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1.
Interv Neuroradiol ; : 15910199221093896, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is emerging as an important biomarker of acute physiologic stress in a myriad of medical conditions, and is a confirmed poor prognostic indicator in COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the role of NLR in predicting poor outcome in COVID-19 patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We analyzed NLR in COVID-19 patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) strokes enrolled into an international 12-center retrospective study of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, consecutively admitted between March 1, 2020 and May 1, 2020. Increased NLR was defined as ≥7.2. Logistic regression models were generated. RESULTS: Incidence of LVO stroke was 38/6698 (.57%). Mean age of patients was 62 years (range 27-87), and mortality rate was 30%. Age, sex, and ethnicity were not predictive of mortality. Elevated NLR and poor vessel recanalization (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) score of 1 or 2a) synergistically predicted poor outcome (likelihood ratio 11.65, p = .003). Patients with NLR > 7.2 were 6.8 times more likely to die (OR 6.8, CI95% 1.2-38.6, p = .03) and almost 8 times more likely to require prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 7.8, CI95% 1.2-52.4, p = .03). In a multivariate analysis, NLR > 7.2 predicted poor outcome even when controlling for the effect of low TICI score on poor outcome (NLR p = .043, TICI p = .070). CONCLUSIONS: We show elevated NLR in LVO patients with COVID-19 portends significantly worse outcomes and increased mortality regardless of recanalization status. Severe neuro-inflammatory stress response related to COVID-19 may negate the potential benefits of successful thrombectomy.

2.
Neurosurgery ; 90(6): 725-733, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms and outcomes in coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-associated stroke are unique from those of non-COVID-19 stroke. OBJECTIVE: To describe the efficacy and outcomes of acute revascularization of large vessel occlusion (LVO) in the setting of COVID-19 in an international cohort. METHODS: We conducted an international multicenter retrospective study of consecutively admitted patients with COVID-19 with concomitant acute LVO across 50 comprehensive stroke centers. Our control group constituted historical controls of patients presenting with LVO and receiving a mechanical thrombectomy between January 2018 and December 2020. RESULTS: The total cohort was 575 patients with acute LVO; 194 patients had COVID-19 while 381 patients did not. Patients in the COVID-19 group were younger (62.5 vs 71.2; P < .001) and lacked vascular risk factors (49, 25.3% vs 54, 14.2%; P = .001). Modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 3 revascularization was less common in the COVID-19 group (74, 39.2% vs 252, 67.2%; P < .001). Poor functional outcome at discharge (defined as modified Ranklin Scale 3-6) was more common in the COVID-19 group (150, 79.8% vs 132, 66.7%; P = .004). COVID-19 was independently associated with a lower likelihood of achieving modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 3 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.7; P < .001) and unfavorable outcomes (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.5; P = .002). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 was an independent predictor of incomplete revascularization and poor outcomes in patients with stroke due to LVO. Patients with COVID-19 with LVO were younger, had fewer cerebrovascular risk factors, and suffered from higher morbidity/mortality rates.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Cerebral Infarction/etiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/etiology , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
5.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255807, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362087

ABSTRACT

The use of saliva for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 has shown to be a good alternative to nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS), since it permits self-collection, avoids the exposure of healthy persons to infected patients, reduces waiting times, eliminates the need of personal protective equipment and is non-invasive. Yet current saliva testing is still expensive due to the need of specialized tubes containing buffers to stabilize the RNA of SARS-CoV-2 and inactivate the virus. These tubes are expensive and not always accessible in sufficient quantities. We now developed an alternative saliva testing method, using TRIzol for extraction, viral inactivation, and storage of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, combined with RT-qPCR, which was comparable in its performance to NPS. Paired saliva samples and NPS were taken from 15 asymptomatic healthcare workers and one patient with SARS-CoV-2. Further 13 patients with SARS-CoV-2 were only saliva-tested. All the tests were performed according to CDC 2019-Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Real-Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel. Saliva (4 mL) was taken in sterile 50 mL tubes, 1.5 mL TRIzol were added and mixed. Our results show that 5 µL of saliva RNA extracted with TRIzol allow for an adequate detection of the virus in patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 and was equally sensitive to NPS in TRIzol. We conclude that saliva testing using TRIzol is a recommendable method for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 since it has several advantages over currently used saliva tests: it can be done with normal sterile tubes, does not need cold-chain handling, is stable at room temperature, is non-invasive and less costly, making it more accessible for low-income countries. Cheaper saliva testing using TRIzol is especially relevant for low-income countries to optimize diagnosis and help define quarantine durations for families, healthcare workers, schools, and other public workplaces, thus decreasing infections and mortality caused by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Specimen Handling/instrumentation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Developing Countries , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/economics , Early Diagnosis , Guanidines/chemistry , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Phenols/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Socioeconomic Factors , Specimen Handling/economics , Young Adult
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 660114, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357539

