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1.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 60: 103724, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783662

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Real-world clinical data suggest an attenuated short-term humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) receiving high efficacy (HE) disease modifying therapies (DMTs) such as Ocrelizumab (OCR) and Fingolimod (FNG). Long-term humoral response in pwMS treated with these HE-DMTs has been poorly investigated. The aim of our study was to explore: i) the humoral response up to six months after a full cycle of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine in pwMS treated with OCR and FNG and to compare it to age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs); ii) the relationship between humoral response and clinical and immunological characteristics of the studied population. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from HCs and pwMS treated with OCR or FNG at the following time points: before BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine (T0), and 4 (T1), 8 (T2), 16 (T3) and 24 (T4) weeks after the first dose. Sera were stored at -20 °C and tested for the quantitative detection of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 trimeric spike protein (Anti-TSP IgG) expressed in binding antibody units (BAU). At T1 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) titres were assessed. The relationship between Anti-TSP IgG at each time-point and clinical and laboratoristic analyses were analysed by the Spearman correlation coefficient. RESULTS: 47 HCs and 50 pwMS (28 on OCR and 22 on FNG) were included in the study. All HCs mounted a positive humoral response at T1 and preserved it up to six months. At T1 only 57.1% pwMS on OCR (p < 0.001 compared with HCs) and 40.9% on FNG (p < 0.001) had a positive humoral response at T1, with only 39.3% and 27.3% maintaining a positive response at sixth months (T4), respectively. A strong positive correlation was observed between Nabs titres and Anti-TSP IgG at T1 (rho 0.87, p < 0.0001) with NAbs titres significantly higher in HCs compared with pwMS on OCR and FNG (p<0.0001). We also found a strong positive correlation between time-window since last OCR infusion and anti-TSP IgG titres at all time-points (T1 rho=0.58, p = 0.001; T2 rho=0.59, p = 0.001; T3 rho=0.53, p = 0.004; T4 rho=0.47, p = 0.01). In the FNG group we observed a significant correlation between the humoral response measured from T1 to T4 and: i) treatment duration (T1: rho -0.65, p = 0.001; T2: rho -0.8 p< 0.001; T3: rho -0.72, p=<0.001; T4: rho -0.67, p<0.001), ii) disease duration (T1: rho -0.5, p = 0.017; T2: rho -0.6, p = 0.003; T3: rho -0.58, p = 0.005; T4: rho -0.57, p = 0.006), and iii) baseline total lymphocyte count (T1: rho 0.37, p = 0.08; T2: rho 0.45, p = 0.03; T3: rho 0.43, p = 0.04; T4: rho 0.45, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Our long-term data show a weakened and short-lasting humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine in pwMS treated with OCR and FNG when compared with HCs. MS neurologists should take into account the time elapsed since the last infusion for pwMS on OCR, and the lymphocyte count as well as the disease and treatment duration for those on FNG when called to counsel such pwMS regarding the vaccination with the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
2.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 61: 103774, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Covid-19 pandemic caused relevant psychological consequences in the general population. Since people with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS) are usually at higher risk of psychological distress than age-matched healthy controls (HC), a meta-analytic study was conducted, aimed at evaluating i) differences between pwMS and HC in the psychological variables during the pandemic, ii) differences in the levels of anxiety, depression, stress, sleep disturbances and quality of life before and during the Covid-19 pandemic in pwMS. METHODS: The literature search on three electronic databases yielded 196 studies (113 after the duplicates removal). Seven studies compared psychological variables between pwMS and HC during the pandemic, while seven studies evaluated the pre- vs during the pandemic differences in pwMS. The following outcomes were selected: depression, anxiety, physical QoL, mental QoL, stress, sleep quality/disturbances. Mean weighted effect sizes (ES) were calculated using Hedges'g, via Prometa3 software. RESULTS: During the pandemic, pwMS showed higher levels of depression (g = 0.51, p=.001), anxiety (g = 0.41, p=.032), and stress (g = 0.51, p=.016) compared to HC. The comparison on psychological outcomes before and during the pandemic in pwMS revealed no significant increase during the pandemic on levels of anxiety (g = 0.08, p=.380), depression (g = 0.02, p=.772), mental QoL (g= -0.14, p=.060), physical QoL (g = 0.00, p=.986), whereas sleep quality deteriorated during the pandemic (g = 0.52, p<.001). CONCLUSIONS: In agreement with pre-pandemic literature, pwMS showed higher levels of psychological distress than HC also during the Covid-19 pandemic. Contrariwise, longitudinal studies revealed that, in pwMS, the only psychological-associated variable that worsened significantly was the sleep quality, but this outcome was evaluated only in two studies. Future studies will have to assess/evaluate the long-term psychological consequences of the pandemic on pwMS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Sleep Wake Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
3.
Neurol Sci ; 43(5): 2947-2949, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies investigated the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) treated with natalizumab (NTZ) and found a short-term efficient humoral response; however, there are no studies assessing the levels of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in pwMS treated with NTZ over time. METHODS: Humoral immune response to BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine was assessed in a group of 26 pwMS on NTZ up to 6 months after a full COVID-19 vaccination cycle and compared it with 43 age- and sex-matched group of HC. Serum samples were collected before the first dose (T0), and 4 weeks (T1) and 6 months (T2) after the first dose of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. The LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS-IgG assay (DiaSorin-S.p.A.) was employed for the detection of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (cutoff for positive IgG antibodies: 33.8 BAU/mL). RESULTS: At T1 and T2, both groups showed an efficient humoral response to BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. A significant reduction of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was detected at T2 both in pwMS and in HC, but SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were still above the cutoff limit in all participants. CONCLUSIONS: pwMS on NTZ develop and maintain a long-term humoral response after a full COVID-19 vaccination cycle comparable to their healthy peers, and these findings are relevant for clinicians called to counsel about COVID-19 mRNA vaccine timing and booster doses in pwMS treated with NTZ.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Natalizumab/therapeutic use , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Synthetic
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307745

