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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 438, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585880

ABSTRACT

Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine technology has shown its power in preventing the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Two mRNA vaccines targeting the full-length S protein of SARS-CoV-2 have been authorized for emergency use. Recently, we have developed a lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated mRNA (mRNA-LNP) encoding the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 (termed ARCoV), which confers complete protection in mouse model. Herein, we further characterized the protection efficacy of ARCoV in nonhuman primates and the long-term stability under normal refrigerator temperature. Intramuscular immunization of two doses of ARCoV elicited robust neutralizing antibodies as well as cellular response against SARS-CoV-2 in cynomolgus macaques. More importantly, ARCoV vaccination in macaques significantly protected animals from acute lung lesions caused by SARS-CoV-2, and viral replication in lungs and secretion in nasal swabs were completely cleared in all animals immunized with low or high doses of ARCoV. No evidence of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection was observed throughout the study. Finally, extensive stability assays showed that ARCoV can be stored at 2-8 °C for at least 6 months without decrease of immunogenicity. All these promising results strongly support the ongoing clinical trial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , /pharmacology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Macaca fascicularis , Vero Cells , /immunology
2.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 761964, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528864

ABSTRACT

Background: The rapid spread of Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) infection has been the most important public health crisis across the globe since the end of 2019. Anxiety and depression are the most common mental health problems among people during the pandemic, and many studies have reported anxiety and depressive symptoms in college students. However, information on the mental health status of international medical students during this critical period of time has been scarce, which hinders the efforts in making proper policy or strategies to help these students. The present study aims to explore the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in international medical students in China and to find out the factors that have potential predictive value for anxiety and depressive symptoms. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out for international medical students during November 2020 at China Medical University in Shenyang, China. Five hundred and nineteen international students were interviewed with questionnaires containing demographic variables, Stressors in school, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Assessment (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R) and Resilience Scale-14 (RS-14). Univariate logistic regression and stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted where appropriate to explore the predictive factors of anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms. Results: The prevalence of anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms in the sample population was 28.5% (148/519) and 31.6% (164/519), respectively. Stressors in school (ß = 0.176, OR = 1.192, CI: 1.102-1.289), negative coping style (ß = 0.639, OR = 1.894, CI: 1.287-2.788) and perceived stress (ß = 0.230, OR = 1.258, CI: 1.184-1.337) were found to be the predictors of anxiety symptoms among the international medical students; while gender (ß = -0.594, OR = 0.552, CI: 0.315-0.968), stay up late (ß = 0.828, OR = 2.288, CI: 1.182-4.431), current place of residence (ß = 1.082, OR = 2.951, CI: 1.256-6.931), stressors in the school (ß = 0.303, OR = 1.354, CI: 1.266-1.496), negative coping style (ß = 0.866, OR = 2.377, CI: 1.516-3.725), perceived stress (ß = 0.233, OR = 1.262, CI: 1.180-1.351) were found to be predictors of depressive symptoms. Conclusion: The prevalence of anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms was moderate among international medical students in China. The communal predictors of anxiety and depressive symptoms were stressors in school, negative coping style and perceived stress; while demographic factors such as gender (male), stay up late at night and current place of residence were found associated with depressive symptoms. These results suggest that proper stress management and specific interventions are needed to help students maintain their mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic period.

