Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 77
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy ; 7(1):318, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028663

ABSTRACT

Excessive inflammatory responses contribute to the pathogenesis and lethality of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the N proteins of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), were found to bind MASP-2, a key serine protease in the lectin pathway of complement activation, resulting in excessive complement activation by potentiating MBL-dependent MASP-2 activation, and the deposition of MASP-2, C4b, activated C3 and C5b-9. Aggravated inflammatory lung injury was observed in mice infected with adenovirus expressing the N protein. Complement hyperactivation was also observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Either blocking the N protein:MASP-2 interaction, MASP-2 depletion or suppressing complement activation can significantly alleviate N protein-induced complement hyperactivation and lung injury in vitro and in vivo. Altogether, these data suggested that complement suppression may represent a novel therapeutic approach for pneumonia induced by these highly pathogenic coronaviruses.

2.
Transportation ; : 1-21, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027599

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzes the emergence of two well-defined peaks during the morning peak period in the traffic flow diurnal curve. It selects six California cities as research targets, and uses California employment and household travel survey data to explain how and why this phenomenon has risen during the pandemic. The final result explains that the double-humped phenomenon results from the change in the composition of commuters during the morning peak period after the outbreak.

3.
28th ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, KDD 2022 ; : 3357-3365, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2020395

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 burgeons newborn services on online platforms and simultaneously buoys multifarious online fraud activities. Due to the rapid technological and commercial innovation that opens up an ever-expanding set of products, the insufficient labeling data renders existing supervised or semi-supervised fraud detection models ineffective in these emerging services. However, the ever accumulated user behavioral data on online platforms might be helpful in improving the performance of fraud detection on newborn services. To this end, in this paper, we propose to pre-train user behavior sequences, which consist of orderly arranged actions, from the large-scale unlabeled data sources for online fraud detection. Recent studies illustrate accurate extraction of user intentions∼(formed by consecutive actions) in behavioral sequences can propel improvements in the performance of online fraud detection. By anatomizing the characteristic of online fraud activities, we devise a model named UB-PTM that learns knowledge of fraud activities by three agent tasks at different granularities, i.e., action, intention, and sequence levels, from large-scale unlabeled data. Extensive experiments on three downstream transaction and user-level online fraud detection tasks demonstrate that our UB-PTM is able to outperform the state-of-the-art designing for specific tasks. © 2022 ACM.

4.
J Virol ; : e0103422, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2019727

ABSTRACT

The duration of SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA shedding is much longer than that of infectious SARS-CoV-2 in most COVID-19 patients. It is very important to determine the relationship between test results and infectivity for efficient isolation, contact tracing, and post-isolation. We characterized the duration of viable SARS-CoV-2, viral genomic and subgenomic RNA (gRNA and sgRNA), and rapid antigen test positivity in nasal washes, oropharyngeal swabs, and feces of experimentally infected Syrian hamsters. The duration of viral genomic RNA shedding is longer than that of viral subgenomic RNA, and far longer than those of rapid antigen test (RAgT) and viral culture positivity. The rapid antigen test results were strongly correlated with the viral culture results. The trend of subgenomic RNA is similar to that of genomic RNA, and furthermore, the subgenomic RNA load is highly correlated with the genomic RNA load. IMPORTANCE Our findings highlight the high correlation between rapid antigen test and virus culture results. The rapid antigen test would be an important supplement to real-time reverse transcription-RCR (RT-PCR) in early COVID-19 screening and in shortening the isolation period of COVID-19 patients. Because the subgenomic RNA load can be predicted from the genomic RNA load, measuring sgRNA does not add more benefit to determining infectivity than a threshold determined for gRNA based on viral culture.