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by the new coronavirus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently affecting more than 200 countries. The most lethal clinical presentation is respiratory insufficiency, requiring attention in intensive care units (ICU). The most susceptible people are over 60 years old with comorbidities. The health systems organization may represent a transcendental role in survival. Objective: To analyze the correlation of sociodemographic factors, comorbidities and health system organization variables with survival in cases infected by SARS-CoV-2 during the first 7 months of the pandemic in Mexico. Methods: The cohort study was performed in a health system public basis from March 1st to September 30th, 2020. The included subjects were positive for the SARS-CoV-2 test, and the target variable was mortality in 60 days. The risk variables studied were: age, sex, geographic distribution, comorbidities, health system, hospitalization, and access to ICU. Bivariate statistics (X 2-test), calculation of fatality rates, survival analyses and adjustment of confusing variables with Cox proportional-hazards were performed. Results: A total of 753,090 subjects were analyzed, of which the 52% were men. There were 78,492 deaths (10.3% of general fatality and 43% inpatient). The variables associated with a higher risk of hospital mortality were age (from 60 years onwards), care in public sectors, geographic areas with higher numbers of infection and endotracheal intubation without management in the ICU. Conclusions: The variables associated with a lower survival in cases affected by SARS-CoV-2 were age, comorbidities, and respiratory insufficiency (with endotracheal intubation without care in the ICU). Additionally, an interaction was observed between the geographic location and health sector where they were treated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Neurosurgery ; 89(1): E35-E41, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While there are reports of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the overall incidence of AIS and clinical characteristics of large vessel occlusion (LVO) remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To attempt to establish incidence of AIS in COVID-19 patients in an international cohort. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective, multicenter study of consecutive patients admitted with AIS and COVID-19 was undertaken from March 1 to May 1, 2020 at 12 stroke centers from 4 countries. Out of those 12 centers, 9 centers admitted all types of strokes and data from those were used to calculate the incidence rate of AIS. Three centers exclusively transferred LVO stroke (LVOs) patients and were excluded only for the purposes of calculating the incidence of AIS. Detailed data were collected on consecutive LVOs in hospitalized patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy (MT) across all 12 centers. RESULTS: Out of 6698 COVID-19 patients admitted to 9 stroke centers, the incidence of stroke was found to be 1.3% (interquartile range [IQR] 0.75%-1.7%). The median age of LVOs patients was 51 yr (IQR 50-75 yr), and in the US centers, African Americans comprised 28% of patients. Out of 66 LVOs, 10 patients (16%) were less than 50 yr of age. Among the LVOs eligible for MT, the average time from symptom onset to presentation was 558 min (IQR 82-695 min). A total of 21 (50%) patients were either discharged to home or discharged to acute rehabilitation facilities. CONCLUSION: LVO was predominant in patients with AIS and COVID-19 across 2 continents, occurring at a significantly younger age and affecting African Americans disproportionately in the USA.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Internationality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
8.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 77(5): 242-251, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128304

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, health systems worldwide have faced the pandemic caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The pandemic began in China and has spread throughout the world. This new coronavirus has a high transmission capacity and elevated lethality in people over 60 years old and in those with risk factors (obesity, diabetes, and systemic arterial hypertension); those characteristics have a different proportion in each country. At present, there is no specific, effective, and safe treatment to treat this virus. In this review, an analysis is made on the differences in epidemiological aspects of the disease and its presentation in pediatric patients; the poorly-based recommendation for using an empirical combination of antimalarials plus antimicrobials as antiviral treatment; the indication of intravenous steroids; and the possible influence of antihypertensive drugs on the course of the disease.


A partir de diciembre de 2019, los sistemas de salud de todos los países se han enfrentado a la pandemia causada por un nuevo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), el cual fue notificado por primera vez en China y se ha esparcido por todo el mundo. Este nuevo coronavirus posee una alta capacidad para transmitirse. A escala mundial la letalidad ha sido más alta en la población mayor de 60 años y en aquellos que tienen factores de riesgo (obesidad, diabetes e hipertensión arterial sistémica). Sin embargo, estas características varían en proporción en cada país. Hasta el momento no hay un tratamiento específico, eficaz y seguro para combatir este virus. En este artículo se realiza un análisis sobre las diferencias globales en los aspectos ­epidemiológicos y con relación a su presentación en pacientes pediátricos, así como de la recomendación, con pobre fundamento, del uso de la combinación de antimaláricos y antimicrobianos empíricos como antivirales. También se analizan la indicación de esteroides intravenosos y la posible influencia de los fármacos antihipertensivos en el curso de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Age Factors , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 78(1): 24-28, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124840

