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1.
N Engl J Med ; 386(22): 2097-2111, 2022 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ZF2001 vaccine, which contains a dimeric form of the receptor-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant, was shown to be safe, with an acceptable side-effect profile, and immunogenic in adults in phase 1 and 2 clinical trials. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial to investigate the efficacy and confirm the safety of ZF2001. The trial was performed at 31 clinical centers across Uzbekistan, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Ecuador; an additional center in China was included in the safety analysis only. Adult participants (≥18 years of age) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive a total of three 25-µg doses (30 days apart) of ZF2001 or placebo. The primary end point was the occurrence of symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), as confirmed on polymerase-chain-reaction assay, at least 7 days after receipt of the third dose. A key secondary efficacy end point was the occurrence of severe-to-critical Covid-19 (including Covid-19-related death) at least 7 days after receipt of the third dose. RESULTS: Between December 12, 2020, and December 15, 2021, a total of 28,873 participants received at least one dose of ZF2001 or placebo and were included in the safety analysis; 25,193 participants who had completed the three-dose regimen, for whom there were approximately 6 months of follow-up data, were included in the updated primary efficacy analysis that was conducted at the second data cutoff date of December 15, 2021. In the updated analysis, primary end-point cases were reported in 158 of 12,625 participants in the ZF2001 group and in 580 of 12,568 participants in the placebo group, for a vaccine efficacy of 75.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.0 to 79.8). Severe-to-critical Covid-19 occurred in 6 participants in the ZF2001 group and in 43 in the placebo group, for a vaccine efficacy of 87.6% (95% CI, 70.6 to 95.7); Covid-19-related death occurred in 2 and 12 participants, respectively, for a vaccine efficacy of 86.5% (95% CI, 38.9 to 98.5). The incidence of adverse events and serious adverse events was balanced in the two groups, and there were no vaccine-related deaths. Most adverse reactions (98.5%) were of grade 1 or 2. CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of adults, the ZF2001 vaccine was shown to be safe and effective against symptomatic and severe-to-critical Covid-19 for at least 6 months after full vaccination. (Funded by the National Science and Technology Major Project and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04646590.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccines, Subunit , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines , Vaccines, Subunit/adverse effects , Vaccines, Subunit/therapeutic use , Young Adult
2.
[Unspecified Source]; 2020.
Preprint in English | [Unspecified Source] | ID: ppcovidwho-292769

ABSTRACT

Background Several parameters driving the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remain unclear, including age-specific differences in infectivity and susceptibility, and the contribution of inapparent infections to transmission. Robust estimates of key time-to-event distributions remain scarce as well. Methods We collected individual records for 1,178 SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals and their 15,648 contacts identified by contact tracing and monitoring over the period from January 13 to April 02, 2020 in Hunan Province, China. We provide descriptive statistics of the characteristics of cases and their close contacts;we fitted distributions to time-to-key-events distributions and infectiousness profile over time;and we used generalized linear mixed model to estimate risk factors for susceptibility and transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2. Results We estimated the mean serial interval at 5.5 days (95%CI -5.0, 19.9) and the mean generation time at 5.5 days (95%CI 1.7, 11.6). The infectiousness was estimated to peak 1.8 days before symptom onset, with 95% of transmission events occurring between 7.6 days before and 7.3 days after the date of symptom onset. The proportion of pre-symptomatic transmission was estimated to be 62.5%. We estimated that at least 3.5% of cases were generated asymptomatic individuals. SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility was not significantly different between working-age adults (15-59 years old) and other age groups (0-14 years old: p-value=0.16;60 years and over: p-value=0.33), whilst susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection was estimated to increase with age (p-value=0.03). In addition, transmission risk was higher for household contacts (p-value<0.001), decreased for higher generations within a cluster (second generation: odds ratio=0.13, p-value<0.001;generations 3-4: odds ratio=0.05, p-value<0.001, relative to generation 1), and decreased for infectors with a larger number of contacts (p-value=0.04). Interpretation Our findings warn of the possible relevant contribution of children to SARS-CoV-2 transmission. When lockdown interventions are in place, we found that odds of transmission are highest in the household setting but, with the relaxation of interventions, other settings (including schools) could bear a higher risk of transmission. Moreover, the estimated relevant fraction of pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic transmission highlight the importance of large-scale testing, contact tracing activities, and the use of personnel protective equipment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Key words: transmissibility, risk factors, contact tracing, coronavirus.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 735779, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470760