5.
Acs Applied Bio Materials ; 02:02, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016528

ABSTRACT

The emergence of Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for several million deaths up to now. Because of the huge amount of vaccine escape mutations in the spike (S) protein for different variants, the design of material for combating SARS-CoV-2 is very important for our society. Herein, we report on the design of a human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) peptide-conjugated plasmonic-magnetic heterostructure, which has the capability for magnetic separation, identification via surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and inhibition of different variant SARS-CoV-2 infections. In this work, plasmonic-magnetic heterostructures were developed using the initial synthesis of polyethylenimine (PEI)-coated Fe3O4-based magnetic nanoparticles, and then gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were grown onto the surface of the magnetic nanoparticles. Experimental binding data between ACE2-conjugated plasmonic-magnetic heterostructures and spike-receptor-binding domain (RBD) show that the Omicron variant has maximum binding ability, and it follows Alpha < Beta < Gamma < Delta < Omicron. Our finding shows that, due to the high magnetic moment (specific magnetization 40 emu/g), bioconjugated heterostructures are capable of effective magnetic separation of pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 bearing the Delta variant spike from an infected artificial nasal mucus fluid sample using a simple bar magnet. Experimental data show that due to the formation of huge "hot spots" in the presence of SARS-CoV-2, Raman intensity for the 4-aminothiolphenol (4-ATP) Raman reporter was enhanced sharply, which has been used for the identification of separated virus. Theoretical calculations using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation indicate that, due to the "hot spots" formation, a six orders of magnitude Raman enhancement can be observed. A concentration-dependent inhibition efficiency investigation using a HEK293T-human cell line indicates that ACE2 peptide-conjugated plasmonic-magnetic heterostructures have the capability of complete inhibition of entry of different variants and original SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirions into host cells.

6.
Archives of Virology ; 09:09, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014164

ABSTRACT

The wide spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has significantly threatened public health. Human herd immunity induced by vaccination is essential to fight the epidemic. Therefore, highly immunogenic and safe vaccines are necessary to control SARS-CoV-2, whose S protein is the antigenic determinant responsible for eliciting antibodies that prevent viral entry and fusion. In this study, we developed a SARS-CoV-2 DNA vaccine expressing the S protein, named pVAX-S-OP, which was optimized according to the human-origin codon preference and using polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid as an adjuvant. pVAX-S-OP induced specific antibodies and neutralizing antibodies in BALB/c and hACE2 transgenic mice. Furthermore, we observed 1.43-fold higher antibody titers in mice receiving pVAX-S-OP plus adjuvant than in those receiving pVAX-S-OP alone. Interferon gamma production in the pVAX-S-OP-immunized group was 1.58 times (CD3+CD4+IFN-gamma+) and 2.29 times (CD3+CD8+IFN-gamma+) lower than that in the pVAX-S-OP plus adjuvant group but higher than that in the control group. The pVAX-S-OP vaccine was also observed to stimulate a Th1-type immune response. When, hACE2 transgenic mice were challenged with SARS-CoV-2, qPCR detection of N and E genes showed that the viral RNA loads in pVAX-S-OP-immunized mice lung tissues were 104 times and 106 times lower than those of the PBS control group, which shows that the vaccine could reduce the amount of live virus in the lungs of hACE2 mice. In addition, pathological sections showed less lung damage in the pVAX-S-OP-immunized group. Taken together, our results demonstrated that pVAX-S-OP has significant immunogenicity, which provides support for developing SARS-CoV-2 DNA candidate vaccines.

7.
Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc ; : 220074, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009233

ABSTRACT

Health disparities in Asian women are complex and multifactorial. Screening attendance is low among Asian women, regardless of nativity or acculturation, and breast cancer detection has decreased by more than half in this population during the COVID-19 pandemic. The follow-up rate after abnormal screening results is similarly poor among Asian women compared with that among other groups, often resulting in a delay of cancer diagnosis. Yet the incidence of breast cancer in Asian women is increasing in the United States, with no such increase observed in other racial and ethnic groups in recent years. The age distribution of breast cancer in Asian women is distinct and peaks in younger women, underscoring the importance of early screening. The predilection for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-enriched tumors may reflect the unique biologic characteristics of breast cancer among Asian subgroups, which are not well understood. Known biomarkers for breast cancer risk such as body mass index and mammographic density do not perform the same way in Asian women, as compared with other groups, owing to a lack of Asian population-specific data. Within that limitation, the association between body mass index and breast cancer is strongest in older Asian women, and the association between breast density and breast cancer is strongest in younger Asian women. There is an unmet need to improve breast cancer care in Asian women, a heterogeneous and growing population that is facing an increasing burden of breast cancer. An invited commentary by Leung is available online.©RSNA, 2022.