3.
Sustainability ; 13(21):11667, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1480990

ABSTRACT

Since 2019, the novel coronavirus has spread rapidly worldwide, greatly affecting social stability and human health. Pandemic prevention has become China’s primary task in responding to the transmission of COVID-19. Risk mapping and the proposal and implementation of epidemic prevention measures emphasize many research efforts. In this study, we collected location information for confirmed COVID-19 cases in Beijing, Shenyang, Dalian, and Shijiazhuang from 5 October 2020 to 5 January 2021, and selected 15 environmental variables to construct a model that comprehensively considered the parameters affecting the outbreak and spread of COVID-19 epidemics. Annual average temperature, catering, medical facilities, and other variables were processed using ArcGIS 10.3 and classified into three groups, including natural environmental variables, positive socio-environmental variables, and benign socio-environmental variables. We modeled the epidemic risk distribution for each area using the MaxEnt model based on the case occurrence data and environmental variables in four regions, and evaluated the key environmental variables influencing the epidemic distribution. The results showed that medium-risk zones were mainly distributed in Changping and Shunyi in Beijing, while Huanggu District in Shenyang and the southern part of Jinzhou District and the eastern part of Ganjingzi District in Dalian also represented areas at moderate risk of epidemics. For Shijiazhuang, Xinle, Gaocheng and other places were key COVID-19 epidemic spread areas. The jackknife assessment results revealed that positive socio-environmental variables are the most important factors affecting the outbreak and spread of COVID-19. The average contribution rate of the seafood market was 21.12%, and this contribution reached as high as 61.3% in Shenyang. The comprehensive analysis showed that improved seafood market management, strengthened crowd control and information recording, industry-catered specifications, and well-trained employees have become urgently needed prevention strategies in different regions. The comprehensive analysis indicated that the niche model could be used to classify the epidemic risk and propose prevention and control strategies when combined with the assessment results of the jackknife test, thus providing a theoretical basis and information support for suppressing the spread of COVID-19 epidemics.

4.
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information ; 10(10):678, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1463700

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic has caused a considerable impact on humans, which expresses the urgency and importance of studying its impacts. Previous studies either frequently use aggregated research methods of statistic data or stay during COVID-19. The afterward impacts of COVID-19 on human behaviors need to be explored further. This article carries out a non-aggregated study methodology in human geography based on big data from social media comments and takes Nanjing, China, as the research case to explore the afterward impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on the spatial behavior of urban tourists. Precisely, we propose the methodology covers two main aspects regarding travel contact trajectory and spatial trajectory. In contact trajectory, we explore three indicators—Connection Strength, Degree Centrality, and Betweenness Centrality—of the collected attractions. Then, in spatial trajectory, we input the results from contact trajectory into ArcGIS by using the Orientation–Destination Model and Standard Deviation Ellipse to explore the influences on the spatial pattern. By setting up comparative groups for the three periods of before, during, and after the COVID-19 in Nanjing, this study found that, in the post-epidemic era, (1) the spatial behavior of urban tourists showed a state of overall contraction;(2) the objects of contraction changed from urban architectural attractions to urban natural attractions;(3) the form of contraction presents concentric circles with the central city (Old City of Nanjing) as the core;(4) the direction of contraction heads to the large-scale natural landscape in the central city, which highlights the importance of green open spaces in the post-epidemic era.

6.
Leukemia ; 2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437661

ABSTRACT

We studied clinical and immunological outcome of Covid-19 in consecutive CLL patients from a well-defined area during month 1-13 of the pandemic. Sixty patients (median age 71 y, range 43-97) were identified. Median CIRS was eight (4-20). Patients had indolent CLL (n = 38), had completed (n = 12) or ongoing therapy (n = 10). Forty-six patients (77%) were hospitalized due to severe Covid-19 and 11 were admitted to ICU. Severe Covid-19 was equally distributed across subgroups irrespective of age, gender, BMI, CLL status except CIRS (p < 0.05). Fourteen patients (23%) died; age ≥75 y was the only significant risk factor (p < 0.05, multivariate analysis with limited power). Comparing month 1-6 vs 7-13 of the pandemic, deaths were numerically reduced from 32% to 18%, ICU admission from 37% to 15% whereas hospitalizations remained frequent (86% vs 71%). Seroconversion occurred in 33/40 patients (82%) and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detectable at six and 12 months in 17/22 and 8/11 patients, respectively. Most (13/17) had neutralizing antibodies and 19/28 had antibodies in saliva. SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cells (ELISpot) were detected in 14/17 patients. Covid-19 continued to result in high admission even among consecutive and young early- stage CLL patients. A robust and durable B and/or T cell immunity was observed in most convalescents.

