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1.
Journal of diabetes and metabolic disorders ; : 1-10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1843244

ABSTRACT

Purpose There are limited studies on factors that impacted retina clinic patient outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to evaluate visual and anatomic outcomes in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) requiring anti-VEGF injections at the veterans’ affairs tertiary care eye clinic in Houston, TX. Methods Patient volume from April 2020 was compared to that of April 2019 to determine attendance changes. To evaluate outcomes, we reviewed patients with DME who had scheduled appointments during April 2020. We tracked changes in central foveal thickness (CFT) and Snellen visual acuity (VA) measurements. Patient outcomes were classified as poor (defined as worsening VA or CFT at follow-up) or good (no worsening of either at follow-up). Regression analysis identified characteristics associated with poor outcomes. Results To prevent the spread of COVID-19, patients were called to reschedule clinic appointments. Attendance frequency decreased from 523 patients in April 2019 to 246 patients in April 2020. 134 patients met inclusion criteria (mean age of 64.7 ± 8.8 years). 19/134 of patients were seen on schedule, 89/134 had delayed appointments (average follow-up interval of 115.2 ± 50.0 days), and 26/134 were lost to follow-up. Patients with delayed appointments had higher odds of poor outcome at follow-up compared to patients seen on schedule (OR = 4.03, 95% CI: 1.14–16.92, p = 0.04). Patient’s baseline visual acuity, macular thickness, comorbidities, and diabetic retinopathy severity, and demographics did not affect visual outcome at follow-up. Conclusions On average, patients were rescheduled to a visit 2.4 months later than their usual visit. Over half these patients experienced worsening of vision or edema. This demonstrates that lapses in care result in worsening of DME. However, there is no clear association between baseline characteristics and risk of disease progression. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40200-022-01049-5.

2.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(1):17-21, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1789478

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the infection status of major respiratory pathogens in pneumonia patients in the early phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic (January-March, 2020) in Tongzhou district of Beijing.

3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 740800, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775894

ABSTRACT

Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter pollution (APMP) is a global health issue that directly affects the human respiratory system. Thus, we estimated the spatiotemporal trends in the burden of APMP-related respiratory diseases from 1990 to 2019. Methods: Based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, data on the burden of APMP-related respiratory diseases were analyzed by age, sex, cause, and location. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to analyze the temporal trends in the burden of different respiratory diseases over the 30 years. Results: Globally, in 2019, APMP contributed the most to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with 695.1 thousand deaths and 15.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs); however, the corresponding age-standardized death and DALY rates declined from 1990 to 2019. Similarly, although age-standardized death and DALY rates since 1990 decreased by 24% and 40%, respectively, lower respiratory infections (LRIs) still had the second highest number of deaths and DALYs attributable to APMP. This was followed by tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer, which showed increased age-standardized death and DALY rates during the past 30 years and reached 3.78 deaths per 100,000 persons and 84.22 DALYs per 100,000 persons in 2019. Among children aged < 5 years, LRIs had a huge burden attributable to APMP, whereas for older people, COPD was the leading cause of death and DALYs attributable to APMP. The APMP-related burdens of LRIs and COPD were relatively higher among countries with low and low-middle socio-demographic index (SDI), while countries with high-middle SDI showed the highest burden of TBL cancer attributable to APMP. Conclusions: APMP contributed substantially to the global burden of respiratory diseases, posing a significant threat to human health. Effective actions aimed at air pollution can potentially avoid an increase in the PM2.5-associated disease burden, especially in highly polluted areas.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Adult , Aged , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Global Burden of Disease , Humans , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology
4.
Mathematics ; 10(6):953, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1765783

ABSTRACT

Multi-center location of pharmaceutical logistics is the focus of pharmaceutical logistics research, and the dynamic uncertainty of pharmaceutical logistics multi-center location is a difficult point of research. In order to reduce the risk and cost of multi-enterprise, multi-category, large-volume, high-efficiency, and nationwide centralized medicine distribution, this study explores the best solution for planning medicine delivery for the medicine logistics. In this paper, based on the idea of big data, comprehensive consideration is given to uncertainties in center location, medicine type, medicine chemical characteristics, cost of medicine quality control (refrigeration and monitoring costs), delivery timeliness, and other factors. On this basis, a multi-center location- and route-optimization model for a medicine logistics company under dynamic uncertainty is constructed. The accuracy of the algorithm is improved by hybridizing the fuzzy C-means algorithm, sequential quadratic programming algorithm, and variable neighborhood search algorithm to combine the advantages of each. Finally, the model and the algorithm are verified through multi-enterprise, multi-category, high-volume, high-efficiency, and nationwide centralized medicine distribution cases, and various combinations of the three algorithms and several rival algorithms are compared and analyzed. Compared with rival algorithms, this hybrid algorithm has higher accuracy in solving multi-center location path optimization problem under the dynamic uncertainty in pharmaceutical logistics.

