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Dysphagia ; 37(6): 1633-1650, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712242


The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the application of event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate neural processes of swallowing functions in adults with and without dysphagia. Computerized literature searches were performed from three search engines. Studies were screened using Covidence (Cochrane tool) and followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement standards (PRISMA-2009). A total of 759 studies were initially retrieved, of which 12 studies met inclusion criteria. Electrophysiological measures assessing swallowing functions were identified in two major ERP categories: (1) sensory potentials and (2) pre-motor potentials. Approximately 80% of eligible studies demonstrated strong methodological quality, although most employed a case series or case-control study design. Pharyngeal sensory-evoked potentials (PSEPs) were used to assess pharyngeal afferent cortical processing. The temporal sequence of the PSEP waveforms varied based on the sensory stimuli. PSEPs were delayed with localized scalp maps in patients with dysphagia as compared to healthy controls. The pre-motor ERPs assessed the cortical substrates involved in motor planning for swallowing, with the following major neural substrates identified: pre-motor cortex, supplementary motor area, and primary sensorimotor cortex. The pre-motor ERPs differed in amplitude for the swallow task (saliva versus liquid swallow), and the neural networks differed for cued versus non-cued task of swallowing suggesting differences in cognitive processes. This systematic review describes the application of electrophysiological measures to assess swallowing function and the promising application for furthering understanding of the neural substrates of swallowing. Standardization of protocols for use of electrophysiological measures to examine swallowing would allow for aggregation of study data to inform clinical practice for dysphagia rehabilitation.

Deglutition Disorders , Motor Cortex , Adult , Humans , Deglutition/physiology , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Motor Cortex/physiology , Pharynx/physiology
Sleep Breath ; 24(3): 791-799, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453831


OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize and qualitatively analyze published evidence elucidating the prevalence of dysphagia and detail alterations in swallowing function in patients with OSAS. METHODS: Computerized literature searches were performed from four search engines. The studies were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The studies were screened using Covidence (Cochrane tool) and followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement standards (PRISMA-2009). A total 2645 studies were initially retrieved, of which a total of 17 studies met inclusion criteria. Two reviewers, blinded to each other, evaluated level and strength of evidence using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence and QualSyst, respectively. RESULTS: Dysphagia prevalence ranged from 16 to 78% among the eligible studies. Studies varied in operational definitions defining swallowing dysfunction (dysphagia) and method used to assess swallowing function. Approximately 70% of eligible studies demonstrated strong methodological quality. The majority of studies (n = 11; 65%) reported pharyngeal swallowing impairments in patients with OSAS, including delayed initiation of pharyngeal swallow and penetration/aspiration. CONCLUSION: This systematic review describes swallowing function in patients with OSAS. However, due to the variability in defining OSAS and dysphagia, in the assessment method used to determine dysphagia, and heterogeneity of study designs, true prevalence is difficult to determine. Clinicians involved in the management of OSAS patients should employ validated assessment measures to determine if swallow dysfunction is present.

Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition/physiology , Oropharynx/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Humans , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology
Dysphagia ; 36(2): 170-182, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639039


At the time of writing this paper, there are over 11 million reported cases of COVID-19 worldwide. Health professionals involved in dysphagia care are impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic in their day-to-day practices. Otolaryngologists, gastroenterologists, rehabilitation specialists, and speech-language pathologists are subject to virus exposure due to their proximity to the aerodigestive tract and reliance on aerosol-generating procedures in swallow assessments and interventions. Across the globe, professional societies and specialty associations are issuing recommendations about which procedures to use, when to use them, and how to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission during their use. Balancing safety for self, patients, and the public while maintaining adequate evidence-based dysphagia practices has become a significant challenge. This paper provides current evidence on COVID-19 transmission during commonly used dysphagia practices and provides recommendations for protection while conducting these procedures. The paper summarizes current understanding of dysphagia in patients with COVID-19 and draws on evidence for dysphagia interventions that can be provided without in-person consults and close proximity procedures including dysphagia screening and telehealth.

COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Infection Control/organization & administration , Telemedicine/organization & administration , COVID-19/transmission , Humans