ABSTRACT

Background: Anxiety, depression and reduction of quality of life (QoL) are common in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). Fear of getting sick from COVID-19, government’s lockdown and the imposed social distancing might have an impact on psychological distress and QoL. Objectives: The aim of our study was to investigate anxiety, depression and QoL changes in pwMS during SARS-CoV-2 outbreak and lockdown in Italy. Methods: 67 pwMS with a previous (less than 6 months) neuropsychological evaluation before SARS-CoV-2 outbreak (T0) were re-evaluated at the time of the outbreak and lockdown in Italy (T1). They underwent a clinical and neurological evaluation (at T0) and completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y1), the Beck Depression Inventory second edition (BDI-II), and Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 (MsQoL-54) at T0 and T1. Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons was applied. Results: BDI-II and STAI-Y1 scores did not change between T0 and T1, whereas the satisfaction on sexual function subscale of MsQoL-54 was significantly higher at T1 ( p<0.001 ). Conclusions: This is the first study that evaluated mood and QoL levels before and during the lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic in pwMS. No worsening of anxiety and depression levels was found. Contrariwise, some improvements were noted on QoL, the most reliable regarding the sexual satisfaction.

9.
Biochimie ; 189: 51-64, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275154

ABSTRACT

The infectious power of coronaviruses is dependent on cholesterol present in the membranes of their target cells. Indeed, the virus enters the infected cell either by fusion or by endocytosis, in both cases involving cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains. These membrane domains can be disorganized in-vitro by various cholesterol-altering agents, including statins that inhibit cell cholesterol biosynthesis. As a consequence, numerous cell physiology processes, such as signaling cascades, can be compromised. Also, some examples of anti-bacterial and anti-viral effects of statins have been observed for infectious agents known to be cholesterol dependent. In-vivo, besides their widely-reported hypocholesterolemic effect, statins display various pleiotropic effects mediated, at least partially, by perturbation of membrane microdomains as a consequence of the alteration of endogenous cholesterol synthesis. It should thus be worth considering a high, but clinically well-tolerated, dose of statin to treat Covid-19 patients, in the early phase of infection, to inhibit virus entry into the target cells, in order to control the viral charge and hence avoid severe clinical complications. Based on its efficacy and favorable biodisposition, an option would be considering Atorvastatin, but randomized controlled clinical trials are required to test this hypothesis. This new therapeutic proposal takes benefit from being a drug repurposing, applied to a widely-used drug presenting a high efficiency-to-toxicity ratio. Additionally, this therapeutic strategy avoids any risk of drug resistance by viral mutation since it is host-targeted. Noteworthy, the same pharmacological approach could also be proposed to address different animal coronavirus endemic infections that are responsible for heavy economic losses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cholesterol/metabolism , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Membrane Microdomains/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans
10.
Neurol Sci ; 42(9): 3523-3526, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269165