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To data, no patients with obvious epidemiological relationship co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens have been reported. Here, we investigated 10 patients caused by co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 and human adenovirus (HAdV), resulting in third-generation transmission. Materials and Methods: From Jan 15, 2020, we enrolled 10 patients with pneumonia in Hunan Province, China. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory investigation results from these patients were analyzed. An epidemiological investigation was performed to assess whether patient infections were linked using conventional methods and metagenomic sequencing. Results: The presence of co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 and HAdV was determined via RT-PCR and metagenomic sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that SARS-CoV-2 and HAdV genomes clustered together, with similar genetic relationships. The first patient likely became co-infected during meetings or travel in Wuhan. The patient transmitted the virus via dinners and meetings, which resulted in four second-generation cases. Then, a second-generation case transmitted the virus to her family members or relatives via presymptomatic transmission. Conclusions: This study described an example of co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 and HAdV in pneumonia patients, which caused third-generation cases and inter-regional transmission via meetings, household interactions, and dinner parties. We also observed the persistent and presymptomatic transmission of co-infection, which has the potential to make the continued control of the COVID-19 pandemic challenging. Continuous surveillance is needed to monitor the prevalence, infectivity, transmissibility, and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 co-infection with other pathogens to evaluate its real risk.

4.
Build Environ ; 207: 108414, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446479

ABSTRACT

Uncertainty remains on the threshold of ventilation rate in airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2. We analyzed a COVID-19 outbreak in January 2020 in Hunan Province, China, involving an infected 24-year-old man, Mr. X, taking two subsequent buses, B1 and B2, in the same afternoon. We investigated the possibility of airborne transmission and the ventilation conditions for its occurrence. The ventilation rates on the buses were measured using a tracer-concentration decay method with the original driver on the original route. We measured and calculated the spread of the exhaled virus-laden droplet tracer from the suspected index case. Ten additional passengers were found to be infected, with seven of them (including one asymptomatic) on B1 and two on B2 when Mr. X was present, and one passenger infected on the subsequent B1 trip. B1 and B2 had time-averaged ventilation rates of approximately 1.7 and 3.2 L/s per person, respectively. The difference in ventilation rates and exposure time could explain why B1 had a higher attack rate than B2. Airborne transmission due to poor ventilation below 3.2 L/s played a role in this two-bus outbreak of COVID-19.

7.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(8): 1107-1119, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although several COVID-19 vaccines have been developed so far, they will not be sufficient to meet the global demand. Development of a wider range of vaccines, with different mechanisms of action, could help control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 globally. We developed a protein subunit vaccine against COVID-19 using a dimeric form of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein as the antigen. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine, ZF2001, and determine the appropriate dose and schedule for an efficacy study. METHODS: We did two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 and phase 2 trials. Phase 1 was done at two university hospitals in Chongqing and Beijing, China, and phase 2 was done at the Hunan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Xiangtan, China. Healthy adults aged 18-59 years, without a history of SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 infection, an RT-PCR-positive test result for SARS-CoV-2, a history of contact with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases, and severe allergies to any component of the vaccine were eligible for enrolment. In phase 1, participants were randomly assigned (2:2:1) to receive three doses of the vaccine (25 µg or 50 µg) or placebo intramuscularly, 30 days apart. In phase 2, participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1:1) to receive the vaccine (25 µg or 50 µg) or placebo intramuscularly, 30 days apart, in either a two-dose schedule or a three-dose schedule. Investigators, participants, and the laboratory team were masked to group allocation. For phase 1, the primary outcome was safety, measured by the occurrence of adverse events and serious adverse events. For phase 2, the primary outcome was safety and immunogenicity (the seroconversion rate and the magnitude, in geometric mean titres [GMTs], of SARS-CoV-2-neutralising antibodies). Analyses were done on an intention-to-treat and per-protocol basis. These trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04445194 and NCT04466085) and participant follow-up is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between June 22 and July 3, 2020, 50 participants were enrolled into the phase 1 trial and randomly assigned to receive three doses of placebo (n=10), the 25 µg vaccine (n=20), or the 50 µg vaccine (n=20). The mean age of participants was 32·6 (SD 9·4) years. Between July 12 and July 17, 2020, 900 participants were enrolled into the phase 2 trial and randomly assigned to receive two doses of placebo (n=150), 25 µg vaccine (n=150), or 50 µg vaccine (n=150), or three doses of placebo (n=150), 25 µg vaccine (n=150), or 50 µg vaccine (n=150). The mean age of participants was 43·5 (SD 9·2) years. In both phase 1 and phase 2, adverse events reported within 30 days after vaccination were mild or moderate (grade 1 or 2) in most cases (phase 1: six [60%] of ten participants in the placebo group, 14 [70%] of 20 in the 25 µg group, and 18 [90%] of 20 in the 50 µg group; phase 2: 37 [25%] of 150 in the two-dose placebo group, 43 [29%] of 150 in the two-dose 25 µg group, 50 [33%] of 150 in the two-dose 50 µg group, 47 [31%] of 150 in the three-dose placebo group, 72 [48%] of 150 in the three-dose 25 µg group, and 65 [43%] of 150 in the three-dose 50 µg group). In phase 1, two (10%) grade 3 or worse adverse events were reported in the 50 µg group. In phase 2, grade 3 or worse adverse events were reported by 18 participants (four [3%] in the two-dose 25 µg vaccine group, two [1%] in the two-dose 50 µg vaccine group, two [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, four [3%] in the three-dose 25 µg vaccine group, and six [4%] in the three-dose 50 µg vaccine group), and 11 were considered vaccine related (two [1%] in the two-dose 25 µg vaccine group, one [1%] in the two-dose 50 µg vaccine group, one [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, two [1%] in the three-dose 25 µg vaccine group, and five [3%] in the three-dose 50 µg vaccine group); seven participants reported serious adverse events (one [1%] in the two-dose 25 µg vaccine group, one [1%] in the two-dose 50 µg vaccine group, two [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, one [1%] in the three-dose 25 µg vaccine group, and two [1%] in the three-dose 50 µg vaccine group), but none was considered vaccine related. In phase 2, on the two-dose schedule, seroconversion rates of neutralising antibodies 14 days after the second dose were 76% (114 of 150 participants) in the 25 µg group and 72% (108 of 150) in the 50 µg group; on the three-dose schedule, seroconversion rates of neutralising antibodies 14 days after the third dose were 97% (143 of 148 participants) in the 25 µg group and 93% (138 of 148) in the 50 µg group. In the two-dose groups in phase 2, the SARS-CoV-2-neutralising GMTs 14 days after the second dose were 17·7 (95% CI 13·6-23·1) in the 25 µg group and 14·1 (10·8-18·3) in the 50 µg group. In the three-dose groups in phase 2, the SARS-CoV-2-neutralising GMTs 14 days after the third dose were 102·5 (95% CI 81·8-128·5) in the 25 µg group and 69·1 (53·0-90·0) in the 50 µg group. INTERPRETATION: The protein subunit vaccine ZF2001 appears to be well tolerated and immunogenic. The safety and immunogenicity data from the phase 1 and 2 trials support the use of the 25 µg dose in a three-dose schedule in an ongoing phase 3 trial for large-scale evaluation of ZF2001's safety and efficacy. FUNDING: National Program on Key Research Project of China, National Science and Technology Major Projects of Drug Discovery, Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Multimerization , Tandem Repeat Sequences , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1533, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125484

ABSTRACT

Several mechanisms driving SARS-CoV-2 transmission remain unclear. Based on individual records of 1178 potential SARS-CoV-2 infectors and their 15,648 contacts in Hunan, China, we estimated key transmission parameters. The mean generation time was estimated to be 5.7 (median: 5.5, IQR: 4.5, 6.8) days, with infectiousness peaking 1.8 days before symptom onset, with 95% of transmission events occurring between 8.8 days before and 9.5 days after symptom onset. Most transmission events occurred during the pre-symptomatic phase (59.2%). SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility to infection increases with age, while transmissibility is not significantly different between age groups and between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Contacts in households and exposure to first-generation cases are associated with higher odds of transmission. Our findings support the hypothesis that children can effectively transmit SARS-CoV-2 and highlight how pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic transmission can hinder control efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
9.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5007

ABSTRACT

Objective: To preliminarily analyze the latent period,infectious period and transmissibility of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) through an investigation of a clustering epidemic of COVID-19 in Y city. Methods: Field epidemiol. method was used to survey the cases and related close contacts. Real time RT-PCR technique was used to detect 2019-nCoV nucleic acid in throat swab samples collected from the respondents. Results: A total of 13 confirmed cases and 4 asymptomatic infections were discovered in the clustering epidemic, with the transmission passing through four generations. The average serial interval was 5.08 days,and the average incubation period 5.44 days (ranging between 2 and 10 days) . Some confirmed cases were found to be contagious 2 days prior to the onset. There were some asymptomatic infections among the close contacts. Some cases were confirmed after several times of sample testing. Conclusions: 2019-nCoV has a high transmissibility. There exist transmission during the incubation period and asymptomatic infections. It is necessary to intensify the prevention and control measures like follow-up and management of the close contacts.

