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Nat Biomed Eng ; 2023 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2221821


Lateral-flow assays (LFAs) are rapid and inexpensive, yet they are nearly 1,000-fold less sensitive than laboratory-based tests. Here we show that plasmonically active antibody-conjugated fluorescent gold nanorods can make conventional LFAs ultrasensitive. With sample-to-answer times within 20 min, plasmonically enhanced LFAs read out via a standard benchtop fluorescence scanner attained about 30-fold improvements in dynamic range and in detection limits over 4-h-long gold-standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and achieved 95% clinical sensitivity and 100% specificity for antibodies in plasma and for antigens in nasopharyngeal swabs from individuals with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Comparable improvements in the assay's performance can also be achieved via an inexpensive portable scanner, as we show for the detection of interleukin-6 in human serum samples and of the nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharyngeal samples. Plasmonically enhanced LFAs outperform standard laboratory tests in sensitivity, speed, dynamic range, ease of use and cost, and may provide advantages in point-of-care diagnostics.

Am J Infect Control ; 48(9): 1090-1099, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738475


Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) continues to threaten global health. Although global and national AMR action plans are in place, infection prevention and control is primarily discussed in the context of health care facilities with home and everyday life settings barely addressed. As seen with the recent global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, everyday hygiene measures can play an important role in containing the threat from infectious microorganisms. This position paper has been developed following a meeting of global experts in London, 2019. It presents evidence that home and community settings are important for infection transmission and also the acquisition and spread of AMR. It also demonstrates that the targeted hygiene approach offers a framework for maximizing protection against colonization and infections, thereby reducing antibiotic prescribing and minimizing selection pressure for the development of antibiotic resistance. If combined with the provision of clean water and sanitation, targeted hygiene can reduce the circulation of resistant bacteria in homes and communities, regardless of a country's Human Development Index (overall social and economic development). Achieving a reduction of AMR strains in health care settings requires a mirrored reduction in the community. The authors call upon national and international policy makers, health agencies, and health care professionals to further recognize the importance of targeted hygiene in the home and everyday life settings for preventing and controlling infection, in a unified quest to tackle AMR.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Global Health/standards , Hygiene/standards , Prescription Drug Overuse/prevention & control , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Sanitation/standards
Indian J Public Health ; 64(Supplement): S112-S116, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-560205


A novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) first emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, has become a global pandemic. Currently, the management of COVID-19 infection is mainly supportive. Several clinical trials worldwide are evaluating several drugs approved for other indications, as well as multiple investigational agents for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19. Here, we give a brief overview of pharmacological agents and other therapies which are under investigation as treatment options or adjunctive agents for patients infected with COVID-19 and for chemoprophylaxis for the prevention of COVID-19 infection. At the time of writing this commentary, there is no peer-reviewed published evidence from randomized clinical trials of any pharmacological agents improving outcomes in COVID-19 patients. However, it was reported that remdesivir an investigational antiviral agent hastens clinical recovery, but a study is yet to be published in peer-reviewed medical journal.

Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Interleukins/antagonists & inhibitors , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Serotherapy