7.
J Infect Dis ; 224(4): 586-594, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367023

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The duration of humoral and T and B cell response after the infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains unclear. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study to assess the virus-specific antibody and memory T and B cell responses in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients up to 343 days after infection. Neutralizing antibodies and antibodies against the receptor-binding domain, spike, and nucleoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 were measured. Virus-specific memory T and B cell responses were analyzed. RESULTS: We enrolled 59 patients with COVID-19, including 38 moderate, 16 mild, and 5 asymptomatic patients; 31 (52.5%) were men and 28 (47.5%) were women. The median age was 41 years (interquartile range, 30-55). The median day from symptom onset to enrollment was 317 days (range 257 to 343 days). We found that approximately 90% of patients still have detectable immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies against spike and nucleocapsid proteins and neutralizing antibodies against pseudovirus, whereas ~60% of patients had detectable IgG antibodies against receptor-binding domain and surrogate virus-neutralizing antibodies. The SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG+ memory B cell and interferon-γ-secreting T cell responses were detectable in more than 70% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-specific immune memory response persists in most patients approximately 1 year after infection, which provides a promising sign for prevention from reinfection and vaccination strategy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Adult , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
8.
Encyclopedia ; 1(3):773-780, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1348619

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 mRNA vaccines contain synthetic mRNA sequences encoded for the Spike proteins expressed on the surface of SARS-CoV-2, and utilize the host cells to produce specific antigens that stimulate both humoral and cellular immunities. Lipid nanoparticles are essential to facilitate the intracellular delivery of the mRNA to its action site, the ribosome, to fully exert its effect.

9.
Cell Res ; 31(9): 1011-1023, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315592

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global crisis, urgently necessitating the development of safe, efficacious, convenient-to-store, and low-cost vaccine options. A major challenge is that the receptor-binding domain (RBD)-only vaccine fails to trigger long-lasting protective immunity if used alone for vaccination. To enhance antigen processing and cross-presentation in draining lymph nodes (DLNs), we developed an interferon (IFN)-armed RBD dimerized by an immunoglobulin fragment (I-R-F). I-R-F efficiently directs immunity against RBD to DLNs. A low dose of I-R-F induces not only high titers of long-lasting neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) but also more comprehensive T cell responses than RBD. Notably, I-R-F provides comprehensive protection in the form of a one-dose vaccine without an adjuvant. Our study shows that the pan-epitope modified human I-R-F (I-P-R-F) vaccine provides rapid and complete protection throughout the upper and lower respiratory tracts against a high-dose SARS-CoV-2 challenge in rhesus macaques. Based on these promising results, we have initiated a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase I/II trial of the human I-P-R-F vaccine (V-01) in 180 healthy adults, and the vaccine appears safe and elicits strong antiviral immune responses. Due to its potency and safety, this engineered vaccine may become a next-generation vaccine candidate in the global effort to overcome COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Protein Binding/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Double-Blind Method , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferons/immunology , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle Aged , Vaccination/methods , Vero Cells , Young Adult
10.
Health Promot Perspect ; 11(2): 250-255, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273809

