity utilisation during the ongoing pandemic.

Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia ; 38(4):30, 2021.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380287


About 60% of the world population has access to the Internet in 2021, making it the main tool in fostering communication between people. Lately, digital information and communication have especially taken place on platforms known as Social Media (SoMe) or Social Networks. In the last decade the usefulness of these tools in carrying information aimed at updating professionals in Medicine and Nephrology has become evident. There are several examples of SoMe utilization in Nephrology, as demonstrated by the existing accounts or Pages operated by the main international nephrological Scientific Societies, or the most renowned specialized medical journals. Twitter, Facebook and YouTube are the most versatile SoMe for these objectives;however, other platforms such as Tik Tok, Linkedin, Instagram, and WhatsApp may serve the same purpose. This digital revolution in disseminating information has proved very useful during the recent COVID-19 pandemic, even though some inappropriate uses have emerged, such as the diffusion of fake news, which has favored the emergence of "adverse effects" or a surge of antiscientific positions. In this review, we examine how physicians and nephrologists can take advantage of digital information for their continuing education. We quote the main resources in the international scenario and illustrate some specific national examples, such as the Journal Club of the Nephrology post-graduate program of the University of Milan and the Facebook group "Medical and Nephrology Community".