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is infrequent in children and shows a mortality rate of around 0.08%. This study aims to explore international differences in the pediatric mortality rate. Methods: We analyzed several countries with populations over 5 million that report disaggregated data of COVID-19 deaths by quinquennial or decennial age groups. Data were extracted from COVID-19 cases and deaths by age database, National Ministeries of Health, and the World Health Organization. Results: We included 23 countries in the analysis. Pediatric mortality varied from 0 to 12.1 deaths per million children of the corresponding age group, with the highest rate in Peru. In most countries, deaths were more frequent in the 0-4-year-old age group, except for Brazil. The pediatric/general COVID-19 mortality showed a great variation and ranged from 0% (Republic of Korea) to 10.4% (India). Pediatric and pediatric/general COVID mortality correlates strongly with 2018 neonatal mortality (r = 0.77, p < 0.001; and r = 0.88, p < 0.001, respectively), while shows a moderate or no correlation (r = 0.47, p = 0.02; and r = 0.19, p = 0.38, respectively) with COVID-19 mortality in the general population. Conclusions: International heterogeneity in pediatric COVID-19 mortality importantly parallels historical neonatal mortality. Neonatal mortality is a well-known index of the quality of a country's health system, which points to the importance of social determinants of health in pediatric COVID-19 mortality disparities. This issue should be further explored.


Introducción: La COVID-19 grave es poco frecuente en la infancia. El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar las diferencias en la tasa de mortalidad internacional por COVID-19 en la población pediátrica. Método: Se analizaron países con poblaciones superiores a 5 millones de habitantes que reporten muertes por COVID-19 con datos desglosados por grupos de edad quinquenales o decenales. Los datos se extrajeron de la base de datos COVerAge-DBs, de los ministerios nacionales de salud y de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados: Se incluyeron 23 países. La mortalidad pediátrica varió de 0 a 12.1 muertes por millón de personas del grupo de edad correspondiente, con la tasa más alta en Perú. En la mayoría de los países, las muertes fueron más frecuentes en el grupo de 0 a 4 años, excepto en Brasil. La mortalidad pediátrica/general por COVID-19 mostró una gran variación entre países y osciló entre el 0% (República de Corea) y el 10.4% (India). La mortalidad pediátrica y pediátrica/general por COVID-19 se correlaciona fuertemente con la mortalidad neonatal de 2018, mientras que tiene una moderada o nula correlación con la mortalidad por COVID-19 en la población general. Conclusiones: Existe una importante heterogeneidad internacional en la mortalidad pediátrica por COVID-19, que es paralela a la mortalidad neonatal histórica, la cual es un indicador de la calidad de los sistemas de salud y señala la importancia de los determinantes sociales de la salud en las disparidades de mortalidad pediátrica por COVID-19. Este tema debe explorarse a fondo.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Age Distribution , Child , Child, Preschool , Global Health , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn
10.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 77(5):242-251, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), Grey literature | ID: grc-742508

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, health systems worldwide have faced the pandemic caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The pandemic began in China and has spread throughout the world. This new coronavirus has a high transmission capacity and elevated lethality in people over 60 years old and in those with risk factors (obesity, diabetes, and systemic arterial hypertension);those characteristics have a different proportion in each country. At present, there is no specific, effective, and safe treatment to treat this virus. In this review, an analysis is made on the differences in epidemiological aspects of the disease and its presentation in pediatric patients;the poorly-based recommendation for using an empirical combination of antimalarials plus antimicrobials as antiviral treatment;the indication of intravenous steroids;and the possible influence of antihypertensive drugs on the course of the disease. Resumen A partir de diciembre de 2019, los sistemas de salud de todos los países se han enfrentado a la pandemia causada por un nuevo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), el cual fue notificado por primera vez en China y se ha esparcido por todo el mundo. Este nuevo coronavirus posee una alta capacidad para transmitirse. A escala mundial la letalidad ha sido más alta en la población mayor de 60 años y en aquellos que tienen factores de riesgo (obesidad, diabetes e hipertensión arterial sistémica). Sin embargo, estas características varían en proporción en cada país. Hasta el momento no hay un tratamiento específico, eficaz y seguro para combatir este virus. En este artículo se realiza un análisis sobre las diferencias globales en los aspectos epidemiológicos y con relación a su presentación en pacientes pediátricos, así como de la recomendación, con pobre fundamento, del uso de la combinación de antimaláricos y antimicrobianos empíricos como antivirales. También se analizan la indicación de esteroides intravenosos y la posible influencia de los fármacos antihipertensivos en el curso de la enfermedad.

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