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Several concerns regard the immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS), since the majority of them is treated with immunomodulating/immunosuppressive disease modifying therapies. Here we report the first data on the humoral response to mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in a case series of 4 pwMS treated with ocrelizumab (OCR) as compared to a group of healthy subjects (HS). METHODS: We collected serum samples at 0, 14, 21 days after the first dose and 7 days after the second dose of BNT162b2-mRNA-Covid-19 vaccine from 55 health-care workers and 4 relapsing pwMS on OCR, with no history of Covid-19 infection. Sera were tested using the LIAISON®SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS-IgG assay (DiaSorin-S.p.A.) for the detection of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The anti-spike IgGtiters were expressed in Binding Antibody Units (BAU), an international standard unit. RESULTS: At baseline all subjects were negative for anti-spike IgG. Seven days after the second dose of vaccine all HS mounted a significant humoral response (geometric mean 2010.4 BAU/mL C.I. 95% 1512.7-2672) while the 4 pwMS showed a lower response (range <4.81-175 BAU/mL). DISCUSSION: Humoral response to BNT162b2-mRNA-vaccine in pwMS treated with OCR was clearly blunted. Further data are urgently needed to confirm and expand these preliminary results and to develop strategies to optimize the response to SARSCoV-2 vaccines in pwMS on OCR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
11.
J Clin Apher ; 36(1): 179-182, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737548

ABSTRACT

Here we describe the effect of therapeutic plasma exchange with 5% albumin as sole replacement solution for the management of Covid-19. A 74-year-old man was admitted for severe Covid-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome. Based on the growing body of evidence that cytokine release syndrome, and especially interleukin-6, plays a key role in critically ill Covid-19 patients, we decided to implement therapeutic plasma exchange as a rescue therapy. The patient's clinical status rapidly improved, and biological records showed convincing results of decrease in interleukin-6 and inflammatory parameters under treatment. This case presents a proof-of-concept for the use of therapeutic plasma exchange with 5% albumin as sole replacement solution in a critically ill Covid-19 patient with cytokine release syndrome. This could constitute a major benefit in terms of security compared to long-lasting immunosuppressive monoclonal antibodies, or to therapeutic plasma exchange with plasma as replacement fluid. Hence, we think that a further evaluation of risk-benefit balance of this therapy in severe cases of Covid-19 should rapidly be undertaken.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Plasma Exchange , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Albumins , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Combined Modality Therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Fibrinogen/analysis , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Oxygen/blood , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Salvage Therapy , Solutions
12.
J Neurol ; 268(3): 743-750, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anxiety, depression and reduction of quality of life (QoL) are common in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). Fear of getting sick from COVID-19, government's lockdown and the imposed social distancing might have had an impact on psychological distress and QoL. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to investigate anxiety, depression and QoL changes in pwMS during SARS-CoV-2 outbreak and lockdown in Italy. METHODS: 67 pwMS with a previous (less than 6 months) neuropsychological evaluation before SARS-CoV-2 outbreak (T0) were re-evaluated at the time of the outbreak and lockdown in Italy (T1). They underwent a clinical and neurological evaluation and completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y1), the Beck Depression Inventory second edition (BDI-II), and Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 (MsQoL-54) at T0 and T1. Benjamini-Hochberg procedure was applied to control the false discovery rate. RESULTS: BDI-II and STAI-Y1 scores did not change between T0 and T1. At T1, MsQoL-54 scores were higher on the satisfaction with sexual life and the social function subscales, and lower on the limitation due to emotional problems subscale. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study that evaluated mood and QoL levels before and during the lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic in pwMS. No worsening of anxiety and depression levels was found. Contrariwise some improvements were noted on QoL, the most reliable regarding the sexual satisfaction and the social function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Multiple Sclerosis/psychology , Pandemics , Resilience, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Personal Satisfaction , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Quality of Life , Quarantine/psychology , Sexuality , Social Behavior
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