5.
J Virol ; 96(7): e0013622, 2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745828

ABSTRACT

Viruses have evolved diverse strategies to hijack the cellular gene expression system for their replication. The poly(A) binding proteins (PABPs), a family of critical gene expression factors, are viruses' common targets. PABPs act not only as a translation factor but also as a key factor of mRNA metabolism. During viral infections, the activities of PABPs are manipulated by various viruses, subverting the host translation machinery or evading the cellular antiviral defense mechanism. Viruses harness PABPs by modifying their stability, complex formation with other translation initiation factors, or subcellular localization to promote viral mRNAs translation while shutting off or competing with host protein synthesis. For the past decade, many studies have demonstrated the PABPs' roles during viral infection. This review summarizes a comprehensive perspective of PABPs' roles during viral infection and how viruses evade host antiviral defense through the manipulations of PABPs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Host Microbial Interactions , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents , Humans , Poly(A)-Binding Proteins/genetics , Poly(A)-Binding Proteins/immunology , Protein Biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
6.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325971

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 epidemic in China, millions of workers in tech companies had to start working from home (WFH). The change was sudden, unexpected and companies were not ready for it. Additionally, it was also the first time that WFH was experienced on such a large scale. We used the opportunity to describe the effect of WFH at scale for a sustained period of time. As the lockdown was easing, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 participants from China working in tech companies. While at first, WFH was reported as a pleasant experience with advantages, e.g. flexible schedule, more time with family, over time, this evolved into a rather negative experience where workers start working all day, every day and feel a higher workload despite the actual workload being reduced. We discuss these results and how they could apply for other extreme circumstances and to help improve WFH in general.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323621

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. We aimed to describe the temporal and spatial distribution and the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 and to assess whether a hybrid model can forecast the trend of COVID-19 in Hubei Province. Method: The data of COVID-19 cases were obtained from the website of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, whereas the data on the resident population were obtained from the website of the Hubei Provincial Bureau of Statistics. The temporal and spatial distribution and the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 were described. A combination of an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and a support vector machine (SVM) was constructed to forecast the trend of COVID-19. Results: : A total of 56,062 confirmed COVID-19 cases, which were mainly concentrated in Wuhan, were reported from 16 January to 16 March 2020 in Hubei Province. The daily number of confirmed cases exponentially increased to 3,156 before 4 February 2020, fluctuated on an upward trend to 4,823 before 13 February 2020, and then markedly decreased to one case after 16 March 2020. The highest mean reproduction number R(t) of 9.48 was recorded on 16 January 2020, after which it decreased to 2.15 on 2 February 2020 and further dropped to less than one on 13 February 2020. In the modelling stage, the mean square error, mean absolute error and mean absolute percentage error of the hybrid ARIMA–SVM model decreased by 98.59%, 89.19% and 89.68%, and those of SVM decreased by 98.58%, 87.71% and 88.94% compared with the ARIMA model. Similar results were obtained in the forecasting stage. Conclusion: Public health interventions resulted in the terminal phase of COVID-19 in Hubei Province. The hybrid ARIMA–SVM model may be a reliable tool for forecasting the trend of the COVID-19 epidemic.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323575

ABSTRACT

Major interventions have been introduced worldwide to slow down the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Large-scale lockdowns of human movements are effective in reducing the spread, but they come at a cost of significantly limited societal functions. We show that natural human movements are statistically diverse, and the spread of the disease is significantly influenced by a small group of active individuals and gathering venues. We find that interventions focused on these most mobile individuals and popular venues reduce both the peak infection rate and the total infected population while retaining high social activity levels. These trends are seen consistently in simulations with real human mobility data of different scales, resolutions, and modalities from multiple cities across the world. The observation implies that compared to broad sweeping interventions, more heterogeneous strategies that are targeted based on the network effects in human mobility provide a better balance between pandemic control and regular social activities.