ABSTRACT

Background : The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in London is rising, obesity being a major driver. As part of a primary care placement, the authors (two medical students and a lead general practitioner) directly promoted the Reducing Weight with Intensive Dietary Support (REWIND) programme to patients in Northwest London and collected feedback on the promotion. Methods : The team developed and delivered three remote interventions: a redesigned patient-facing information leaflet, phone calls and text messages, and a live, interactive webinar, to directly engage patients and raise awareness about REWIND. Feedback was collected pre and post-webinar using an anonymised, online survey (essentially functioning as a 'teaching' evaluation). Results : Mean interest in REWIND had increased from 2.7 (pre-promotion) to 4.7 (post-promotion), knowledge about REWIND had increased from 2.1 to 4, and self-reported likelihood of enrolling had increased from 2.6 to 4.2 (P<0.01 in all cases). The reported usefulness of the leaflet and webinar was scored 3.7 and 4.4 respectively. Within two weeks of the webinar, two of these patients had joined REWIND. Conclusion : Feedback from the patients and GP revealed that the project successfully raised awareness, improved knowledge, and increased the likelihood of enrolment in REWIND. Diabetes programmes and organisations are encouraged to adapt the methods of this project to their own contexts, especially in light of COVID-19 where remote interventions will remain essential.

11.
J Infect Dis ; 224(4): 586-594, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225628

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The duration of humoral and T and B cell response after the infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains unclear. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study to assess the virus-specific antibody and memory T and B cell responses in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients up to 343 days after infection. Neutralizing antibodies and antibodies against the receptor-binding domain, spike, and nucleoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 were measured. Virus-specific memory T and B cell responses were analyzed. RESULTS: We enrolled 59 patients with COVID-19, including 38 moderate, 16 mild, and 5 asymptomatic patients; 31 (52.5%) were men and 28 (47.5%) were women. The median age was 41 years (interquartile range, 30-55). The median day from symptom onset to enrollment was 317 days (range 257 to 343 days). We found that approximately 90% of patients still have detectable immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies against spike and nucleocapsid proteins and neutralizing antibodies against pseudovirus, whereas ~60% of patients had detectable IgG antibodies against receptor-binding domain and surrogate virus-neutralizing antibodies. The SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG+ memory B cell and interferon-γ-secreting T cell responses were detectable in more than 70% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-specific immune memory response persists in most patients approximately 1 year after infection, which provides a promising sign for prevention from reinfection and vaccination strategy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Adult , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2227-2233, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217375

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, little is known about the durability of the antibody response during COVID-19 convalescent phase. We investigated the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies including immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and the dynamic changes in antibody levels in convalescent COVID-19 patients. A total of 159 blood samples were collected from 52 recovered COVID-19 patients up to six months after symptom onset for longitudinal serological tests. The positive rate of IgG and IgM antibodies was 92.3% and 90.4% in the first month after symptom onset, and the seropositivity of IgG antibody remained high at all follow-up time points, whereas the seropositivity of IgM antibody decreased to 22.73% by the sixth months after symptom onset. The level of IgG antibody was stable, the level of IgM antibody decreased slightly in the early convalescent phase and was detected in only five patients in the sixth month after symptom onset. The level of IgG antibody was higher in the severe and critical group than in the moderate group. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies have a long-term persistence in convalescent COVID-19 patients, whether they have long-term protection need to be further investigated.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Serologic Tests/methods
13.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue = China Environmental Science ; 41(2):505, 2021.
Article in Chinese | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1192880

ABSTRACT

In order to evaluate the effect of air pollutions emission reduction in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and its surrounding 26 cities("2 + 26" cities) from January to March in 2020 during the epidemic of COVID-19, the air quality model of nested air quality prediction modeling system(NAQPMS) was applied to conduct a few scenarios. The characteristics of air quality from January to March 2020, and during the periods before and after the epidemic of COVID-19 were investigated. The influences of meteorology, emergency emission reduction measures and social economic activities on ambient air quality as well as the uncertainties were elucidated and discussed. The results showed that the number of days achieving good and moderate air quality standard in "2+26" cities accounted for 59.6%, on average of 10.9% increase relative to the same period last year. The mean concentration of PM10、PM2.5、SO2、NO2、O3-8 h-90 per and CO-95 per in "2 + 26" cities from January to March in 2020 were 108, 76, 14, 109, 36μg/m3, and 2.3 mg/m3, respectively. During the epidemic period from January 24 to March 31, the concentrations of PM10, NO2, PM2.5, and CO decreased significantly compared with the period prior to the epidemic from January 1 to 23. In contrast to January to March in 2019, the PM2.5 concentrations of the cities along the Yan mountain and Taihang mountain increased by 1%~8% in 2020. However, the model simulations revealed that the emergency emission reduction measures potentially avoided twice of the regional heavy air pollution events, resulting in the quarterly mean PM2.5 concentration in "2 + 26" cities reduced by 6 to 26μg/m3. Due to the influence of the Spring Festival holiday and epidemic, the traffic emissions were reduced substantially. In contrast, the emissions from the industry such as coking and thermal power did not show large variations, and the negative impact of loose coal combustion on ambient air quality may become even more severe.

