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1.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 13: 100278, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the settings and activities associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the context of B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant circulation in France, as well as the protection against symptomatic Delta infection. METHODS: In this nationwide case-control study, cases were SARS-CoV-2 infected adults recruited between 23 May and 13 August 2021. Controls were non-infected adults from a national representative panel matched to cases by age, sex, region, population density and calendar week. Participants completed an online questionnaire and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and recent activity-related exposures, past history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and COVID-19 vaccination. FINDINGS: We did not find any differences in the settings and activities associated with Delta versus non-Delta infections and grouped them for subsequent analyses. In multivariable analysis involving 12634 cases (8644 Delta and 3990 non-Delta) and 5560 controls, we found individuals under 40 years and attending bars (aOR:1.9; 95%CI:1.6-2.2) or parties (aOR:3.4; 95%CI:2.8-4.2) to be at increased risk of infection. In those aged 40 years and older, having children attend daycare (aOR:1.9; 95%CI:1.1-3.3), kindergarten (aOR:1.6; 95%CI:1.2-2.1), primary school (aOR:1.4; 95%CI:1.2-1.6) or middle school (aOR:1.3; 95%CI:1.2-1.6) were associated with increased risk of infection. We found strong protection against symptomatic Delta infection for those with prior infection whether it was recent (2-6 months) (95%; 95%CI:90-97) or associated with one dose (85%; 95%CI:78-90) or two doses of mRNA vaccine (96%; 95%CI:87-99). For those without past infection, protection was lower with two doses of mRNA vaccine (67%; 95%CI:63-71). INTERPRETATION: In line with other observational studies, we find reduced vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic Delta infections. The settings and activities at increased risk of infection indicate where efforts to reinforce individual and public health measures need to be concentrated.

2.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(2): 163-177, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Available data show that COVID-19 vaccines may be less effective in immunocompromised populations, who are at increased risk of severe COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review of literature to assess immunogenicity, efficacy and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in immunocompromised populations. DATA SOURCES: We searched Medline and Embase databases. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA, PATIENTS, INTERVENTIONS: We included studies of COVID-19 vaccines after complete vaccination in immunocompromised patients until 31 August 2021. Studies with <10 patients, safety data only and case series of breakthrough infections were excluded. METHODS: Risk of bias was assessed via the tool developed by the National Institutes of Health on interventional and observational studies. Immunogenicity was assessed through non-response rate defined as no anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibodies, efficacy and effectiveness by the relative reduction in risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19. We collected factors associated with the risk of non-response. We presented collected data by immunosuppression type. RESULTS: We screened 5917 results, included 162 studies. There were 157 on immunogenicity in 25 209 participants, including 7835 cancer or haematological malignancy patients (31.1%), 6302 patients on dialysis (25.0%), 5974 solid organ transplant recipients (23.7%) and 4680 immune-mediated disease patients (18.6%). Proportion of non-responders seemed higher among solid organ transplant recipients (range 18-100%) and patients with haematological malignancy (range 14-61%), and lower in patients with cancer (range 2-36%) and patients on dialysis (range 2-30%). Risk factors for non-response included older age, use of corticosteroids, immunosuppressive or anti-CD20 agent. Ten studies evaluated immunogenicity of an additional dose. Five studies evaluated vaccine efficacy or effectiveness: three on SARS-CoV-2 infection (range 71-81%), one on COVID-19-related hospitalization (62.9%), one had a too small sample size. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review highlights the risk of low immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in immunocompromised populations, especially solid organ transplant recipients and patients with haematological malignancy. Despite lack of vaccine effectiveness data, enhanced vaccine regimens may be necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
3.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 8: 100171, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397543