8.
Hong Kong Journal of Paediatrics ; 27(1):80, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003518

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) are a group of diseases affecting the peripheral nervous system (1). Many NMDs cause disability or even premature death (2). We aim to design and establish a robust NMD patient registry in Hong Kong. Methods: By modelling international NMD patient registries, we designed patient-professional reported questionnaires to collect the demographic, clinical c haracteristics, genetic details, family history, investigation findings and specific treatment of NMD patients. Patients were recruited through Hong Kong West Cluster (DKCH, QMH) and Kowloon Central Cluster (HKCH). We also developed self-registration online platform. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Findings: Since June 2019, 125 NMD patients have been enrolled in the registry with 12 participants registered online. The registry recruited 13 types of NMDs, including spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) (n=31), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) (n=19) and congenital myopathy (n=18). The age range was 7 months to 63 years old. 65.6% of those enrolled were children (<18 years old). 63.2% were male. 64.8% of the patients had genetic diagnosis. The registry has contributed to two studies. The first one is a prospective study of clinical efficiency of Nusinersen in SMA patients (n=22). 14/16 SMA patients showed improvement in at least one of motor performance (CHOP intend/RULM/HINE/HFMSE) and health-related quality of life after 1st year of treatment. The second study is the reactogenicity and immunogenicity study of the COVID-19 vaccine in DMD patients (n=4). Data will be available in October. Conclusion: Hong Kong Patient registry has contributed to ongoing and new research study to optimise medical care.

9.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003042

ABSTRACT

Purpose/Objectives: The AHRQ Safety Program for Improving Antibiotic Use aimed to improve antibiotic use by engaging clinicians and staff to incorporate antibiotic stewardship principles into practice culture, communication, and decision making. We report on changes in visits and antibiotic prescribing among participating pediatric primary and urgent care ambulatory practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design/Methods: The Safety Program used webinars, audio presentations, educational tools, and office hours to engage clinician champions and staff leaders to: (a) establish antibiotic stewardship programs, (b) address attitudes and culture that pose challenges to judicious antibiotic prescribing, and (c) incorporate best practices for the management of common infections into their workflow using the Four Moments of Antibiotic Decision Making framework. Monthly data on total visits (in-person and virtual), acute respiratory infection (ARI) visits, and antibiotic prescribing were collected from all participating practices during the pre-intervention period (September 2019-November 2019) and during the Safety Program (December 2019-November 2020). Data from the beginning to the end of the Safety Program were compared using linear mixed models to account for random effects of participating sites and repeated measurements of outcomes within practices over time. Results: The 63 participating pediatric practices included 23 general pediatric clinics (37%) and 40 pediatric urgent care clinics (63%). 60 practices submitted complete data for analysis, including 1,040,810 visits. Visits/practice-month declined March-April 2020 but exceeded baseline by Safety Program end (Figure 1). Total antibiotic prescribing declined by 16 prescriptions/100 visits (95% CI: -18 to -14) from November 2019 and November 2020. ARI visits/practice-month similarly declined March-June 2020 after widespread recognition of the COVID-19 epidemic, and remained below baseline by Safety Program end (Figure 2). ARIrelated antibiotic prescriptions decreased by 16 prescriptions/100 ARI visits (95% CI: -20 to -12) from November 2019 to November 2020. Among antibiotic classes, the greatest change was in penicillins. Prescriptions for penicillins was reduced by 11 prescriptions/100 ARI visits (95% CI: -14 to -8). Conclusion/Discussion: During the COVID-19 pandemic, while visit rates gradually normalized, a national ambulatory Antibiotic Stewardship program was associated with declines in overall and ARI-related antibiotic prescribing.

10.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13:967716, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002494

ABSTRACT

Background: The Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant has spread quickly worldwide due to its effects on virus transmission and vaccine effectiveness. Interferon(IFN) has been shown to have a protective effect against SARS-CoV because of its broad antiviral activity. This study aimed to analyze the treatment effects of IFN alpha-2b spray in virus clearance of the Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant. Methods: We examined the effectiveness and safety of IFN alpha-2b spray in Shanghai, China, with participants infected with the Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant in an open, prospective cohort study from April 16th to May 5th, 2022. Results: A total of 871 confirmed patients were enrolled in this study. Four hundred and thirteen patients were allocated to the IFN alpha-2b spray group, and 458 patients were allocated to the control group. The viral shedding time was significantly different between experimental group and control group (11.90 vs.12.58, P <0.05). In the experimental group, the median administration time since the first positive test for SARS-CoV-2 was three days, ranging from 0 to 15 days. There was no obvious adverse effect associated with the spray of IFN alpha-2b. The univariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the administration time since the first positive test <=3 days was a protective factor associated with viral shedding time (HR 0.81 95% CI 0.74-0.87, P <0.05). Subgroup analysis showed that the viral shedding time was 10.41 (4.00-16.00) days in the <=3 days group, which was significantly less than that in the control group (12.58, 95% CI: 7.00-19.15, P <0.0001) and in the >3 days group (13.56, 95%CI: 7.00-22.25, P <0.0001). Conclusions: IFN alpha-2b spray shortened the viral shedding time of the Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant when administrated within three days since the first positive test for SARS-CoV-2.

