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1.
Eur J Neurol ; 30(8): 2357-2364, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although two doses of COVID-19 vaccine elicited a protective humoral response in most persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS), a significant group of them treated with immunosuppressive disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) showed less efficient responses. METHODS: This prospective multicenter observational study evaluates differences in immune response after a third vaccine dose in pwMS. RESULTS: Four hundred seventy-three pwMS were analyzed. Compared to untreated patients, there was a 50-fold decrease (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.3-100.0, p < 0.001) in serum SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels in those on rituximab, a 20-fold decrease (95% CI = 8.3-50.0, p < 0.001) in those on ocrelizumab, and a 2.3-fold decrease (95% CI = 1.2-4.6, p = 0.015) in those on fingolimod. As compared to the antibody levels after the second vaccine dose, patients on the anti-CD20 drugs rituximab and ocrelizumab showed a 2.3-fold lower gain (95% CI = 1.4-3.8, p = 0.001), whereas those on fingolimod showed a 1.7-fold higher gain (95% CI = 1.1-2.7, p = 0.012), compared to patients treated with other DMTs. CONCLUSIONS: All pwMS increased their serum SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels after the third vaccine dose. The mean antibody values of patients treated with ocrelizumab/rituximab remained well below the empirical "protective threshold" for risk of infection identified in the CovaXiMS study (>659 binding antibody units/mL), whereas for patients treated with fingolimod this value was significantly closer to the cutoff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Antibody Formation , Fingolimod Hydrochloride , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Rituximab/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination
2.
EBioMedicine ; 80: 104042, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this study we aimed to monitor the risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with MS (pwMS) under different DMTs and to identify correlates of reduced protection. METHODS: This is a prospective Italian multicenter cohort study, long-term clinical follow-up of the CovaXiMS (Covid-19 vaccine in Multiple Sclerosis) study. 1855 pwMS scheduled for SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination were enrolled and followed up to a mean time of 10 months. The cumulative incidence of breakthrough Covid-19 cases in pwMS was calculated before and after December 2021, to separate the Delta from the Omicron waves and to account for the advent of the third vaccine dose. FINDINGS: 1705 pwMS received 2 m-RNA vaccine doses, 21/28 days apart. Of them, 1508 (88.5%) had blood assessment 4 weeks after the second vaccine dose and 1154/1266 (92%) received the third dose after a mean interval of 210 days (range 90-342 days) after the second dose. During follow-up, 131 breakthrough Covid-19 infections (33 during the Delta and 98 during the Omicron wave) were observed. The probability to be infected during the Delta wave was associated with SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels measured after 4 weeks from the second vaccine dose (HR=0.57, p < 0.001); the protective role of antibodies was preserved over the whole follow up (HR=0.57, 95%CI=0.43-0.75, p < 0.001), with a significant reduction (HR=1.40, 95%CI=1.01-1.94, p=0.04) for the Omicron cases. The third dose significantly reduced the risk of infection (HR=0.44, 95%CI=0.21-0.90,p=0.025) during the Omicron wave. INTERPRETATION: The risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections is mainly associated with reduced levels of the virus-specific humoral immune response. FUNDING: Supported by FISM - Fondazione Italiana Sclerosi Multipla - cod. 2021/Special-Multi/001 and financed or co-financed with the '5 per mille' public funding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
4.