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of two doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines against COVID-19 with the original virus and other lineages circulating in France. METHODS: In this nationwide case-control study, cases were SARS-CoV-2 infected adults with onset of symptoms between 14 February and 3 May 2021. Controls were non-infected adults from a national representative panel matched to cases by age, sex, region, population density and calendar week. Participants completed an online questionnaire on recent activity-related exposures and vaccination history. Information about the infecting virus was based on a screening RT-PCR for either B.1.1.7 or B.1.351/P.1 variants. FINDINGS: Included in our analysis were 7 288 adults infected with the original SARS-CoV-2 virus, 31 313 with the B.1.1.7 lineage, 2 550 with B.1.351/P1 lineages, and 3 644 controls. In multivariable analysis, the vaccine effectiveness (95% confidence interval) seven days after the second dose of mRNA vaccine was estimated at 88% (81-92), 86% (81-90) and 77% (63-86) against COVID-19 with the original virus, the B.1.1.7 lineage, and the B.1.351/P.1 lineages, respectively. Recent (2 to 6 months) history of virologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection was found to be 83% (76-88), 88% (85-91) and 83% (71-90) protective against COVID-19 with the original virus, the B.1.1.7 lineage, and the B.1.351/P.1 lineages, respectively; and more distant (> 6 months) infections were 76% (54-87), 84% (75-90), and 74% (41-89) protective against COVID-19 with the original virus, the B.1.1.7 lineage, and the B.1.351/P.1 lineages, respectively. INTERPRETATION: In real-life settings, two doses of mRNA vaccines proved to be effective against COVID-19 with the original virus, B.1.1.7 lineage and B.1.351/P.1 lineages. FUNDING: Institut Pasteur, Research & Action Emerging Infectious Diseases (REACTing), Fondation de France (Alliance "Tous unis contre le virus").

4.
Neuroepidemiology ; 55(5): 381-386, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290486

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Olfactory and taste disorders (OTDs) have been reported in COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the mechanisms of which remain unclear. We conducted a detailed analysis of OTDs as part of 2 seroepidemiological investigations of COVID-19 outbreaks. METHODS: Two retrospective cohort studies were conducted in a high school and primary schools of Northern France following a COVID-19 epidemic in February-March 2020. Students, their relatives, and school staff were included. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were identified using a flow-cytometry-based assay detecting anti-S IgG. RESULTS: Among 2,004 participants (median [IQR] age: 31 [11-43] years), 303 (15.2%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. OTDs were present in 91 (30.0%) and 92 (30.3%) of them, respectively, and had 85.1 and 78.0% positive predictive values for SARS-CoV-2 infection, respectively. In seropositive participants, OTDs were independently associated with an age above 18 years, female gender, fatigue, and headache. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the higher frequency of OTDs in females than males and adults than children. Their high predictive value for the diagnosis of COVID-19 suggests that they should be systematically searched for in patients with respiratory symptoms, fever, or headache. The association of OTDs with headache, not previously reported, suggests that they share a common mechanism, which deserves further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Child , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
5.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 7: 100148, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260818

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the role of different setting and activities in acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: In this nationwide case-control study, cases were SARS-CoV-2 infected adults recruited between 27 October and 30 November 2020. Controls were individuals from the Ipsos market research database matched to cases by age, sex, region, population density and time period. Participants completed an online questionnaire on recent activity-related exposures. FINDINGS: Among 3426 cases and 1713 controls, in multivariable analysis, we found an increased risk of infection associated with any additional person living in the household (adjusted-OR: 1•16; 95%CI: 1•11-1•21); having children attending day-care (aOR: 1•31; 95%CI: 1•02-1•62), kindergarten (aOR: 1•27; 95%CI: 1•09-1•45), middle school (aOR: 1•30; 95%CI: 1•15-1•47), or high school (aOR: 1•18; 95%CI: 1•05-1•34); with attending professional (aOR: 1•15; 95%CI: 1•04-1•26) or private gatherings (aOR: 1•57; 95%CI: 1•45-1•71); and with having frequented bars and restaurants (aOR: 1•95; 95%CI: 1•76-2•15), or having practiced indoor sports activities (aOR: 1•36; 95%CI: 1•15-1•62). We found no increase in risk associated with frequenting shops, cultural or religious gatherings, or with transportation, except for carpooling (aOR: 1•47; 95%CI: 1•28-1•69). Teleworking was associated with decreased risk of infection (aOR: 0•65; 95%CI: 0•56-0•75). INTERPRETATION: Places and activities during which infection prevention and control measures may be difficult to fully enforce were those with increased risk of infection. Children attending day-care, kindergarten, middle and high schools, but not primary schools, were potential sources of infection for the household. FUNDING: Institut Pasteur, Research & Action Emerging Infectious Diseases (REACTing), Fondation de France (Alliance" Tous unis contre le virus").