11.
Nat Commun ; 13(1):4958, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2000890

ABSTRACT

Omicron SARS-CoV-2 is rapidly spreading worldwide. To delineate the impact of emerging mutations on spike's properties, we performed systematic structural analyses on apo Omicron spike and its complexes with human ACE2 or S309 neutralizing antibody (NAb) by cryo-EM. The Omicron spike preferentially adopts the one-RBD-up conformation both before and after ACE2 binding, which is in sharp contrast to the orchestrated conformational changes to create more up-RBDs upon ACE2 binding as observed in the prototype and other four variants of concern (VOCs). Furthermore, we found that S371L, S373P and S375F substitutions enhance the stability of the one-RBD-up conformation to prevent exposing more up-RBDs triggered by ACE2 binding. The increased stability of the one-RBD-up conformation restricts the accessibility of S304 NAb, which targets a cryptic epitope in the closed conformation, thus facilitating the immune evasion by Omicron. These results expand our understanding of Omicron spike's conformation, receptor binding and antibody evasion mechanism.

12.
J Med Virol ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1999883

ABSTRACT

The spike trimer of SARS-CoV-2 is an effective target for inducing neutralizing antibodies by COVID-19 vaccines. However, the diversity of spike protein from emerging SASR-CoV-2 variants has become the major challenge for development of a universal vaccine. In order to investigate the immunogenicity of spike proteins from various circulating strains including wild-type, Delta and Omicron variants, we produced various natural spike trimers and designed three vaccination strategies, i.e. individual, sequential and bivalent regimens to assess autologous and heterogenous antibody responses in a mouse model. The results indicated that monovalent vaccine strategy with individual spike trimer could only induce binding and neutralizing antibodies against homologous viruses. However, sequential and bivalent immunization with Delta and Omicron spike trimers could induce significantly broader neutralizing antibody responses against heterogenous SARS-CoV-2. Interestingly, the spike trimer from Omicron variant showed superior immunogenicity in inducing antibody response against recently emerging XE variant. Taken together, our data supported the development of novel vaccination strategies or multivalent vaccine against emerging variants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

13.
World Journal of Clinical Cases ; 10(23):8161-8169, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1998046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been far more devastating than expected, showing no signs of slowing down at present. Heilongjiang Province is the most northeastern province of China, and has cold weather for nearly half a year and an annual temperature difference of more than 60ºC, which increases the underlying morbidity associated with pulmonary diseases, and thus leads to lung dysfunction. The demographic features and laboratory parameters of COVID-19 deceased patients in Heilongjiang Province, China with such climatic characteristics are still not clearly illustrated. AIM To illustrate the demographic features and laboratory parameters of COVID-19 deceased patients in Heilongjiang Province by comparing with those of surviving severe and critically ill cases. METHODS COVID-19 deceased patients from different hospitals in Heilongjiang Province were included in this retrospective study and compared their characteristics with those of surviving severe and critically ill cases in the COVID-19 treatment center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University. The surviving patients were divided into severe group and critically ill group according to the Diagnosis and Treatment of New Coronavirus Pneumonia (the seventh edition). Demographic data were collected and recorded upon admission. Laboratory parameters were obtained from the medical records, and then compared among the groups. RESULTS Twelve COVID-19 deceased patients, 27 severe cases and 26 critically ill cases were enrolled in this retrospective study. No differences in age, gender, and number of comorbidities between groups were found. Neutrophil percentage (NEUT%), platelet (PLT), C-reactive protein (CRP), creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), serum troponin I (TNI) and brain natriuretic peptides (BNP) showed significant differences among the groups (P = 0.020, P = 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). The increase of CRP, D-dimer and NEUT% levels, as well as the decrease of lymphocyte count (LYMPH) and PLT counts, showed significant correlation with death of COVID-19 patients (P = 0.023, P = 0.008, P = 0.045, P = 0.020, P = 0.015, respectively). CONCLUSION Compared with surviving severe and critically ill cases, no special demographic features of COVID-19 deceased patients were observed, while some laboratory parameters including NEUT%, PLT, CRP, CK-MB, TNI and BNP showed significant differences. COVID-19 deceased patients had higher CRP, D-dimer and NEUT% levels and lower LYMPH and PLT counts.

