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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1183, 2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533248

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigate the long-term effects of SARS-CoV on patients' lung and immune systems 15 years post-infection. SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is ongoing however, another genetically related beta-coronavirus SARS-CoV caused an epidemic in 2003-2004. METHODS: We enrolled 58 healthcare workers from Peking University People's Hospital who were infected with SARS-CoV in 2003. We evaluated lung damage by mMRC score, pulmonary function tests, and chest CT. Immune function was assessed by their serum levels of globin, complete components, and peripheral T cell subsets. ELISA was used to detect SARS-CoV-specific IgG antibodies in sera. RESULTS: After 15 years of disease onset, 19 (36.5%), 8 (34.6%), and 19 (36.5%) subjects had impaired DL (CO), RV, and FEF25-75, respectively. 17 (30.4%) subjects had an mMRC score ≥ 2. Fourteen (25.5%) cases had residual CT abnormalities. T regulatory cells were a bit higher in the SARS survivors. IgG antibodies against SARS S-RBD protein and N protein were detected in 11 (18.97%) and 12 (20.69%) subjects, respectively. Subgroup analysis revealed that small airway dysfunction and CT abnormalities were more common in the severe group than in the non-severe group (57.1% vs 22.6%, 54.5% vs 6.1%, respectively, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV could cause permanent damage to the lung, which requires early pulmonary rehabilitation. The long-lived immune memory response against coronavirus requires further studies to assess the potential benefit. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03443102. Registered prospectively on 25 January 2018.

3.
Front Psychol ; 12: 553234, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485094

ABSTRACT

In February 2020, an inpatient in Peking University People's Hospital (PKUPH), China, was confirmed positive for the novel coronavirus. In this case, 143 hemodialysis patients were labeled as close contacts and required to be placed under the hospital-based group medical quarantine (HB-GMQ) for 2 weeks by the authorities. After the case was reported, false or misleading information about the case flourished on social media platforms, which led to infodemic. Under this context, PKUPH adopted patient-centered humanistic care to implement the HB-GMQ, through the synergy of administrative, healthcare, logistical, and other measures under the model of patient-centered care of the Massachusetts Medical Society (MMS). As a result, all the patients tided over the HB-GMQ with no COVID-19 infection and no unanticipated adverse events, and all met the criteria for lifting the HB-GMQ. According to the questionnaires taken during the HB-GMQ, a high level of satisfaction was found among the quarantined and no symptomatic increase of anxiety and depression in the patients before and during the HB-GMQ, by comparing the Zung self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) conducted in December 2019 and on the 12th day of the HB-GMQ. This article is to brief on PKUPH's experience in implementing patient-centered humanistic care tailored to hemodialysis patients under the HB-GMQ, and to validate the hypothesis that patient-centered humanistic care is effective and helpful to help them tide over the HB-GMQ, so as to shed light on how to implement the HB-GMQ and cope with the HB-GMQ-induced problems in other hospitals.

5.
Bone Res ; 8: 8, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452500

ABSTRACT

The most severe sequelae after rehabilitation from SARS are femoral head necrosis and pulmonary fibrosis. We performed a 15-year follow-up on the lung and bone conditions of SARS patients. We evaluated the recovery from lung damage and femoral head necrosis in an observational cohort study of SARS patients using pulmonary CT scans, hip joint MRI examinations, pulmonary function tests and hip joint function questionnaires. Eighty medical staff contracted SARS in 2003. Two patients died of SARS, and 78 were enrolled in this study from August 2003 to March 2018. Seventy-one patients completed the 15-year follow-up. The percentage of pulmonary lesions on CT scans diminished from 2003 (9.40 ± 7.83)% to 2004 (3.20 ± 4.78)% (P < 0.001) and remained stable thereafter until 2018 (4.60 ± 6.37)%. Between 2006 and 2018, the proportion of patients with interstitial changes who had improved pulmonary function was lower than that of patients without lesions, as demonstrated by the one-second ratio (FEV1/FVC%, t = 2.21, P = 0.04) and mid-flow of maximum expiration (FEF25%-75%, t = 2.76, P = 0.01). The volume of femoral head necrosis decreased significantly from 2003 (38.83 ± 21.01)% to 2005 (30.38 ± 20.23)% (P = 0.000 2), then declined slowly from 2005 to 2013 (28.99 ± 20.59)% and plateaued until 2018 (25.52 ± 15.51)%. Pulmonary interstitial damage and functional decline caused by SARS mostly recovered, with a greater extent of recovery within 2 years after rehabilitation. Femoral head necrosis induced by large doses of steroid pulse therapy in SARS patients was not progressive and was partially reversible.