14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 634949, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120248

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of delivery mode on the infection rates of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the newborn remains unknown. We aimed to summarize the existing literature on COVID-19 infection during pregnancy to evaluate which mode of delivery is better for preventing possible vertical transmission from a pregnant mother confirmed with COVID-19 to a neonate. Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM) from 31 December 2019 to 18 June 2020. We applied no language restrictions. We screened abstracts for relevance, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias in duplicate. We rated the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. The primary outcome was severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test positivity in neonates born to mothers with confirmed COVID-19 following different delivery modes. Secondary outcomes were neonatal deaths and maternal deaths. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020194049. Results: Sixty-eight observational studies meeting inclusion criteria were included in the current study, with no randomized controlled trials. In total, information on the mode of delivery, detailed neonatal outcomes, and SARS-CoV-2 status were available for 1,019 pregnant women and 1,035 neonates. Six hundred and eighteen (59.71%) neonates were born through cesarean section and 417(40.29%) through vaginal delivery. Probable congenital SARS-CoV-2 infections were reported in 34/1,035 (3.29%) neonates. Of babies born vaginally, 9/417 (2.16%) were tested positive compared with 25/618 (4.05%) born by cesarean. Of babies born vaginally, 0/417 (0.00%) neonatal deaths were reported compared with 6/618 (0.97%) born by cesarean. Of women who delivered vaginally, 1/416 (0.24%) maternal deaths were reported compared with 11/603 (1.82%) delivered by cesarean. Two women died before delivery. Sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses showed similar findings. Conclusions: The rate of neonatal COVID-19 infection, neonatal deaths, and maternal deaths are no greater when the mother gave birth through vaginal delivery. Based on the evidence available, there is no sufficient evidence supporting that the cesarean section is better than vaginal delivery in preventing possible vertical transmission from a pregnant mother confirmed with COVID-19 to a neonate. The mode of birth should be individualized and based on disease severity and obstetric indications. Additional good-quality studies with comprehensive serial tests from multiple specimens are urgently needed. Study registration: PROSPERO CRD42020194049.

15.
International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics ; 59(3):175, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1103059
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 897, 2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075219

ABSTRACT

The dynamics, duration, and nature of immunity produced during SARS-CoV-2 infection are still unclear. Here, we longitudinally measured virus-neutralising antibody, specific antibodies against the spike (S) protein, receptor-binding domain (RBD), and the nucleoprotein (N) of SARS-CoV-2, as well as T cell responses, in 25 SARS-CoV-2-infected patients up to 121 days post-symptom onset (PSO). All patients seroconvert for IgG against N, S, or RBD, as well as IgM against RBD, and produce neutralising antibodies (NAb) by 14 days PSO, with the peak levels attained by 15-30 days PSO. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and NAb remain detectable and relatively stable 3-4 months PSO, whereas IgM antibody rapidly decay. Approximately 65% of patients have detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ or CD8+ T cell responses 3-4 months PSO. Our results thus provide critical evidence that IgG, NAb, and T cell responses persist in the majority of patients for at least 3-4 months after infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Kinetics , Leukocyte Common Antigens/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Receptors, CCR7/metabolism
17.
Bioanalysis ; 13(2): 77-88, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1022113

