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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 732756, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597480

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which started out as an outbreak of pneumonia, has now turned into a pandemic due to its rapid transmission. Besides developing a vaccine, rapid, accurate, and cost-effective diagnosis is essential for monitoring and combating the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its related variants on time with precision and accuracy. Currently, the gold standard for detection of SARS-CoV-2 is Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), but it lacks accuracy, is time-consuming and cumbersome, and fails to detect multi-variant forms of the virus. Herein, we have summarized conventional diagnostic methods such as Chest-CT (Computed Tomography), RT-PCR, Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP), Reverse Transcription-LAMP (RT-LAMP), as well new modern diagnostics such as CRISPR-Cas-based assays, Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS), Lateral Flow Assays (LFA), Graphene-Field Effect Transistor (GraFET), electrochemical sensors, immunosensors, antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs)-based assays, and microarrays for SARS-CoV-2 detection. This review will also provide an insight into an ongoing research and the possibility of developing more economical tools to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Oligonucleotide Probes/genetics , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1188: 339207, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487555

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, also known as 2019-nCov or COVID-19) outbreak has become a huge public health issue due to its rapid transmission making it a global pandemic. Here, we report fabricated fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) electrodes/gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) complex coupled with in-house developed SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 antibody (SARS-CoV-2 Ab) to measure the response with Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV). The biophysical characterisation of FTO/AuNPs/SARS-CoV-2Ab was done via UV-Visible spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The fabricated FTO/AuNPs/SARS-CoV-2Ab immunosensor was optimised for response time, antibody concentration, temperature, and pH. Under optimum conditions, the FTO/AuNPs/Ab based immunosensor displayed high sensitivity with limit of detection (LOD) up to 0.63 fM in standard buffer and 120 fM in spiked saliva samples for detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 antigen (Ag) with negligible cross reactivity Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) spike protein. The proposed FTO/AuNPs/SARS-CoV-2Ab based biosensor proved to be stable for up to 4 weeks and can be used as an alternative non-invasive diagnostic tool for the rapid, specific and sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Ag traces in clinical samples.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Electrodes , Fluorine , Gold , Humans , Immunoassay , SARS-CoV-2 , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Tin Compounds
3.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480582

ABSTRACT

It has been proven that rapid bioinformatics analysis according to patient health profiles, in addition to biomarker detection at a low level, is emerging as essential to design an analytical diagnostics system to manage health intelligently in a personalized manner. Such objectives need an optimized combination of a nano-enabled sensing prototype, artificial intelligence (AI)-supported predictive analysis, and Internet of Medical Things (IoMT)-based bioinformatics analysis. Such a developed system began with a prototype demonstration of efficient diseases diagnostics performance is the future diseases management approach. To explore these aspects, the Special Issue planned for the nano-and micro-technology section of MDPI's Biosensors journal will honor and acknowledge the contributions of Prof. B.D. Malhotra, Ph.D., FNA, FNASc has made in the field of biosensors.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Nanotechnology , Artificial Intelligence , Biomarkers , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 725240, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463472

ABSTRACT

Ongoing evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus strains is posing new COVID-19 diagnosis and treatment challenges. To help efforts to meet these challenges we examined data acquired from proteomic analyses of human SARS-CoV-2-infected cell lines and samples from COVID-19 patients. Initially, 129 unique peptides were identified, which were rigorously evaluated for repeats, disorders, polymorphisms, antigenicity, immunogenicity, toxicity, allergens, sequence similarity to human proteins, and contributions from other potential cross-reacting pathogenic species or the human saliva microbiome. We also screened SARS-CoV-2-infected NBHE and A549 cell lines for presence of antigenic peptides, and identified paratope peptides from crystal structures of SARS-CoV-2 antigen-antibody complexes. We then selected four antigen peptides for docking with known viral unbound T-cell receptor (TCR), class I and II peptide major histocompatibility complex (pMHC), and identified paratope sequences. We also tested the paratope binding affinity of SARS-CoV T- and B-cell peptides that had been previously experimentally validated. The resultant antigenic peptides have high potential for generating SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, and the paratope peptides can be directly used to develop a COVID-19 diagnostics assay. The presented genomics and proteomics-based in-silico approaches have apparent utility for identifying new diagnostic peptides that could be used to fight SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Peptides/metabolism , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , A549 Cells , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , HLA Antigens/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptides/genetics , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , Proteomics , Receptors, Antigen/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
5.
Biosci Rep ; 41(8)2021 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320244

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a life-threatening respiratory infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV-2), a novel human coronavirus. COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by World Health Organization in March 2020 for its continuous and rapid spread worldwide. Rapidly emerging COVID-19 epicenters and mutants of concerns have created mammoth chaos in healthcare sectors across the globe. With over 185 million infections and approximately 4 million deaths globally, COVID-19 continues its unchecked spread despite all mitigation measures. Until effective and affordable antiretroviral drugs are made available and the population at large is vaccinated, timely diagnosis of the infection and adoption of COVID-appropriate behavior remains major tool available to curtail the still escalating COVID-19 pandemic. This review provides an updated overview of various techniques of COVID-19 testing in human samples and also discusses, in brief, the biochemical composition and mode of transmission of the SARS-CoV-2. Technological advancement in various molecular, serological and immunological techniques including mainly the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), CRISPR, lateral flow assays (LFAs), and immunosensors are reviewed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
6.
Genomics ; 112(6): 5044-5054, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752711

ABSTRACT

Genomics-led researches are engaged in tracing virus expression pattern, and induced immune responses in human to develop effective vaccine against COVID-19. In this study, targeted expression profiling and differential gene expression analysis of major histocompatibility complexes and innate immune system genes were performed through SARS-CoV-2 infected RNA-seq data of human cell line, and virus transcriptome was generated for T-and B-cell epitope prediction. Docking studies of epitopes with MHC and B-cell receptors were performed to identify potential T-and B-cell epitopes. Transcriptome analysis revealed the specific multiple allele expressions in cell line, genes for elicited induce immune response, and virus gene expression. Proposed T- and B-cell epitopes have high potential to elicit equivalent immune responses caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection which can be useful to provide links between elicited immune response and virus gene expression. This study will facilitate in vitro and in vivo vaccine related research studies in disease control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/immunology , Immunodominant Epitopes/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , Computational Biology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Gene Expression Profiling , Genes, MHC Class I , Genes, MHC Class II , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry , Immunodominant Epitopes/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
7.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(10): 1379-1381, 2020 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155473

ABSTRACT

Following the identification of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, we are now again facing a global highly pathogenic novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic. Although the lungs are one of the most critically affected organs, several other organs, including the brain may also get infected. Here, we have highlighted that SARS-CoV-2 might infect the central nervous system (CNS) through the olfactory bulb. From the olfactory bulb, SARS-CoV-2 may target the deeper parts of the brain including the thalamus and brainstem by trans-synaptic transfer described for many other viral diseases. Following this, the virus might infect the respiratory center of brain, which could be accountable for the respiratory breakdown of COVID-19 patients. Therefore, it is important to screen the COVID-19 patients for neurological symptoms as well as possibility of the collapse of the respiratory center in the brainstem should be investigated in depth.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration Disorders/virology , Respiratory Center/virology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiration Disorders/physiopathology , Respiratory Center/physiopathology , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2
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