9.
J Nat Prod ; 84(8): 2385-2389, 2021 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634670

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 inspires the development of effective inhibitors to block the SARS-CoV-2 spike-ACE2 interaction. A chemical investigation on the fruiting bodies of Phellinus pini led to the isolation of five aromatic cadinane sesquiterpenoids including four new ones, named piniterpenoids A-D (1-4), as well as three known lignans. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis including HRMS and 1D and 2D NMR. All of the aromatic cadinane sesquiterpenoids inhibited the SARS-CoV-2 spike-ACE2 interaction, with IC50 values ranging from 64.5 to 99.1 µM. A molecular docking study showed the disruption of the interaction of compound 1 via hydrogen interactions with Arg403, Asp405, and Arg408 of SARS-CoV-2 RBD and Arg393 and His34 residues of ACE2. These results suggested that aromatic cadinane sesquiterpenoids might be useful in developing agents for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Fruiting Bodies, Fungal/chemistry , Phellinus/chemistry , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes/chemistry , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sesquiterpenes/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding/drug effects , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Docking Simulation
11.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 723818, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581279

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a severe disease in humans, as highlighted by the current global pandemic. Several studies about the metabolome of COVID-19 patients have revealed metabolic disorders and some potential diagnostic markers during disease progression. However, the longitudinal changes of metabolomics in COVID-19 patients, especially their association with disease progression, are still unclear. Here, we systematically analyzed the dynamic changes of the serum metabolome of COVID-19 patients, demonstrating that most of the metabolites did not recover by 1-3 days before discharge. A prominent signature in COVID-19 patients comprised metabolites of amino acids, peptides, and analogs, involving nine essential amino acids, 10 dipeptides, and four N-acetylated amino acids. The levels of 12 metabolites in amino acid metabolism, especially three metabolites of the ornithine cycle, were significantly higher in severe patients than in mild ones, mainly on days 1-3 or 4-6 since onset. Integrating blood metabolomic, biochemical, and cytokine data, we uncovered a highly correlated network, including 6 cytokines, 13 biochemical parameters, and 49 metabolites. Significantly, five ornithine cycle-related metabolites (ornithine, N-acetylornithine, 3-amino-2-piperidone, aspartic acid, and asparagine) highly correlated with "cytokine storms" and coagulation index. We discovered that the ornithine cycle dysregulation significantly correlated with inflammation and coagulation in severe patients, which may be a potential mechanism of COVID-19 pathogenicity. Our study provided a valuable resource for detailed exploration of metabolic factors in COVID-19 patients, guiding metabolic recovery, understanding the pathogenic mechanisms, and creating drugs against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

12.
Sustainability ; 13(24):13674, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1572609

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has dealt a significant blow to the restaurant industry, with many restaurants suspending operations or closing altogether. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of emotional labor on employees’well-being and the mediating role of self-efficacy in the context of chain restaurants. Data were collected in 2020 through an online survey in China, and results revealed that emotional labor had a significant impact on well-being that was measured in life and job satisfaction. Self-efficacy not only had a significant positive impact on employees’job- and life-related well-being but also played a fully mediating role between deep acting and life satisfaction, with a partial mediating role between deep acting and job satisfaction. Job-related well-being also played a fully mediating role between deep acting and life satisfaction, with a partial mediating role between deep acting and job satisfaction. It is important for restaurant employees to develop deep acting skills and improve self-efficacy and job satisfaction Restaurant managers must establish a healthy working environment by providing better job support and creating a more relaxed working atmosphere.

