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1.
Viruses ; 14(8):1702, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1969511

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT), or thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS), is a rare but serious complication of adenovirus-based vaccines against severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Observation of long-term outcomes is important to guide treatment of affected patients. This single-center consecutive cohort study included all patients diagnosed based on (1) vaccination 4 to 21 days before symptom onset, (2) signs or symptoms of venous or arterial thrombosis, (3) thrombocytopenia < 150/nL, (4) positive anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibody, and (5) elevated D-Dimer > 4 times the upper limit of normal. Nine patients were enrolled. Acute management consisted of parenteral anticoagulants, corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and/or eculizumab. Eculizumab was successfully used in two patients with recurrent thromboembolic events after IVIG. Direct oral anticoagulants were given after hospital discharge. Median follow-up duration was 300 days (range 153 to 380). All patients survived the acute phase of the disease and were discharged from hospital. One patient died from long-term neurological sequelae of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis 335 days after diagnosis. Eight out of nine patients were alive at last follow-up, and seven had fully recovered. Anti-PF4 antibodies remained detectable for at least 12 weeks after diagnosis, and D-Dimer remained elevated in some patients despite oral anticoagulation. No recurrent thromboembolic events, other signs of VITT relapse, or bleeding complications occurred after discharge. In conclusion, VITT appears to be a highly prothrombotic condition. IVIG is not always successful, and eculizumab may be considered a rescue agent. Long-term management with direct oral anticoagulants appears to be safe and effective.

2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 721738, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378191

ABSTRACT

Here, we described the case of a B cell-deficient patient after CD19 CAR-T cell therapy for refractory B cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma with protracted coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). For weeks, this patient only inefficiently contained the virus while convalescent plasma transfusion correlated with virus clearance. Interestingly, following convalescent plasma therapy natural killer cells matured and virus-specific T cells expanded, presumably allowing virus clearance and recovery from the disease. Our findings, thus, suggest that convalescent plasma therapy can activate cellular immune responses to clear SARS-CoV-2 infections. If confirmed in larger clinical studies, these data could be of general importance for the treatment of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/complications , Lymphocyte Activation , Lymphopoiesis , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
3.
Blood ; 138(4): 350-353, 2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331923

ABSTRACT

We report 5 cases of prothrombotic immune thrombocytopenia after exposure to the ChAdOx1 vaccine (AZD1222, Vaxzevria) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Patients presented 5 to 11 days after first vaccination. The spectrum of clinical manifestations included cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, splanchnic vein thrombosis, arterial cerebral thromboembolism, and thrombotic microangiopathy. All patients had thrombocytopenia and markedly elevated D-dimer. Autoantibodies against platelet factor 4 (PF4) were detected in all patients, although they had never been exposed to heparin. Immunoglobulin from patient sera bound to healthy donor platelets in an AZD1222-dependent manner, suppressed by heparin. Aggregation of healthy donor platelets by patient sera was demonstrated in the presence of buffer or AZD1222 and was also suppressed by heparin. Anticoagulation alone or in combination with eculizumab or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resolved the pathology in 3 patients. Two patients had thromboembolic events despite anticoagulation at a time when platelets were increasing after IVIG. In summary, an unexpected autoimmune prothrombotic disorder is described after vaccination with AZD1222. It is characterized by thrombocytopenia and anti-PF4 antibodies binding to platelets in AZD1222-dependent manner. Initial clinical experience suggests a risk of unusual and severe thromboembolic events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Aged , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thrombosis/immunology
4.
Blood ; 138(4): 350-353, 2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206126

ABSTRACT

We report 5 cases of prothrombotic immune thrombocytopenia after exposure to the ChAdOx1 vaccine (AZD1222, Vaxzevria) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Patients presented 5 to 11 days after first vaccination. The spectrum of clinical manifestations included cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, splanchnic vein thrombosis, arterial cerebral thromboembolism, and thrombotic microangiopathy. All patients had thrombocytopenia and markedly elevated D-dimer. Autoantibodies against platelet factor 4 (PF4) were detected in all patients, although they had never been exposed to heparin. Immunoglobulin from patient sera bound to healthy donor platelets in an AZD1222-dependent manner, suppressed by heparin. Aggregation of healthy donor platelets by patient sera was demonstrated in the presence of buffer or AZD1222 and was also suppressed by heparin. Anticoagulation alone or in combination with eculizumab or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resolved the pathology in 3 patients. Two patients had thromboembolic events despite anticoagulation at a time when platelets were increasing after IVIG. In summary, an unexpected autoimmune prothrombotic disorder is described after vaccination with AZD1222. It is characterized by thrombocytopenia and anti-PF4 antibodies binding to platelets in AZD1222-dependent manner. Initial clinical experience suggests a risk of unusual and severe thromboembolic events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Aged , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thrombosis/immunology
5.
J Infect Dis ; 223(9): 1564-1575, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about characteristics of seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) (NL63, 229E, OC43, and HKU1) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). METHODS: This was a collaborative Spanish and European bone marrow transplantation retrospective multicenter study, which included allo-HSCT recipients (adults and children) with upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) and/or lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) caused by seasonal HCoV diagnosed through multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays from January 2012 to January 2019. RESULTS: We included 402 allo-HSCT recipients who developed 449 HCoV URTD/LRTD episodes. Median age of recipients was 46 years (range, 0.3-73.8 years). HCoV episodes were diagnosed at a median of 222 days after transplantation. The most common HCoV subtype was OC43 (n = 170 [38%]). LRTD involvement occurred in 121 episodes (27%). HCoV infection frequently required hospitalization (18%), oxygen administration (13%), and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (3%). Three-month overall mortality after HCoV detection was 7% in the whole cohort and 16% in those with LRTD. We identified 3 conditions associated with higher mortality in recipients with LRTD: absolute lymphocyte count <0.1 × 109/mL, corticosteroid use, and ICU admission (hazard ratios: 10.8, 4.68, and 8.22, respectively; P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Seasonal HCoV after allo-HSCT may involve LRTD in many instances, leading to a significant morbidity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Seasons
6.
EBioMedicine ; 57: 102885, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elucidating the role of T cell responses in COVID-19 is of utmost importance to understand the clearance of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: 30 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and 60 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) participated in this study. We used two comprehensive 11-colour flow cytometric panels conforming to Good Laboratory Practice and approved for clinical diagnostics. FINDINGS: Absolute numbers of lymphocyte subsets were differentially decreased in COVID-19 patients according to clinical severity. In severe disease (SD) patients, all lymphocyte subsets were reduced, whilst in mild disease (MD) NK, NKT and γδ T cells were at the level of HC. Additionally, we provide evidence of T cell activation in MD but not SD, when compared to HC. Follow up samples revealed a marked increase in effector T cells and memory subsets in convalescing but not in non-convalescing patients. INTERPRETATION: Our data suggest that activation and expansion of innate and adaptive lymphocytes play a major role in COVID-19. Additionally, recovery is associated with formation of T cell memory as suggested by the missing formation of effector and central memory T cells in SD but not in MD. Understanding T cell-responses in the context of clinical severity might serve as foundation to overcome the lack of effective anti-viral immune response in severely affected COVID-19 patients and can offer prognostic value as biomarker for disease outcome and control. FUNDING: Funded by State of Lower Saxony grant 14-76,103-184CORONA-11/20 and German Research Foundation, Excellence Strategy - EXC2155"RESIST"-Project ID39087428, and DFG-SFB900/3-Project ID158989968, grants SFB900-B3, SFB900-B8.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
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