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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324502

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a public health emergency that is spreading worldwide and seriously affecting global economy. Information about the impact of HIV co-infection and anti-HIV drugs on the clinical characteristics and prognosis of COVID-19 patients remains limited. Methods: : In this retrospective study, the maximum body temperatures, fever duration, chest computed tomography changes and viral shedding, lymphocyte counts changes and titer of SARS-CoV-2 antibody were compared between COVID-19 patients with and without HIV infection in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from January 20th to February 14th, 2020. Results: : Compared with 50 control COVID-19 patients, the two COVID-19/HIV co-infection patients had higher maximum body temperatures(40.2℃ and 40.3℃ vs 38.2℃), longer fever duration(11 days and 15 days vs 7 days), longer time of lung recovery(20 days and 24 days vs 14 days), shorter duration of viral shedding after the onset of symptoms(6 days and 4 days vs 10 days). Compared with three COVID-19 infection colleagues who had exposure history with the same COVID-19 patient, the third COVID-19/HIV co-infection patient had the same duration of viral shedding after exposure(29 days vs 29 days), lower titer of SARS-CoV-2 IgG(negative vs positive for all). Conclusion: For patients co-infected with HIV, the clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection were diverse. The ability of those COVID-19/HIV co-infection patients with severe immunodeficiency to produce SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were weakened. The small sample in this study implied that the effects of anti-HIV drugs in prevention and treatment of COVID-19 appears to be limited.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324501

ABSTRACT

We reported the process of exposure, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and prognosis of an AIDS patient with asymptomatic COVID-19. In our report, we found the asymptomatic is still shedding virus for at least 29 days. Therefore, we suggested that for individuals who had close contact with diagnosed or suspected COVID-19 patients, in addition to isolation, medical observation, and further related testing if clinical symptoms appear in the observation period, it is best to collect nasopharyngeal and throat swab specimens and test for COVID-19 nucleic acid as early as possible. The purpose of this active detection is to screen out COVID-19 asymptomatic patients, and to avoid further transmission through recessive source of infection. Our findings will facilitate understanding of asymptomatic COVID-19 and improve prevention strategies against COVID-19 transmission.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321878

ABSTRACT

Background: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) led to the outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan, and rapidly spread throughout China. The virus is highly infectious and can infect individuals in the community, including patients in the hospital. Patients with cancer might be susceptible to the viral infection because of the immunosuppressive state cause by therapies on tumors. Case presentation: We present the clinical features of four cancer patients who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the past month in our hospital. One patient with uncontrolled chronic B cell lymphocytic leukemia and many other underlying diseases was killed by the virus, and the other three patients survived. Nearly all patients showed a decrease in lymphocytes including total CD3 + T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells after infection of the virus. Conclusion: This report suggests that the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cancer patients is challenged by the immunosuppressive state of these patients under chemotherapy or surgery.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309351