13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542551

ABSTRACT

Research, understanding, and prediction of complex systems is an important starting point for human beings to tackle major problems and emergencies such as global warming and COVID-19. Research on innovation ecosystem is an important part of research on complex systems. With the rapid development of sophisticated industries, the rise of innovative countries, and the newly developed innovation theory, innovation ecosystem has become a new explanation and new paradigm for adapting to today's global innovation cooperation network and the scientific development of complex systems, which is also in line with China's concept of building an innovative country and promoting comprehensive innovation and international cooperation with scientific and technological innovation as the core. The Innovative Research Group at Peking University is the most representative scientific and technological innovation team in the frontier field of basic research in China. The characteristics of its organization mechanism and dynamic evolution connotation are consistent with the characteristics and evolution of innovation ecosystem. An excellent innovative research group is regarded as a small innovation ecosystem. We selected the "Environmental Biogeochemistry" Innovation Research Group at Peking University as a typical case in order to understand and analyze the evolution of cooperation among scientific and technological innovation teams, improve the healthy development as well as internal and external governance of this special small innovation ecosystem, promote the expansion of an innovation team cooperation network and the improvement of cooperation quality, promote the linkage supports of funding and management departments, and improve their scientific and technological governance abilities. Through scientometrics, visual analysis of knowledge maps, and an exploratory case study, we study the evolution process and development law of team cooperation. It is found that the main node authors of the cooperation network maintain strong cooperation frequency and centrality, and gradually strengthen with the expansion of the cooperation network and the evolution of time. Driven by the internal cooperative governance of the team and the external governance of the funding and management departments, this group has gradually formed a healthy, orderly, open, and cooperative special innovation ecosystem, which is conducive to the stability and sustainable development of the national innovation ecosystem and the global innovation ecosystem.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ecosystem , China , Humans , International Cooperation , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 11(11): 3337-3363, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499623

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread across the globe, posing an enormous threat to public health and safety. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in combination with Western medicine (WM), has made important and lasting contributions in the battle against COVID-19. In this review, updated clinical effects and potential mechanisms of TCM, presented in newly recognized three distinct phases of the disease, are summarized and discussed. By integrating the available clinical and preclinical evidence, the efficacies and underlying mechanisms of TCM on COVID-19, including the highly recommended three Chinese patent medicines and three Chinese medicine formulas, are described in a panorama. We hope that this comprehensive review not only provides a reference for health care professionals and the public to recognize the significant contributions of TCM for COVID-19, but also serves as an evidence-based in-depth summary and analysis to facilitate understanding the true scientific value of TCM.

15.
Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism ; : 100451, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1487861

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the mobility, accessibility, and behaviors of visitors dramatically. Under the impact of COVID-19, the social carrying capacity and emotion dynamics in parks and recreation areas are expected to change due to the uncertainty of health risks associated with visitors’ behaviors. This study conducted an on-site visitor survey at Leiqiong Global Geological Park, a national park located in urban-proximate areas in Haikou, China. This study aims to examine factors impacting visitors’ perceived crowding and emotions under varying levels of visitor use in urban national parks in the context of COVID-19. Study results suggest that visitors have the highest level of motivation for scenery and culture viewing and are generally satisfied with the environmental quality and design, COVID-19 prevention strategies and implementation efforts within the park. Moreover, this study suggests that the level of crowding, COVID-19 prevention strategies and implementation can affect visitors’ emotions in nature-based parks significantly. These findings highlight the importance of enforcing the social carrying capacity limits and COVID-19 prevention strategies for urban parks and protected areas to mitigate physical and mental health risks during the COVID-19 pandemic.

16.
Front Psychol ; 12: 553234, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485094

ABSTRACT

In February 2020, an inpatient in Peking University People's Hospital (PKUPH), China, was confirmed positive for the novel coronavirus. In this case, 143 hemodialysis patients were labeled as close contacts and required to be placed under the hospital-based group medical quarantine (HB-GMQ) for 2 weeks by the authorities. After the case was reported, false or misleading information about the case flourished on social media platforms, which led to infodemic. Under this context, PKUPH adopted patient-centered humanistic care to implement the HB-GMQ, through the synergy of administrative, healthcare, logistical, and other measures under the model of patient-centered care of the Massachusetts Medical Society (MMS). As a result, all the patients tided over the HB-GMQ with no COVID-19 infection and no unanticipated adverse events, and all met the criteria for lifting the HB-GMQ. According to the questionnaires taken during the HB-GMQ, a high level of satisfaction was found among the quarantined and no symptomatic increase of anxiety and depression in the patients before and during the HB-GMQ, by comparing the Zung self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) conducted in December 2019 and on the 12th day of the HB-GMQ. This article is to brief on PKUPH's experience in implementing patient-centered humanistic care tailored to hemodialysis patients under the HB-GMQ, and to validate the hypothesis that patient-centered humanistic care is effective and helpful to help them tide over the HB-GMQ, so as to shed light on how to implement the HB-GMQ and cope with the HB-GMQ-induced problems in other hospitals.

