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International Journal of Social Economics ; 50(6):860-875, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2314718


PurposeRising greenhouse gases have contributed to global warming above the pre-industrial levels with detrimental effects on world climatic patterns. Extreme weather has inflicted drastic impacts, including loss of lives and livelihoods and economic disruption. However, collective international cooperation in adopting greenhouse gas emission mitigating measures can translate into long-run beneficial effects of improving environmental quality. This study examines if international environmental cooperation among the world's top ten polluters can reduce production side emissions.Design/methodology/approachThe panel estimation procedure was applied to data from ten top polluting countries from 2000 to 2019.FindingsThe results revealed a statistically significant inverse association between a nation's commitments to international environmental treaties and carbon dioxide emissions. Other than confirming the environmental Kuznets curve effect, industrial intensification, international trade and law rule are other strong correlations of carbon dioxide emissions.Research limitations/implicationsThe main policy implication is the urgency for the leaders of the world's top ten polluters to actively cooperate in developing and implementing new production-side carbon emission measures as well as the implementation and enforcement of existing international treaties to minimize further environmental damage and let the countries in the lower ranks of carbon emissions to enjoy the long-run benefits of the decarbonized world.Originality/valueThis study makes a new contribution to the environmental research literature by unfolding how collective global cooperation on environmental challenges can help reduce environmental damage in a coherent analytical framework.Peer reviewThe peer review history for this article is available at:

Qual Quant ; 56(6): 4313-4333, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1942505


In response to the unexpected outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), governments worldwide implemented stringent measures to contain its transmission. This study investigates the effect of the stringency of COVID-19 outbreak government measures on hotel occupancy rates in the world's top ten visitor destination countries. The analysis in this study draws upon the recently developed novel indicator, government stringency, compiled systematically by the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker for March 2020 to March 2021. By adopting a structural consumer choice model, the panel estimation procedure is applied to assess the effect of government stringency on hotel occupancy rates. The findings revealed a statistically significant adverse effect of government stringency on hotel occupancy rates. The findings suggest that although government containment measures had the desired effect of reducing transmissions of COVID-19 and a crucial predictor of hotel occupancy rates in the top ten tourist destination countries, it adversely impacted the tourism hospitality sector through reduced demand for hotel accommodation as occupancy rates plunged. This study's analysis supports the consumer choice modelling approach as it can be considered a relevant analytical framework that is satisfactorily able to explain the adverse effects of governments containment measures on hotel occupancy rates. This research contributes to the tourism modelling literature and complements previous studies in providing an additional understanding of the effect of government stringency measures based on the newly established Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker Database within a coherent modelling framework.