14.
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks ; : 1-14, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1985507

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of COVID-19 disease has had a significant impact on the world. In this paper, we study COVID-19 data interpretation and visualization using open-data sources for 351 cities and towns in Massachusetts from December 6, 2020 to September 25, 2021. Because cities are embedded in rather complex transportation networks, we construct the spatio-temporal dynamic graph model, in which the graph attention neural network is utilized as a deep learning method to learn the pandemic transition probability among major cities in Massachusetts. Using the spectral graph wavelet transform (SGWT), we process the COVID-19 data on the dynamic graph, which enables us to design effective tools to analyze and detect spatio-temporal patterns in the pandemic spreading. We design a new node classification method, which effectively identifies the anomaly cities based on spectral graph wavelet coefficients. It can assist administrations or public health organizations in monitoring the spread of the pandemic and developing preventive measures. Unlike most work focusing on the evolution of confirmed cases over time, we focus on the spatio-temporal patterns of pandemic evolution among cities. Through the data analysis and visualization, a better understanding of the epidemiological development at the city level is obtained and can be helpful with city-specific surveillance. IEEE

15.
INTERNET JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES AND PRACTICE ; 20(2), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1935241

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify and quantify the presence of burnout in online degree advancement Respiratory Care students during a pandemic and characteristics/strategies of resiliency. Method: The design of the study was quantitative;non-experimental, descriptive, cross-sectional survey research. The Maslach Burnout Inventory for Medical Personnel (MBI-HSS (MP) and Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) were used to measure these constructs. Results: One hundred and twenty-nine (129) students completed components of the survey for a response rate of approximately 28%. Relevant findings include a somewhat higher level of depersonalization for those who practice in adult acute care. Emotional exhaustion was higher in those who reported working directly with COVID-19 patients. Depersonalization was higher in the younger aged professionals (18-40 years). Resilience was found to have a negative correlation with both emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and a positive correlation with personal accomplishment. Conclusions: Findings support the need for training and education on emotional intelligence and opportunities to practice mindfulness-based stress reduction. Additionally, workload reductions and adequate time for recovery may help alleviate the emotional exhaustion of working respiratory therapists who are pursuing an advanced degree online.

16.
IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation (IEEE ICMA) ; : 65-70, 2021.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1883120

ABSTRACT

The 2022 Winter Olympics bid success promoted the development of the ice and snow sports in China. The emergence of indoor skiing system drives the ski and snow sports into a highly developed period especially at the normal prevention and control stage of COVID-19. However, the conventional indoor skiing system is insufficient in sports experience and inability to track the skier trajectory and attitude for training. Fortunately, the Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) and Micro Inertial Navigation System (MINS) are widely used in indoor environments due to high-precision positioning and low-cost priorities. UWB presents high accuracy in positioning, while it is easily to be disturbed by the Non Line of Sight (NLOS) and multipath effects. Meanwhile, the MINS error would accumulate with time. Therefore, this paper proposed a MINS/UWB integration algorithm to implement the trajectory and attitude measurement of the skier with low-cost. Meanwhile, the MINS/UWB based Extended Kalman Filter (EKE) is designed with sequential algorithm for skiing. Finally, both the indoor positioning experiment and the intelligent skiing system verification experiment were carried out to verify the accuracy of MINS/UWB integration system. Experimental results show the MINS/UWB integration technology could locate effectively When the UWB signal is intermittently blocked.

17.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):381, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1881032

