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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 715023, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477819

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence has unveiled the secondary infection as one of the mortal causes of post-SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the factors related to secondary bacterial or fungi infection remains largely unexplored. We here systematically investigated the factors that might contribute to secondary infection. By clinical examination index analysis of patients, combined with the integrative analysis with RNA-seq analysis in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell isolated shortly from initial infection, this study showed that the antibiotic catabolic process and myeloid cell homeostasis were activated while the T-cell response were relatively repressed in those with the risk of secondary infection. Further monitoring analysis of immune cell and liver injury analysis showed that the risk of secondary infection was accompanied by severe lymphocytopenia at the intermediate and late stages and liver injury at the early stages of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, the metagenomics analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the microbial culture analysis, to some extent, showed that the severe pneumonia-related bacteria have already existed in the initial infection.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/mortality , Mycoses/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Infections/mortality , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Liver/injuries , Liver/virology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
2.
J Leukoc Biol ; 109(1): 91-97, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188013

ABSTRACT

Regulatory T cell can protect against severe forms of coronaviral infections attributable to host inflammatory responses. But its role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is still unclear. In this study, frequencies of total and multiple subsets of lymphocytes in peripheral blood of COVID-19 patients and discharged individuals were analyzed using a multicolor flow cytometry assay. Plasma concentration of IL-10 was measured using a microsphere-based immunoassay kit. Comparing to healthy controls, the frequencies of total lymphocytes and T cells decreased significantly in both acutely infected COVID-19 patients and discharged individuals. The frequencies of total lymphocytes correlated negatively with the frequencies of CD3- CD56+ NK cells. The frequencies of regulatory CD8+ CD25+ T cells correlated with CD4+ /CD8+ T cell ratios positively, while the frequencies of regulatory CD4+ CD25+ CD127- T cells correlated negatively with CD4+ /CD8+ T cell ratios. Ratios of CD4+ /CD8+ T cells increased significantly in patients beyond age of 45 years. And accordingly, the frequencies of regulatory CD8+ CD25+ T cells were also found significantly increased in these patients. Collectively, the results suggest that regulatory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells may play distinct roles in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Moreover, the data indicate that NK cells might contribute to the COVID-19 associated lymphopenia.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Adult , Aged , Antigens, CD/blood , Antigens, CD/immunology , CD4-CD8 Ratio , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/pathology
3.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 196: 113927, 2021 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051794

ABSTRACT

To administer vitamin C (VC) with precision to patients with the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), we developed an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method to assess plasma VC concentrations. 31 patients with COVID-19 and 51 healthy volunteers were enrolled. VC stability was evaluated in blood, plasma, and precipitant-containing stabilizers. A proportion of 7.7 % of VC was degraded in blood at room temperature (RT) (approximately 20-25 °C) at 1.5 h post administration with respect to the proportion degraded at 0.5 h, but without statistical difference. VC was stable in plasma for 0.75 h at RT, 2 h at 4 °C, 5 days at -40 °C, and 4 h in precipitant-containing stabilizer (2 % oxalic acid) at RT. The mean plasma concentration of VC in patients with COVID-19 was 2.00 mg/L (0.5-4.90) (n = 8), which was almost 5-fold lower than that in healthy volunteers (9.23 mg/L (3.09. 35.30)) (n = 51). After high-dose VC treatment, the mean VC concentration increased to 13.46 mg/L (3.93. 34.70) (n = 36), higher than that in healthy volunteers, and was within the normal range (6-20 mg/L). In summary, we developed a simple UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify VC in plasma, and determined the duration for which the sample remained stable. VC levels in patients with COVID-19 were considerably low, and supplementation at 100 mg/kg/day is considered highly essential.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/blood , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma/chemistry , Reference Values , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Young Adult
5.
Cytokine ; 138: 155365, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917276

ABSTRACT

The hyper-inflammatory response is thought to be a major cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients with COVID-19. Although multiple cytokines are reportedly associated with disease severity, the key mediators of SARS-CoV-2 induced cytokine storm and their predictive values have not been fully elucidated. The present study analyzed maximal and early (within 10 days after disease onset) concentrations of 12-plex cytokines in plasma. We found consistently elevated plasma levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-5 in patients who were deceased compared with those who had mild/moderate or severe disease. The early plasma concentrations of IFN-a and IL-2 positively correlated with the length of the disease course. Moreover, correlation network analysis showed that IL-6, IL-8, and IL-5 located at the center of an inter-correlated cytokine network. These findings suggested that IL-8, IL-6, IL-5 might play central roles in cytokine storms associated with COVID-19 and that the early detection of multiple plasma cytokines might help to predict the prognosis of this disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Correlation of Data , Female , Humans , Interferon-alpha/blood , Interleukin-2/blood , Interleukin-5/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
6.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 34(10): e23535, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This objective of this study was to identify a sensitive indicator of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: Samples were collected from 136 patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia admitted to the Shanghai public health clinical center (116 mild, 20 severe). The concentrations of serum urea, Uric Acid (UA), Creatinine (CREA), Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and urine protein (Pro) have been tested in this study. RESULTS: Higher levels of urea (female 7.00 ± 3.31, male 8.87 ± 5.18) Pro (female7/7, male 12/13), hs-CRP (female 2/7, male 5/13) ESR (female 94.43 ± 33.26, male 67.85 ± 22.77) were found in severe patients compared with the mild (urea: female 3.71 ± 1.00, male 4.42 ± 1.14; Pro: female 3/46, male 12/70; hs-CRP: female 1/46, male 3/70; ESR: female 43.32 ± 33.24, male 21.64 ± 21.82). UA is lower in the severe group (female 146.90 ± 54.01, male 139.34 ± 66.95) than in mild group (female 251.99 ± 64.35, male 339.81 ± 71.32). CREA and PCT did not show a significant difference between mild and severe patients, but the difference among the five biological markers (urea, Pro, hs-CRP, ESR, and UA) between mild and severe patients we tested was small (P < .05). CONCLUSION: Severe COVID-19 patients had higher levels of urea and Pro, while their UA levels were lower, reflecting poor kidney function in severe patients. However, higher levels of hs-CRP, ESR indicated that inflammatory responses were more active in severe patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Renal Insufficiency , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Creatinine/blood , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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