6.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e22924, 2020 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We developed a self-triage web application for COVID-19 symptoms, which was launched in France in March 2020, when French health authorities recommended all patients with suspected COVID-19 call an emergency phone number. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine if a self-triage tool could reduce the burden on emergency call centers and help predict increasing burden on hospitals. METHODS: Users were asked questions about their underlying conditions, sociodemographic status, postal code, and main COVID-19 symptoms. Participants were advised to call an emergency call center if they reported dyspnea or complete loss of appetite for over 24 hours. Data on COVID-19-related calls were collected from 6 emergency call centers and data on COVID-19 hospitalizations were collected from Santé Publique France and the French Ministry of Health. We examined the change in the number of emergency calls before and after the launch of the web application. RESULTS: From March 17 to April 2, 2020, 735,419 questionnaires were registered in the study area. Of these, 121,370 (16.5%) led to a recommendation to call an emergency center. The peak number of overall questionnaires and of questionnaires leading to a recommendation to call an emergency center were observed on March 22, 2020. In the 17 days preceding the launch of the web application, emergency call centers in the study area registered 66,925 COVID-19-related calls and local hospitals admitted 639 patients for COVID-19; the ratio of emergency calls to hospitalizations for COVID-19 was 104.7 to 1. In the 17 days following the launch of the web application, there were 82,347 emergency calls and 6009 new hospitalizations for COVID-19, a ratio of 13.7 calls to 1 hospitalization (chi-square test: P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The self-triage web application launch was followed by a nearly 10-fold increase in COVID-19-related hospitalizations with only a 23% increase in emergency calls. The peak of questionnaire completions preceded the peak of COVID-19-related hospitalizations by 5 days. Although the design of this study does not allow us to conclude that the self-triage tool alone contributed to the alleviation of calls to the emergency call centers, it does suggest that it played a role, and may be used for predicting increasing burden on hospitals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04331171; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04331171.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Self Care/statistics & numerical data , Software , Telephone/statistics & numerical data , Triage/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(6): e19855, 2020 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-605146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We developed a self-assessment and participatory surveillance web application for coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which was launched in France in March 2020. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine if self-reported symptoms could help monitor the dynamics of the COVID-19 outbreak in France. METHODS: Users were asked questions about underlying conditions, sociodemographic status, zip code, and COVID-19 symptoms. Depending on the symptoms reported and the presence of coexisting disorders, users were told to either stay at home, contact a general practitioner (GP), or call an emergency phone number. Data regarding COVID-19-related hospitalizations were retrieved from the Ministry of Health. RESULTS: As of March 29, 2020, the application was opened 4,126,789 times; 3,799,535 electronic questionnaires were filled out; and 2,477,174 users had at least one symptom. In total, 34.8% (n=1,322,361) reported no symptoms. The remaining users were directed to self-monitoring (n=858,878, 22.6%), GP visit or teleconsultation (n=1,033,922, 27.2%), or an emergency phone call (n=584,374, 15.4%). Emergency warning signs were reported by 39.1% of participants with anosmia, a loss of the sense of smell (n=127,586) versus 22.7% of participants without anosmia (n=1,597,289). Anosmia and fever and/or cough were correlated with hospitalizations for COVID-19 (Spearman correlation coefficients=0.87 and 0.82, respectively; P<.001 for both). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that anosmia may be strongly associated with COVID-19 and its severity. Despite a lack of medical assessment and virological confirmation, self-checking application data could be a relevant tool to monitor outbreak trends. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04331171; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04331171.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Self-Assessment , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , France/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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