ABSTRACT

Background: China implemented strict lockdowns to contain COVID-19 at the early stage. We aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on HIV care continuum in China. Methods: Anonymized programmatic data on HIV care continuum between 1 January 2017 and 31 December 2020 were collected from seven provincial and municipal centers for disease control and prevention and eight major infectious disease hospitals specialized in HIV care in various regions in China. We performed interrupted time series analysis to characterize temporal trend in monthly numbers of HIV tests, HIV diagnosis, HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiations, ART collections, and HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) prescriptions before, during and after the national lockdown period (23 January to 7 April 2020). We used Poisson segmented regression models to estimate the immediate impact of the lockdown on these outcomes, as well as post-lockdown trends. Results: During the study period, we recorded 1,101,686 HIV tests, 69,659 HIV diagnoses, 63,458 ART initiations, 1,593,490 ART collections, and 16,780 PEP prescriptions. A median of 789 (IQR 367-975), 409 (278-626), and 1045 (524-1262) HIV tests per day were recorded before, during and after lockdown. Lockdown was associated with 32.8% decrease in HIV testing in January 2020, the first month after lockdown (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.672;95% confidence interval [CI] 0.585-0.772). Daily HIV diagnoses decreased from a median of 50 (7-76) before lockdown, to 23 (6-46) during lockdown, and back to 48 (12-74) after lockdown, with an estimated 27.1% decrease in January 2020 (0.729, 0.599-0.887). There was no marked change in the number of ART initiation and ART collection during the lockdown, but the number of ART collection was lower than the expected level by the end of December 2020 (0.761, 0.659-0.879). The number of monthly PEP prescriptions decreased significantly during the lockdown (0.362, 0.220-0.595) and still had not recovered to the expected level by the end of December 2020 (0.456, 0.362-0.574). With the ease of restrictions, HIV testing (slope change 1.067/month, 1.048-1.086) and PEP prescriptions (1.077/month, 1.016-1.142) showed a significant increasing trend. Conclusion: ART initiation and ART collection generally remained stable during the lockdown, but HIV testing, HIV diagnosis and PEP prescription were affected. ART collection and PEP prescriptions have not recovered to expected levels in the eighth month after the suspension of lockdown.

18.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):378, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880919

ABSTRACT

Background: Travel restrictions during the COVID-19 epidemic in China have impacted on the daily life and antiretroviral therapy (ART) of people living with HIV, including men who have sex with men (MSM). As China enters a state of routine COVID-19 prevention and control, it is necessary to understand the conditions of ART interruption (ATI) among HIV-infected MSM during and after the lockdown period (23 January to 7 April 2020) to summarize experience on HIV treatment. Methods: A nationwide cross-sectional online survey was conducted among HIV-infected MSM in China in February 2021, using convenience sampling on the WeChat platform called Li Hui Shi Kong. We collected information during and around lockdown period, including socio-demographics, health behaviors such as physical exercise and alcohol drinking, ART maintenance, CD4 and viral load testing. Pearson's Chi-squared test was performed to compare those characteristics between participants who experienced ATI during the lockdown period and did not. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the correlates of ATI. Results: A total of 1296 participants were included in the analysis. The median age was 29.3 years (interquartile range [IQR] 25.2-34.0). 40.9% (n=530) of them did not exercise regularly in the second half of 2019 and 62.3% (n=808) had alcohol drinking. During the lockdown period, 6.8% (n=88) reported ATI experience, and 49.5% (n=629) performed CD4 cell test. Among the participants who took the last CD4 test after the lockdown, more people had not experienced ATI (66.8%) compared to those had experienced ATI (38.6%). HIV-infected MSM using other ART regimen as temporary substitution were more unlikely to experience ATI, including free ART (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02-0.11) and out-of-pocket ART (aOR 0.11, 95% CI 0.01-0.89), which is different from their previous prescription. Conclusion: COVID-restrictions did not result in significantly negative effects on ART maintenance among HIV-infected MSM in China. In order to reduce the negative impact on HIV-infected MSM, attention should be paid to conducting health behavior education, maintaining ART service and encouraging CD4 and viral load testing during and after public emergencies.

19.
20.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-335867

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is one of the most consequential pandemics in the last century, yet the biological mechanisms that confer disease risk are incompletely understood. Further, heterogeneity in disease outcomes is influenced by race, though the relative contributions of structural/social and genetic factors remain unclear. Very recent unpublished work has identified two genetic risk loci that confer greater risk for respiratory failure in COVID-19: the ABO locus and the 3p21.31 locus. To understand how these loci might confer risk and whether this differs by race, we utilized proteomic profiling and genetic information from three cohorts including black and white participants to identify proteins influenced by these loci. We observed that variants in the ABO locus are associated with levels of CD209/DC-SIGN, a known binding protein for SARS-CoV and other viruses, as well as multiple inflammatory and thrombotic proteins, while the 3p21.31 locus is associated with levels of CXCL16, a known inflammatory chemokine. Thus, integration of genetic information and proteomic profiling in biracial cohorts highlights putative mechanisms for genetic risk in COVID-19 disease.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL