The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome type 2 coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and its complications have demonstrated the devastating impact of a new infectious pathogen. The organisational change promulgated by the isolation of affected communities is of extreme importance to achieve effective containment of the contagion and good patient care. The epidemiological study of the population of a small rural community in the North East of Italy revealed how much the virus had circulated during Spring, 2020, and how contagion has evolved after a prolonged lockdown. In the 1st phase, NAAT (Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing) was performed in cases with more or less severe symptoms and a study was performed to trace the infection of family members. Only 0.2% of the population tested positive on NAAT, via nasopharyngeal swab during this 1st phase. In the 2nd phase a random sample of the general population were tested for circulating anti-Sars-Cov-2 immunoglobulins. This showed that approximately 97.9% of the population were negative, while 2.1% (with positive IgG at a distance) of the population had contracted the virus in a mildly symptomatic or asymptomatic form. The main symptom in subjects who developed immunity was fever. Antibodies were found in subjects with forced coexistence with quarantined or infected subjects. The mutual spatial distance by categories has shown higher relative prevalence of IgG positive and IgM negative cases in close proximity but also far from the infected, with respect to an intermediate distance. This suggests that subjects living in thinly populated areas could come in contact with the virus more likely due to intentional/relational proximity, while those living nearby could also be infected through random proximity.
Subject(s)Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been object of debate in the scientific community since the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic. This mechanism of transmission could arise from virus-laden aerosol released by infected individuals and it is influenced by several factors. Among these, the concentration and size distribution of virus-laden particles play an important role. The knowledge regarding aerosol transmission increases as new evidence is collected in different studies, even if it is not yet available a standard protocol regarding air sampling and analysis, which can create difficulties in the interpretation and application of results. This work reports a systematic review of current knowledge gained by 73 published papers on experimental determination of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in air comparing different environments: outdoors, indoor hospitals and healthcare settings, and public community indoors. Selected papers furnished 77 datasets: outdoor studies (9/77, 11.7%) and indoor studies (68/77. 88.3%). The indoor datasets in hospitals were the vast majority (58/68, 85.3%), and the remaining (10/68, 14.7%) were classified as community indoors. The fraction of studies having positive samples, as well as positivity rates (i.e. ratios between positive and total samples) are significantly larger in hospitals compared to the other typologies of sites. Contamination of surfaces was more frequent (in indoor datasets) compared to contamination of air samples; however, the average positivity rate was lower compared to that of air. Concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in air were highly variables and, on average, lower in outdoors compared to indoors. Among indoors, concentrations in community indoors appear to be lower than those in hospitals and healthcare settings.
Subject(s)Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Aerosols , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
COVID-19 pandemic raised a debate regarding the role of airborne transmission. Information regarding virus-laden aerosol concentrations is still scarce in community indoors and what are the risks for general public and the efficiency of restriction policies. This work investigates, for the first time in Italy, the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in air samples collected in different community indoors (one train station, two food markets, one canteen, one shopping centre, one hair salon, and one pharmacy) in three Italian cities: metropolitan city of Venice (NE of Italy), Bologna (central Italy), and Lecce (SE of Italy). Air samples were collected during the maximum spread of the second wave of pandemic in Italy (November and December 2020). All collected samples tested negative for the presence of SARS-CoV-2, using both real-time RT-PCR and ddPCR, and no significant differences were observed comparing samples taken with and without customers. Modelling average concentrations, using influx of customers' data and local epidemiological information, indicated low values (i.e. < 0.8 copies m-3 when cotton facemasks are used and even lower for surgical facemasks). The results, even if with some limitations, suggest that the restrictive policies enforced could effectively reduce the risk of airborne transmissions in the community indoor investigated, providing that physical distance is respected.