EBioMedicine ; 72: 103581, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS) disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) affects immune response to antigens. Therefore, post-vaccination serological assessments are needed to evaluate the effect of the vaccine on SARS-CoV-2 antibody response. METHODS: We designed a prospective multicenter cohort study enrolling pwMS who were scheduled for SARS-Cov-2 vaccination with mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2, Pfizer/BioNTech,Inc or mRNA-1273, Moderna Tx,Inc). A blood collection before the first vaccine dose and 4 weeks after the second dose was planned, with a centralized serological assessment (electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, ECLIA, Roche-Diagnostics). The log-transform of the antibody levels was analyzed by multivariable linear regression. FINDINGS: 780 pwMS (76% BNT162b2 and 24% mRNA-1273) had pre- and 4-week post-vaccination blood assessments. 87 (11·2%) were untreated, 154 (19·7%) on ocrelizumab, 25 (3·2%) on rituximab, 85 (10·9%) on fingolimod, 25 (3·2%) on cladribine and 404 (51·7%) on other DMTs. 677 patients (86·8%) had detectable post-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. At multivariable analysis, the antibody levels of patients on ocrelizumab (201-fold decrease (95%CI=128-317), p < 0·001), fingolimod (26-fold decrease (95%CI=16-42), p < 0·001) and rituximab (20-fold decrease (95%CI=10-43), p < 0·001) were significantly reduced as compared to untreated patients. Vaccination with mRNA-1273 resulted in a systematically 3·25-fold higher antibody level (95%CI=2·46-4·27) than with the BNT162b2 vaccine (p < 0·001). The antibody levels on anti-CD20 therapies correlated to the time since last infusion, and rituximab had longer intervals (mean=386 days) than ocrelizumab patients (mean=129 days). INTERPRETATION: In pwMS, anti-CD20 treatment and fingolimod led to a reduced humoral response to mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. As mRNA-1273 elicits 3·25-higher antibody levels than BNT162b2, this vaccine may be preferentially considered for patients under anti-CD20 treatment or fingolimod. Combining our data with those on the cellular immune response to vaccines, and including clinical follow-up, will contribute to better define the most appropriate SARS-CoV-2 vaccine strategies in the context of DMTs and MS. FUNDING: FISM[2021/Special-Multi/001]; Italian Ministry of Health'Progetto Z844A 5 × 1000'.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation/drug effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/immunology , Cladribine/adverse effects , Cladribine/therapeutic use , Female , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/adverse effects , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Rituximab/adverse effects , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Neurovirol ; 27(4): 662-665, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338290

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a peripheral nervous system disease caused by an immune-mediated inflammatory mechanism, usually triggered by a previous infectious process or vaccine; its typical presentation is a rapid and progressive bilateral limb hyposthenia, associated with sensory deficits and reduction or absence of osteotendinous reflexes. However, also autonomic nervous system can be involved with heart rate fluctuations, blood pressure instability, pupillary dysfunction, and urinary retention. Since the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic, GBS has been reported among neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection, although etiopathological mechanisms still have to be clearly defined. We report the case of a 79-year-old man with multiple comorbidities, including diabetes, who was affected by SARS-CoV-2 interstitial pneumonia and developed dysautonomic symptoms after 10 days of hospitalization. A neurological evaluation was performed, and GBS was considered as a possible cause of the clinical manifestations. This hypothesis was confirmed by electrophysiological study and further supported, ex-juvantibus, by the satisfactory response to immunoglobulin treatment. In our opinion, this case of pure dysautonomic presentation of GBS in a SARS-CoV-2 positive patient is relevant because it suggests to consider GBS upon SARS-CoV-2 infection even if the symptoms have uncommon characteristics (e.g., pure vegetative manifestations) and if there are confounding factors which could lead to a misdiagnosis (e.g., old age, SARS-CoV-2 infection consequences and diabetes).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Primary Dysautonomias/virology , Aged , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Humans , Male , Primary Dysautonomias/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Stroke ; 52(5): e117-e130, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195876
8.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3537-3539, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015539

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the onset of the novel coronavirus pandemic, several neurological complications secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection have been reported, affecting central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and neuromuscular junction. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 77-year-old man who developed bulbar myasthenia gravis (MG) eight weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection. The search for serum antibodies against the acetylcholine receptor and the muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK), performed by radioimmunoassay (RIA), and the search of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 antibodies, performed by immunohistochemistry, resulted negative, while anti-MuSK antibodies were detected by cell-based assay (CBA). The patient was treated with pyridostigmine (60 mg four times a day) with unsatisfactory clinical response, followed by immunosuppressive therapy (azathioprine 1.5 mg/kg/day) with improvement of MG symptoms after two months of treatment. DISCUSSION: Several viral diseases have been described as associated with the onset of MG, although the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Similarly, a growing number of scientific reports suggest a correlation between SARS-CoV-2 infection and autoimmune diseases. The interest of our case lies in the timing of the MG onset (after 2 months from infection), together with the unusual late onset of anti-MuSK MG. These elements suggest that coronavirus infection may act as a trigger of the disease. We confirm the importance of CBA in the serological diagnosis of RIA-negative MG.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myasthenia Gravis , Aged , Autoantibodies , Humans , Male , Myasthenia Gravis/drug therapy , Receptors, Cholinergic , SARS-CoV-2 , Tyrosine
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