10.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 42(3): 589-594, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955942

ABSTRACT

RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the risks associated with cryopreserved semen collected during and after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic wave in Wuhan, China? DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study involving young adult men who were qualified sperm donors at the Hunan Province Human Sperm Bank (China) during the pandemic wave (1 January 2020 to 30 January 2020) and after the wave and return to work (7 April 2020 to 30 May 30 2020). One hundred paired semen and blood specimens from 100 donors were included. One-step single-tube nested quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (OSN-qRT-PCR) was used to detect SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, to control the unacceptable risk of false-negative results, a second round of screening was performed with pooled RNA from negative semen samples using crystal digital PCR (cd-PCR). RESULTS: For individual blood and semen samples, the target genes, namely the nucleocapsid protein (N) and open reading frame (ORF-1ab) genes, tested negative in all of the 100 paired samples. Further, as per cd-PCR results, there were >20,000 droplets per well in the RNA for each combined sample and no positive droplets were present for either of the aforementioned target genes. A total of 100 paired semen and blood samples from these two groups tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Cryopreserved semen at the Hunan Province Human Sperm Bank during and after the COVID-19 pandemic wave was free of SARS-CoV-2 and was judged safe for external use in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Semen , Sperm Banks , Spermatozoa , Young Adult
11.
Science ; 371(6526)2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944842

ABSTRACT

A long-standing question in infectious disease dynamics concerns the role of transmission heterogeneities, which are driven by demography, behavior, and interventions. On the basis of detailed patient and contact-tracing data in Hunan, China, we find that 80% of secondary infections traced back to 15% of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) primary infections, which indicates substantial transmission heterogeneities. Transmission risk scales positively with the duration of exposure and the closeness of social interactions and is modulated by demographic and clinical factors. The lockdown period increases transmission risk in the family and households, whereas isolation and quarantine reduce risks across all types of contacts. The reconstructed infectiousness profile of a typical SARS-CoV-2 patient peaks just before symptom presentation. Modeling indicates that SARS-CoV-2 control requires the synergistic efforts of case isolation, contact quarantine, and population-level interventions because of the specific transmission kinetics of this virus.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Chain of Infection/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine , Social Interaction , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
12.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 117, 2020 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730583

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, also called 2019-nCoV) causes different morbidity risks to individuals in different age groups. This study attempts to quantify the age-specific transmissibility using a mathematical model. METHODS: An epidemiological model with five compartments (susceptible-exposed-symptomatic-asymptomatic-recovered/removed [SEIAR]) was developed based on observed transmission features. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases were divided into four age groups: group 1, those ≤ 14 years old; group 2, those 15 to 44 years old; group 3, those 45 to 64 years old; and group 4, those ≥ 65 years old. The model was initially based on cases (including imported cases and secondary cases) collected in Hunan Province from January 5 to February 19, 2020. Another dataset, from Jilin Province, was used to test the model. RESULTS: The age-specific SEIAR model fitted the data well in each age group (P < 0.001). In Hunan Province, the highest transmissibility was from age group 4 to 3 (median: ß43 = 7.71 × 10- 9; SAR43 = 3.86 × 10- 8), followed by group 3 to 4 (median: ß34 = 3.07 × 10- 9; SAR34 = 1.53 × 10- 8), group 2 to 2 (median: ß22 = 1.24 × 10- 9; SAR22 = 6.21 × 10- 9), and group 3 to 1 (median: ß31 = 4.10 × 10- 10; SAR31 = 2.08 × 10- 9). The lowest transmissibility was from age group 3 to 3 (median: ß33 = 1.64 × 10- 19; SAR33 = 8.19 × 10- 19), followed by group 4 to 4 (median: ß44 = 3.66 × 10- 17; SAR44 = 1.83 × 10- 16), group 3 to 2 (median: ß32 = 1.21 × 10- 16; SAR32 = 6.06 × 10- 16), and group 1 to 4 (median: ß14 = 7.20 × 10- 14; SAR14 = 3.60 × 10- 13). In Jilin Province, the highest transmissibility occurred from age group 4 to 4 (median: ß43 = 4.27 × 10- 8; SAR43 = 2.13 × 10- 7), followed by group 3 to 4 (median: ß34 = 1.81 × 10- 8; SAR34 = 9.03 × 10- 8). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 exhibits high transmissibility between middle-aged (45 to 64 years old) and elderly (≥ 65 years old) people. Children (≤ 14 years old) have very low susceptibility to COVID-19. This study will improve our understanding of the transmission feature of SARS-CoV-2 in different age groups and suggest the most prevention measures should be applied to middle-aged and elderly people.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Models, Statistical , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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