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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 799298, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775692

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI), electrolyte, and acid-base disorders complicate the clinical course of critically ill patients with coronavirus-associated disease (COVID-19) and are associated with poor outcomes. It is not known whether the severity of clinical conditions at admission in the intensive care unit (ICU) changes the clinical significance of AKI and/or electrolyte or acid-base disorders developing during ICU stay. We conducted a retrospective study in critically ill patients with COVID-19 to evaluate whether the severity of clinical conditions at admission in the ICU affects the impact of AKI and of serum electrolytes or acid-base status on mortality. We carried out a 28-day retrospective follow-up study on 115 critically ill patients consecutively admitted to ICU for severe COVID-19 at a tertiary care university hospital and surviving longer than 24 h. We collected baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, and longitudinal data on kidney function, kidney replacement therapy, serum electrolytes, and acid-base status. We used Cox proportional hazards multiple regression models to test the interaction between the time-varying variates new-onset AKI or electrolyte or acid-base disorders and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) or Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score at admission. After adjusting for age, sex, Charlson's comorbidity index, and AKI present at ICU admission, new-onset AKI was significantly associated with 28-day mortality only in the patients in the lowest and middle SOFA score tertiles [lowest SOFA tertile, hazard ratio (HR) 4.27 (95% CI: 1.27-14.44; P = 0.019), middle SOFA tertile, HR 3.17 (95% CI: 1.11-9.04, P = 0.031), highest SOFA tertile, HR 0.77 (95% CI: 0.24-2.50; P = 0.66); P = 0.026 for interaction with SOFA as a continuous variable]. After stratifying for APACHE II tertile, results were similar [adjusted HR (aHR) in the lowest tertile 6.24 (95% CI: 1.85-21.03, P = 0.003)]. SOFA or APACHE II at admission did not affect the relationship of serum electrolytes and acid-base status with mortality, except for new-onset acidosis which was associated with increased mortality, with the HR of death increasing with SOFA or APACHE II score (P < 0.001 and P = 0.013, respectively). Thus, unlike in the most severe critically ill patients admitted to the ICU for COVID-19, in patients with the less severe conditions at admission the development of AKI during the stay is a strong indicator of increased hazard of death.

2.
J Clin Med ; 10(7)2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186975

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common finding in kidney donors and recipients. AKI in kidney donor, which increases the risk of delayed graft function (DGF), may not by itself jeopardize the short- and long-term outcome of transplantation. However, some forms of AKI may induce graft rejection, fibrosis, and eventually graft dysfunction. Therefore, various strategies have been proposed to identify conditions at highest risk of AKI-induced DGF, that can be treated by targeting the donor, the recipient, or even the graft itself with the use of perfusion machines. AKI that occurs early post-transplant after a period of initial recovery of graft function may reflect serious and often occult systemic complications that may require prompt intervention to prevent graft loss. AKI that develops long after transplantation is often related to nephrotoxic drug reactions. In symptomatic patients, AKI is usually associated with various systemic medical complications and could represent a risk of mortality. Electronic systems have been developed to alert transplant physicians that AKI has occurred in a transplant recipient during long-term outpatient follow-up. Herein, we will review most recent understandings of pathophysiology, diagnosis, therapeutic approach, and short- and long-term consequences of AKI occurring in both the donor and in the kidney transplant recipient.

6.
Am J Transplant ; 20(11): 3140-3148, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638753

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplant recipients may be at a high risk of developing critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness due to chronic immunosuppression and comorbidities. We identified hospitalized adult kidney transplant recipients at 12 transplant centers in the United States, Italy, and Spain who tested positive for COVID-19. Clinical presentation, laboratory values, immunosuppression, and treatment strategies were reviewed, and predictors of poor clinical outcomes were determined through multivariable analyses. Among 9845 kidney transplant recipients across centers, 144 were hospitalized due to COVID-19 during the 9-week study period. Of the 144 patients, 66% were male with a mean age of 60 (±12) years, and 40% were Hispanic and 25% were African American. Prevalent comorbidities included hypertension (95%), diabetes (52%), obesity (49%), and heart (28%) and lung (19%) disease. Therapeutic management included antimetabolite withdrawal (68%), calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal (23%), hydroxychloroquine (71%), antibiotics (74%), tocilizumab (13%), and antivirals (14%). During a median follow-up period of 52 days (IQR: 16-66 days), acute kidney injury occurred in 52% cases, with respiratory failure requiring intubation in 29%, and the mortality rate was 32%. The 46 patients who died were older, had lower lymphocyte counts and estimated glomerular filtration rate levels, and had higher serum lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, and interleukin-6 levels. In sum, hospitalized kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 have higher rates of acute kidney injury and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Aged , Comorbidity , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Graft Rejection/epidemiology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , North America/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
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