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread globally since its first report and become a worldwide pandemic. In response to the outbreak of COVID-19, Center for Medical Device Evaluation, NMPA (CMDE) initiated emergency review and approval procedures to accelerate the process of reviewing emergent medical products and issued the Key Points of Technical Review for the Registration of SARS-CoV-2 Antigen/Antibody Tests (Key Points) to provide the requirements on the technical review of the tests. With uncontrolled spread and evolution of COVID-19 in the world, continuous prevention and measurements are necessary for fighting this pandemic and SARS-CoV-2 antigen/antibody tests are still urgently needed. This article is an attempt to expand clarification of the Key Points to wider audiences based on current understanding of SARS-CoV-2 to facilitate the development and application of SARS-CoV-2 antigen/antibody tests.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , China , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Limit of Detection , Pandemics , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results
18.
Bioanalysis ; 13(2): 69-76, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979190

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing an important supplement to nucleic acid testing. In the process of emergency approval, the Center for Medical Device Evaluation of the China National Medical Products Administration released The Key Points of Technical Review for the Registration of SARS-CoV-2 Antigen/Antibody Detection Reagents. The Clinical Study Requirement section of the Key Point has put forward requirements in terms of reference methods and subject enrolment among others, which can ensure that the test results can meet the clinical needs. This article draws on the experience of the China NMPA in evaluating diagnostic reagents used to supplement the gold standard test method in the early stage of an epidemic of an infectious disease, as well as to serve as reference for clinicians and regulators.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Indicators and Reagents/standards , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19 , China , Device Approval , Government Agencies , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Patient Selection , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results , Research Design
19.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 585629, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-961648

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all aspects of life worldwide. The aim of the present study was to review and describe and acknowledge the impact of COVID-19 on the pediatric health care system at a pediatric tertiary hospital in Wenzhou. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, a public pediatric tertiary hospital in Southern Zhejiang Province that specializes in pediatrics. The data regarding the primary diagnosis of patients were extracted from the electronic medical records system of the hospital. Data for outpatients and inpatients treated at the pediatric department were analyzed in the time frame of 22 weeks since the beginning of the pandemic (from December 30, 2019 to June 2, 2020) and compared with data from the same period in 2019. Results: The total number of outpatient cases in the previous 22 weeks of the year declined from 560,620 in 2019 to 247,030 in 2020, and inpatient cases decreased from 14,177 to 7,555. This negative trend settled by week 6 and 7 and subsequently approached the 2019 numbers. The most noticeable decrease in the number of cases was observed in children of preschool age. Moreover, the number of weekly visits decreased at the beginning of the epidemic, reached the lowest value during the lockdown period, and recovered after the lockdown. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, clinical practice in a pediatric department in Wenzhou was substantially affected by the epidemic and measures such as physical distancing and increased personal hygiene, particularly in preschool-age children. An understanding of the trends and impacts of the pandemic on pediatric patients and health systems will facilitate better preparation of pediatricians in the future.

20.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 59(3): 175-181, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-946125

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly in numerous countries and caused a massive number of deaths. Interferon-α (IFN-α), lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine phosphate, arbidol, ribavirin, remdesivir, and dexamethasone are the therapeutic drugs recommended for treating 2019-nCoV disease (COVID-19 disease). Due to the particularity of immune function, pregnant women seem to be more susceptible to the virus. We searched the literature to find effective and safe drugs for patients with COVID-19 during pregnancy and to provide drug therapy strategies for medical staff. According to the current literature we reviewed, we suggest that IFN-α and arbidol can be retained in the treatment regimen for pregnant women and that to reduce maternal mortality, appropriate doses of dexamethasone can be given to those who are predicted to have low premature survival and to receive mechanical ventilation or oxygen. However, the use of dexamethasone in the 1st trimester and after 37 weeks of gestation should be avoided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
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