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 still become a common threat to public health.In this study, we evaluated the antiviral effects and safety of darunavir/cobicisitat (DRV/c) in patients with confirmed COVID-19. Patients and Methods: Totally 66 patients with COVID-19 infection who were admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University between February 3 and March 11, 2020 were collected. The patients were divided into the DRV/c group and the control group. The Primary endpoints was the time of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid conversion detected in respiratory specimens. Results: A total of 66 subjects with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled in this study, 32 subjects were enrolled in the DRV/c group and 34 in the control group. The mean time to nucleic acid conversion (NAC) was shorter in DRV/c group. The cumulative nucleic acid conversion rate (CNACR) in the DRV/C group was higher during the first 2 weeks, but the difference was not statistically significant. The proportion of fever during hospitalization in the DRV/C group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P value 0.01). It was found that in DRV/c group NAC of patients with duration from symptom onset to admission within 3 days was significantly shorter (7.9 ± 6.7 days) than that of and above 3 days (15.9 ± 7.1 days)( P = 0.01). Conclusion: Although the combination of DRV/c and routine treatment for patients with non-severe COVID-19 can significantly reduce the proportion of fever after admission, but no significant differences were observed between the DRV/c group and the conventional therapy group, including overall time to nucleic acid conversion, safety and tolerability.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4208-e4213, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe adult respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, occurred in Wuhan, and rapidly spread throughout China. This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of patients with refractory COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective single-center study, we included 155 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from 1 January to 5 February. The cases were divided into general and refractory COVID-19 groups according to the clinical efficacy of treatment after hospitalization, and the differences between groups were compared. RESULTS: Compared with patients with general COVID-19 (45.2%), those with refractory disease were older, were more likely to be male, and had more underlying comorbid conditions, a lower incidence of fever, higher maximum temperatures among patients with fever, higher incidences of shortness of breath and anorexia, more severe disease assessment at admission, higher neutrophil, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein levels, lower platelet counts and albumin levels, and higher incidences of bilateral pneumonia and pleural effusion (P < .05). Patients with refractory COVID-19 were more likely to receive oxygen, mechanical ventilation, expectorant, and adjunctive treatment, including corticosteroids, antiviral drugs, and immune enhancers (P < .05). Considering the factors of disease severity at admission, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit transfer, patients with refractory COVID-19 were also more likely to be male, have manifestations of anorexia on admission, and receive oxygen, expectorant, and adjunctive agents (P < .05). CONCLUSION: In nearly 50% of patients with COVID-19 obvious clinical and radiological remission was not achieved within 10 days after hospitalization. Male, anorexia, and no fever at admission was predictive of poor treatment efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , China/epidemiology , Female , Fever , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e293, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952350

ABSTRACT

The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in China and had spread rapidly to many other countries. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with delayed negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients. In this retrospective single-centre study, we included 169 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from 15th January to 2nd March. The cases were divided into two groups according to the median time of SARS-CoV-2 negative conversion. The differences between groups were compared. In total, 169 patients had a median virus negative conversion time of 18 days (interquartile range: 11-25) from symptom onset. Compared with the patients with short-term negative conversion, those with long-term conversion had an older age, higher incidence of comorbidities, chief complaints of cough and chest distress/breath shortness and severer illness on admission, higher level of leucocytes, neutrophils, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), lower level of CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes and albumin and more likely to receive mechanical ventilation. In multivariate analysis, cough, leucocytes, neutrophils and ESR were positively correlated with delayed virus negative conversion, and CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes were negatively correlated. The integrated indicator of leucocytes, neutrophils and CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes showed a good performance in predicting the negative conversion within 2 weeks (area under ROC curve (AUC) = 0.815), 3 weeks (AUC = 0.804), 4 weeks (AUC = 0.812) and 5 weeks (AUC = 0.786). In conclusion, longer quarantine periods might be more justified for COVID-19 patients with cough, higher levels of leucocytes, neutrophils and ESR and lower levels of CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Epidemics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors
8.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(1S Suppl 1): e176-e182, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Liver injury in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients was poorly understood. METHODS: The markers of liver injury, severity of disease and prognosis among 495 COVID-19 patients in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from 1st January 2019 to 11th March 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (50.1 ± 38.4 vs. 31.4 ± 39.1, P < 0.001), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) (70.3 ± 70.2 vs. 34.1 ± 34.7, P < 0.001) and fibrinogen-to-albumin-ratio (FAR) (13.4 ± 4.0 vs. 10.4 ± 3.4, P < 0.001) were greater than mild COVID-19 patients, whereas the levels of albumin(35.0 ± 6.2 vs. 39.9 ± 3.7, P < 0.001) and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio (1.21 ± 0.24 vs. 1.50 ± 0.31, P < 0.001) were lower in severe COVID-19 patients. By comparing the changes of liver injury markers 7-10 days after hospitalization, the level of albumin deteriorated from 35.0 ± 6.2 to 30.20 ± 5.5 (P < 0.001), A/G ratio from 1.21 ± 0.24 to 1.06 ± 0.25 (P < 0.001), and FAR from 13.4 ± 4.0 to 15.4 ± 2.9(P < 0.001) in severe COVID-19 patients, while the changes of albumin, A/G ratio and FAR showed opposite patterns in mild COVID-19 patients. FAR > 12 [2.566 (1.410-4.670), P = 0.012) on admission and changes of albumin >5g/l [22.489 (6.422-78.757), P = 0.001] were two risk factors for death, and the sensitivity and specificity for the poor prognosis were 80.8% and 64.0%, 82.6% and 76.3%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The levels of AST, GGT, albumin and FAR are correlated with disease severity after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection. FAR > 12 on admission and changes of albumin > 5 g/l were good predictors for the prognosis of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Liver , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(3): 411-417, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900286

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyze characteristics of asymptomatic/pres-ymptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Chest computed tomography(CT), indicators for organ and coagulation function, inflammation cytokines, of asymptomatic/pre-symptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were retrospectively analyzed in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from 20 December 2019, to 8 March 2020. RESULTS: The proportion of normal chest CT in asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were 35.4% (17/48) and 3.3%(2/61), respectively (P< 0.001). In 17 asymptomatic patients, their images of chest CT maintained normal during the whole course of diseases, while the normal images of chest CT in 2 pre-symptomatic patients progressed to abnormal later (P< 0.001). All the six asymptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection maintained unilateral lesion, while the proportion was 29.4%(5/17) in pre-symptomatic patients(P= 0.003). Compared with asymptomatic patients, pre-symptomatic COVID-19 patients had worse levels of Lymphocyte count (P= 0.001), Albumin (P= 0.045), Aspartate aminotransferase (P= 0.044), γ-glutamyl transpeptadase (P= 0.016), Globulin (P= 0.036), Creatinine (P= 0.021), Lactate dehydrogenase (P= 0.008), C-reactive protein (P< 0.001), Serum amyloid A (P< 0.001), and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P< 0.001). Except for above indicators, Alkaline phosphatase (P= 0.009), Procalcitonin (P= 0.010), and D-dimer(P< 0.001) increased further during periods of symptoms compared with those levels in pre-symptomatic period. CONCLUSION: In early stage after SARS-CoV-2 infection, images of chest CT and blood tests of asymptomatic patients were different from pre-symptomatic patients.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
10.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(3): 403-409, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872888

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information about the impact of HIV coinfection on clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients remains limited. METHODS: Maximum body temperatures, fever duration, chest CT and viral shedding, lymphocyte counts, and titer of SARS-CoV-2 antibody were compared between COVID-19 patients with and without HIV infection in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from January 20th to February 14th, 2020. RESULTS: Compared with 53 COVID-19 patients without HIV infection, the patients with SARS-CoV-2 and HIV coinfection had higher maximum body temperatures (38.7°C vs 37.6°C, P = 0.044), longer duration of fever (8.7 ± 4.5 vs 4.2 ± 2.1 days, P = 0.038), longer time to have improvement of chest CT images (22 vs 15 days from the onset of illness, P = 0.011), lower level of SARS-CoV-2 IgG (5.11 ± 32.33 vs 37.45 ± 15.48 AU/ml, P = 0.042). However, no statistically significant difference of duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding in the two groups was found (12.3 ± 2.6 vs 13.4 ± 2.4 days, , P = 0.813). CONCLUSION: Lower level of CD4+ T lymphocyte counts caused by HIV infection itself might be one of reasons for relatively weak ability to produce SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies. The effects of anti-HIV drugs in prevention and treatment of COVID-19 appears to be limited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Virus Shedding
12.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 50(11): e13412, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a public health emergency that is spreading worldwide and seriously affecting the global economy. Data on the effectiveness and safety of the use of methylprednisolone for patients with severe COVID-19 remain limited. METHODS: In this retrospective study, epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, treatment and outcomes data of hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from January 1 to 7 March 2020, were collected. Binary logistic regression model was used to analyse risk factors for disease progression from severe COVID-19 illness to critical illness. The effectiveness and safety of the use of methylprednisolone for patients with severe COVID-19 disease were evaluated. RESULTS: The results of the multivariate analysis from 175 patients with severe COVID-19 indicate that the use of methylprednisolone was a protective factor against disease progression from severe to critical illness(P < .001; OR: 0.054 95% CI: 0.017-0.173). Among patients with severe COVID-19 aged < 65 years, both the proportion of patients who progressed to critical illness (42.2% vs 90.0%, P = .000) and the mortality(6.7% vs 30.0%, P = .002) were lower for patients in methylprednisolone group, compared with those in the non-methylprednisolone group, whereas no statistical differences between the methylprednisolone group and the non-methylprednisolone group were found among patients with COVID-19 older than 65 years. Moreover, both the levels of CD4+ T lymphocyte counts (646 vs 463/µL, P = .007) and IL-6 (241.9 vs 82.8 pg/mL, P = .025) were higher among patients with severe COVID-19 aged < 65 years, compared with those patients ≥ 65 years old. CONCLUSION: Data from the limited sample showed that the early use of low or medium doses of methylprednisolone has a positive effect for patients with severe COVID-19 younger than 65 years old, and excessive immune response and cytokine storm may be some of the reasons for the effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , DNA, Viral/analysis , Hospital Mortality , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Analysis of Variance , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Chi-Square Distribution , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Illness/mortality , Databases, Factual , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, University , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Survival Analysis
13.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 82, 2020 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-621510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) led to the outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan. The virus is highly infectious. Patients with cancer might be susceptible to the viral infection because of the immunosuppressive state cause by therapies on tumors. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the clinical features of four cancer patients who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 in late January of 2020 in our hospital. Cases 1 and 3 were diagnosed as mild and common type of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) and survived from the viral infection. They acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection during their staying in hospital under radiotherapy and surgery of the tumors. Cases 2 and 4 suffered from severe type of COVID-19, and Case 2 was dead owning to the advanced age, uncontrolled chronic B cell lymphocytic leukemia and many other underlying diseases. The immunosuppressive state induced by liver transplantation and anti-rejection therapy might contribute to the severity of COVID-19 in Case 4, who suffered from hepatitis B related hepatocellular carcinoma. However, Case 4 was recovered from COVID-19 after a combination therapy against virus, bacteria and fungi, and also respiratory support. Nearly all patients showed a decrease in lymphocytes including total CD3+ T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells after infection of the virus. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of COVID-19 might be influenced by immune system state and underlying diseases in cancer patients. And the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cancer patients is challenged by the immunosuppressive state of these patients under chemotherapy or surgery.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Neoplasms/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/physiopathology , Neoplasms/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Infect Prev Pract ; 2(3): 100065, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276710

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in China, attracted a large number of medical staff to help in the city's hospitals and this put them at a high risk of infection. We describe twenty medical staff who were diagnosed with COVID-19 within one week in the department of surgery in a Wuhan hospital. Epidemiological investigation of these cases identified misdiagnosed patients (source of infection), an inappropriate clinical meeting and working without wearing face masks to be the causes of the outbreaks. This report emphasizes the importance of wearing a facemask and applying other standard infection control precautions to protect medical personnel from infection with the virus.

15.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 75(9): 1788-1795, 2020 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan city and spread rapidly throughout China and the world. In this study, we aimed to describe the clinical course and outcomes of older patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a retrospective investigation of hospitalized older patients with confirmed COVID-19 at Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from January 1, 2020, to February 10, 2020. RESULTS: In total, 203 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19, with a median age of 54 years (interquartile range, 41-68; range, 20-91 years). Men accounted for 108 (53.2%) of the cases, and 55 patients (27.1%) were more than 65 years of age. Among patients who were 65 years and older, the mortality rate was 34.5% (19/55), which was significantly higher than that of the younger patients at 4.7% (7/148). Common symptoms of older patients with COVID-19 included fever (94.5%; n = 52), dry cough (69.1%; n = 38), and chest distress (63.6%; n = 35). Compared with young patients, older patients had more laboratory abnormalities and comorbidities. Through a multivariate analysis of the causes of death in older patients, we found that males, comorbidities, time from disease onset to hospitalization, abnormal kidney function, and elevated procalcitonin levels were all significantly associated with death. CONCLUSIONS: In the recent outbreak of COVID-19, our local hospital in Wuhan found that patients aged 65 and older had greater initial comorbidities, more severe symptoms, and were more likely to experience multiorgan involvement and death, as compared to younger patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis , Multiple Organ Failure/epidemiology , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data
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