6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 702635, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430708

ABSTRACT

Objective: As the number of recovering COVID-19 patients increases worldwide, the persistence of symptoms and signs through the post-acute phase indicates an urgent need for prolonged follow-up care. To explore existing data about post-acute COVID-19 syndrome, this meta-analysis assesses the prevalence of persistent manifestations in multiple systems and abnormalities in lung function, as well as their related risks in patients with various severities. Methods: Articles about discharged COVID-19 patients (published from January 1, 2020 to February 23, 2021) were obtained by searching four databases. Cohort studies with follow-up periods >1 month post-discharge or >2 months post-admission were included. Results: A total of 4,478 COVID-19 patients from 16 cohort studies were included in this meta-analysis. Fatigue or weakness (47%) were the most prevalent physical effects of post-acute COVID-19 syndrome, while psychosocial (28%) symptoms were the most common manifestations among several systems. Abnormalities in lung function of recovering patients, i.e., DLCO <80% (47%, 95% CI: 32-61%) persisted for long periods. Severe patients were more likely to present joint pain (OR 1.84, 95% CI: 1.11-3.04) and decreased lung functions compared with non-severe patients, with pooled ORs for abnormal TLC, FEV1, FVC, and DLCO of 3.05 (95% CI: 1.88-4.96), 2.72 (95% CI: 1.31-5.63), 2.52 (95% CI: 1.28-4.98), and 1.82 (95% CI: 1.32-2.50), respectively. Conclusions: Our research indicates that patients recovering from COVID-19 manifest long-term, multi-system symptoms, and the adverse effects on psychosocial health and lung functions were the most extensive and persistent. These findings together may facilitate much needed in-depth study of clinical treatments for long-term, post-acute phase symptoms that affect a great number of recovering COVID-19 patients.

7.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1096-1105, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343665

ABSTRACT

Human coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause respiratory infection epidemics that sometimes expand into globally relevant pandemics. All human CoVs have sister strains isolated from animal hosts and seem to have an animal origin, yet the process of host jumping is largely unknown. RNA interference (RNAi) is an ancient mechanism in many eukaryotes to defend against viral infections through the hybridization of host endogenous small RNAs (miRNAs) with target sites in invading RNAs. Here, we developed a method to identify potential RNAi-sensitive sites in the viral genome and discovered that human-adapted coronavirus strains had deleted some of their sites targeted by miRNAs in human lungs when compared to their close zoonic relatives. We further confirmed using a phylogenetic analysis that the loss of RNAi-sensitive target sites could be a major driver of the host-jumping process, and adaptive mutations that lead to the loss-of-target might be as simple as point mutation. Up-to-date genomic data of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and Middle-East respiratory syndromes-CoV strains demonstrate that the stress from host miRNA milieus sustained even after their epidemics in humans. Thus, this study illustrates a new mechanism about coronavirus to explain its host-jumping process and provides a novel avenue for pathogenesis research, epidemiological modeling, and development of drugs and vaccines against coronavirus, taking into consideration these findings.


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , RNA/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Tropism , Humans
8.
Pathogens ; 10(2)2021 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110464

ABSTRACT

Despite progress in intensive care, the morbidity and mortality of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains high. Furthermore, the predictive and prognostic utility of resistin-like molecule beta (RELM-ß) in patients with CAP is uncertain. This study investigated the role of RELM-ß in patients with CAP and evaluated its correlation with disease severity and the risk of death. A prospective, multicenter study was conducted in 2017, and admission serum levels of RELM-ß were detected using quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total of 114 and 112 patients with severe CAP (SCAP) and non-severe CAP (NSCAP) were enrolled, respectively, with 15 healthy controls. Patients with SCAP, especially non-survivors, had significantly higher levels of serum RELM-ß than patients with NSCAP. RELM-ß levels positively correlated with severity scores and consistently predicted SCAP in patients with CAP (area under the curve = 0.794). Increased levels of RELM-ß were closely related to the severity and prognosis of patients with CAP. The accuracy of 30-day mortality predictions of CURB-65 (confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and age ≥ 65 years) can be significantly improved when combined with RELM-ß levels. The level of RELM-ß can assist clinicians in risk stratification of patients with CAP in early stages.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 713-720, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus (CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2, has infected >75 000 individuals and spread to >20 countries. It is still unclear how fast the virus evolved and how it interacts with other microorganisms in the lung. METHODS: We have conducted metatranscriptome sequencing for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from 8 patients with SARS-CoV-2, and also analyzed data from 25 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and 20 healthy controls for comparison. RESULTS: The median number of intrahost variants was 1-4 in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, ranged from 0 to 51 in different samples. The distribution of variants on genes was similar to those observed in the population data. However, very few intrahost variants were observed in the population as polymorphisms, implying either a bottleneck or purifying selection involved in the transmission of the virus, or a consequence of the limited diversity represented in the current polymorphism data. Although current evidence did not support the transmission of intrahost variants in a possible person-to-person spread, the risk should not be overlooked. Microbiotas in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients were similar to those in CAP, either dominated by the pathogens or with elevated levels of oral and upper respiratory commensal bacteria. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 evolves in vivo after infection, which may affect its virulence, infectivity, and transmissibility. Although how the intrahost variant spreads in the population is still elusive, it is necessary to strengthen the surveillance of the viral evolution in the population and associated clinical changes.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Genetic Variation , Genomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(19): 18822-18832, 2020 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-836444