17.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 288, 2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333906

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic poses a global threat to public health and economy. The continuously emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants present a major challenge to the development of antiviral agents and vaccines. In this study, we identified that EK1 and cholesterol-coupled derivative of EK1, EK1C4, as pan-CoV fusion inhibitors, exhibit potent antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 infection in both lung- and intestine-derived cell lines (Calu-3 and Caco2, respectively). They are also effective against infection of pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 (Alpha) and B.1.1.248 (Gamma) as well as those with mutations in S protein, including N417T, E484K, N501Y, and D614G, which are common in South African and Brazilian variants. Crystal structure revealed that EK1 targets the HR1 domain in the SARS-CoV-2 S protein to block virus-cell fusion and provide mechanistic insights into its broad and effective antiviral activity. Nasal administration of EK1 peptides to hACE2 transgenic mice significantly reduced viral titers in lung and intestinal tissues. EK1 showed good safety profiles in various animal models, supporting further clinical development of EK1-based pan-CoV fusion inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Caco-2 Cells , Crystallography, X-Ray , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Mice, Transgenic , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
18.
J Adv Res ; 37: 209-219, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330938

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has endangered global health, the world economy, and societal values. Despite intensive measures taken around the world, morbidity and mortality remain high as many countries face new waves of infection and the spread of new variants. Worryingly, more and more variants are now being identified, such as 501Y.V1 (B.1.1.7) in the UK, 501Y.V2 (B.1.351) in South Africa, 501Y.V3 in Manaus, Brazil, and B.1.617/B.1.618 in India, which could lead to a severe epidemic rebound. Moreover, some variants have a stronger immune escape ability. To control the new SARS-CoV-2 variant, we may need to develop and redesign new vaccines repeatedly. So it is important to investigate how our immune system combats and responds to SARS-CoV-2 infection to develop safe and effective medical interventions. Objectives: In this study, we performed a longitudinal and proteome-wide analysis of antibodies in the COVID-19 patients to revealed some immune processes of COVID-19 patients against SARS-CoV-2 and found some dominant epitopes of a potential vaccine. Methods: Microarray assay, Antibody depletion assays, Neutralization assay. Results: We profiled a B-cell linear epitope landscape of SARS-CoV-2 and identified the epitopes specifically recognized by either IgM, IgG, or IgA. We found that epitopes more frequently recognized by IgM are enriched in non-structural proteins. We further identified epitopes with different immune responses in severe and mild patients. Moreover, we identified 12 dominant epitopes eliciting antibodies in most COVID-19 patients and identified five key amino acids of epitopes. Furthermore, we found epitope S-82 and S-15 are perfect immunogenic peptides and should be considered in vaccine design. Conclusion: This data provide useful information and rich resources for improving our understanding of viral infection and developing a novel vaccine/neutralizing antibodies for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin M , Proteome
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25913, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262273

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and liver injury in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, and analyze the differences between suspected and confirmed COVID-19 patients, this retrospective study was performed on 157 COVID-19 patients and 93 suspected patients who were ultimately excluded from COVID-19 (control patients). Differences in clinical characteristics and liver injury between suspected and confirmed COVID-19 patients were analyzed. Age, male sex, fever, chest tightness and dyspnea were related to the severity of COVID-19. C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer may be predictors of the severity of COVID-19. Computed tomography (CT) played an important role in the screening of COVID-19 and the evaluation of disease severity. Multiple factors may cause liver injury in COVID-19 patients. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may be more likely to cause liver injury than common respiratory infectious diseases. Age, temperature (T), white blood cell (WBC), lymphocytes (LY), hematocrit (HCT), CRP, and finger pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) may correlate with liver function impairment and may predict the occurrence and severity of liver function impairment. Some therapeutic drugs (like glucocorticoid) may be involved in the liver function impairment of COVID-19 patients. Most liver function indices improved significantly after active treatment. Although COVID-19 and other common respiratory infectious diseases share some clinical characteristics, COVID-19 has its own characteristics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Liver Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Nano Today ; 39: 101161, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188914

ABSTRACT

The family of coronavirus are named for their crown shape. Encoded by the genetic material inherited from the coronavirus itself, this intrinsic well-known "viral corona" is considered an "inherited corona". After contact with mucosa or the entrance into the host, bare coronaviruses can become covered by a group of dissolved biomolecules to form one or multiple layers of biomolecules. The layers acquired from the surrounding environment are named the "acquired corona". We highlight here the possible role of the acquired corona in the pathogenesis of coronaviruses, which will generate fresh insight into the nature of various coronavirus-host interactions.

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