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1.
Infez Med ; 30(2): 180-193, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893779

ABSTRACT

The priority of the Sustainable Development Goals for 2022 is to reduce all causes related to mortality. In this regard, microbial bioactive compounds with characteristics such as optimal compatibility and close interaction with the host immune system are considered a novel therapeutic approach. The fermentation process is one of the most well-known pathways involved in the natural synthesis of a diverse range of postbiotics. However, some postbiotics are a type of probiotic response behavior to environmental stimuli that usually play well-known biological roles. Also, postbiotics with unique structure and function are key mediators between intestinal microbiota and host cellular processes/metabolic pathways that play a significant role in maintaining homeostasis. By further understanding the nature of parent microbial cells, factors affecting their metabolic pathways, and the development of compatible extraction and identification methods, it is possible to achieve certain formulations of postbiotics with special efficiencies, which in turn will significantly improve the performance of health systems (especially in developing countries) toward a wide range of acute/chronic diseases. The present review aims to describe the fundamental role of postbiotics as the key mediators of the microbiota-host interactions. Besides, it presents the available current evidence regarding the interaction between postbiotics and host cells through potential cell receptors, stimulation/improvement of immune system function, and the enhancement of the composition and function of the human microbiome.

2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 188: 740-750, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356252

ABSTRACT

The world has been suffering from COVID-19 disease for more than a year, and it still has a high mortality rate. In addition to the need to minimize transmission of the virus through non-pharmacological measures such as the use of masks and social distance, many efforts are being made to develop a variety of vaccines to prevent the disease worldwide. So far, several vaccines have reached the final stages of safety and efficacy in various phases of clinical trials, and some, such as Moderna/NIAID and BioNTech/Pfizer, have reported very high safety and protection. The important point is that comparing different vaccines is not easy because there is no set standard for measuring neutralization. In this study, we have reviewed the common platforms of COVID-19 vaccines and tried to present the latest reports on the effectiveness of these vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Protein Subunits/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
3.
Microb Pathog ; 149: 104556, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813781

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease, which started in Wuhan, Chin, has now become a public health challenge in most countries around the world. Proper preventive measures are necessary to prevent the spread of the virus to help control the pandemic. Because, SARS-CoV-2 is new, its transmission route has not been fully understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the sweat secretion of COVID-19 patients. Sweat specimens of 25 COVID- 19 patients were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method. After RNA extraction and cDNA amplification, all samples were examined for the presence of ORF-1ab and N genes related to COVID-19. Results annotated by Realtime PCR machines software based on Dynamic algorithm. The results of this study showed the absence of SARS-CoV-2 in the sweat samples taken from the foreheads of infected people. Therefore, it can be concluded that the sweat of patients with COVID- 19 cannot transmit SARS-CoV-2. However they can be easily contaminated with other body liquids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sweat/virology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Software , Young Adult
4.
J Inflamm Res ; 13: 285-292, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646404

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in China and spread worldwide. In this study, we assessed the characteristics of markers of the liver in patients with COVID-19 to provide new insights in improving clinical treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 279 patients who confirmed COVID-19 and the data of liver biomarkers and complete blood count of patients were defined as the day onset when the patients admitted to the hospital. RESULTS: The average of LDH value was 621.29 U/L in all patients with COVID-19, and CPK was 286.90 U/L. The average AST was 44.03 U/L in all patients, and ALT was 31.14 U/L. The AST/ALT ratio was 1.64 in all patients. The measurement of CRP was increased by 79.93% in all patients. Average ALT and AST values of patients with elevated ALT were significantly increased in comparison to patients with normal ALT (P-value = 0.001), while AST/ALT ratio was significantly decreased compared to patients with normal ALT (P-value= 0.014). In addition, the average LDH of patients with elevated ALT was significantly increased compared to patients with normal ALT (P-value = 0.014). CONCLUSION: Hepatic injury and abnormal liver enzymes related to COVID-19 infection is an acute non-specific inflammation alteration.

5.
Microb Pathog ; 146: 104241, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-175788

ABSTRACT

The recent epidemic outbreak of a novel human coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2 and causing the respiratory tract disease COVID-19 has reached worldwide resonance and a global effort is being undertaken to characterize the molecular features and evolutionary origins of this virus. Therefore, rapid and accurate identification of pathogenic viruses plays a vital role in selecting appropriate treatments, saving people's lives and preventing epidemics. Additionally, general treatments, coronavirus-specific treatments, and antiviral treatments useful in fighting COVID-19 are addressed. This review sets out to shed light on the SARS-CoV-2 and host receptor recognition, a crucial factor for successful virus infection and taking immune-informatics approaches to identify B- and T-cell epitopes for surface glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. A variety of improved or new approaches also have been developed. It is anticipated that this will assist researchers and clinicians in developing better techniques for timely and effective detection of coronavirus infection. Moreover, the genomic sequence of the virus responsible for COVID-19, as well as the experimentally determined three-dimensional structure of the Main protease (Mpro) is available. The reported structure of the target Mpro was described in this review to identify potential drugs for COVID-19 using virtual high throughput screening.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
6.
Infez Med ; 28(2): 185-191, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-51040

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, reports from China of the incidence of pneumonia with unknown etiology were sent to the World Health Organization (WHO). Shortly afterwards, the cause of this disease was identified as the novel beta-coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and its genetic sequence was published on January 12, 2020. Human-to-human transmission via respiratory droplets and contact with aerosol infected surfaces are the major ways of transmitting this virus. Here we attempted to collect information on virus stability in the air and on surfaces and ways of preventing of SARS-CoV-2 spreading.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Disinfection/methods , Environmental Microbiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Infez Med ; 28(2): 153-165, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-49876

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19), spreading from Wuhan, China, is one of the causes of respiratory infections that can spread to other people through respiratory particles, and can cause symptoms such as fever, dry cough, shortness of breath, anorexia, fatigue and sore throat in infected patients. This review summarizes current strategies on the diagnosis. Additionally, treatments, infection prevention and control of the SARS-CoV-2 are addressed. In addition to the respiratory system, this virus can infect the digestive system, the urinary system and the haematological system, which causes to observe the virus in the stool, urine and blood samples in addition to throat sample. The SARS-CoV-2 causes changes in blood cells and factors and makes lung abnormalities in patients, which can be detected by serological, molecular, and radiological techniques by detecting these changes and injuries. Radiological and serological methods are the most preferred among the other methods and the radiological method is the most preferred one which can diagnose the infection quickly and accurately with fewer false-negatives, that can be effective in protecting the patient's life by initiating treatment and preventing the transmission of infection to other people.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
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