ABSTRACT

In this study, we established a simple and practical tool for early identification of potentially high-risk individuals among elderly COVID-19 patients. Included were 2106 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients aged 60 years and above in 30 provinces of mainland China. Using discrimination (the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve [AUC]) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test and calibration plots), a nomogram for predicting critically ill cases was developed, and its performance was examined using an internal validation cohort (444 patients) and external cohort (770 patients). The proportion of critically ill patients was 11.8% (248/2106). The most common symptoms at the onset of illness were fever (66.6%), cough (34.1%), fatigue (23.3%), and expectoration (23.6%). Older age, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, fever, fatigue, shortness of breath, and lymphocyte percentage lower than 20% at admission were associated with increased risk of becoming critically ill. The AUCs for the six-variable-based nomogram were 0.77 (95% CI: 0.73-0.82), 0.73 (95% CI: 0.67-0.79), and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.71-0.83) in the development, internal validation, and external validation cohorts, respectively. This six-variable-based nomogram could potentially serve as a practical and reliable tool for early identification of elderly COVID-19 patients at high risk of becoming critically ill.

12.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 422, 2020 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641221

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that started in Wuhan, China, at the end of 2019 has become a global pandemic. Both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV enter host cells via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, which is expressed in various human organs. We have reviewed previously published studies on SARS and recent studies on SARS-CoV-2 infection, named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization (WHO), confirming that many other organs besides the lungs are vulnerable to the virus. ACE2 catalyzes angiotensin II conversion to angiotensin-(1-7), and the ACE2/angiotensin-(1-7)/MAS axis counteracts the negative effects of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which plays important roles in maintaining the physiological and pathophysiological balance of the body. In addition to the direct viral effects and inflammatory and immune factors associated with COVID-19 pathogenesis, ACE2 downregulation and the imbalance between the RAS and ACE2/angiotensin-(1-7)/MAS after infection may also contribute to multiple organ injury in COVID-19. The SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, which binds to ACE2, is a potential target for developing specific drugs, antibodies, and vaccines. Restoring the balance between the RAS and ACE2/angiotensin-(1-7)/MAS may help attenuate organ injuries. SARS-CoV-2 enters lung cells via the ACE2 receptor. The cell-free and macrophage-phagocytosed virus can spread to other organs and infect ACE2-expressing cells at local sites, causing multi-organ injury.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/enzymology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/enzymology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics
14.
Eur Respir J ; 55(6)2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), infected over 3300 healthcare workers in early 2020 in China. Little information is known about nosocomial infections of healthcare workers in the initial period. We analysed data from healthcare workers with nosocomial infections in Wuhan Union Hospital (Wuhan, China) and their family members. METHODS: We collected and analysed data on exposure history, illness timelines and epidemiological characteristics from 25 healthcare workers with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and two healthcare workers in whom COVID-19 was highly suspected, as well as 10 of their family members with COVID-19, between 5 January and 12 February 2020. The demographics and clinical features of the 35 laboratory-confirmed cases were investigated and viral RNA of 12 cases was sequenced and analysed. RESULTS: Nine clusters were found among the patients. All patients showed mild to moderate clinical manifestation and recovered without deterioration. The mean period of incubation was 4.5 days, the mean±sd clinical onset serial interval (COSI) was 5.2±3.2 days, and the median virus shedding time was 18.5 days. Complete genomic sequences of 12 different coronavirus strains demonstrated that the viral structure, with small irrelevant mutations, was stable in the transmission chains and showed remarkable traits of infectious traceability. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 can be rapidly transmitted from person to person, regardless of whether they have symptoms, in both hospital settings and social activities, based on the short period of incubation and COSI. The public health service should take practical measures to curb the spread, including isolation of cases, tracing close contacts, and containment of severe epidemic areas. Besides this, healthcare workers should be alert during the epidemic and self-quarantine if self-suspected of infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Family , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding , Whole Genome Sequencing
16.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(6): 883-890.e2, 2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-165371

ABSTRACT

The outbreaks of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection have posed a severe threat to global public health. It is unclear how the human immune system responds to this infection. Here, we used metatranscriptomic sequencing to profile immune signatures in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of eight COVID-19 cases. The expression of proinflammatory genes, especially chemokines, was markedly elevated in COVID-19 cases compared to community-acquired pneumonia patients and healthy controls, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes hypercytokinemia. Compared to SARS-CoV, which is thought to induce inadequate interferon (IFN) responses, SARS-CoV-2 robustly triggered expression of numerous IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). These ISGs exhibit immunopathogenic potential, with overrepresentation of genes involved in inflammation. The transcriptome data was also used to estimate immune cell populations, revealing increases in activated dendritic cells and neutrophils. Collectively, these host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection could further our understanding of disease pathogenesis and point toward antiviral strategies.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiratory System/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/analysis , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory System/pathology
17.
Lancet ; 395(10223): 497-506, 2020 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-34

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. METHODS: All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. FINDINGS: By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0-58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0-13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. INTERPRETATION: The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. FUNDING: Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/epidemiology , Myalgia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Prognosis , Radiography, Thoracic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
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