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Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(10): ofac507, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097433


Background: Estimates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence in young children and risk factors for seropositivity are scarce. Using data from a prospective cohort study of households during the pre-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine period, we estimated SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence by age and evaluated risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. Methods: The SARS-CoV-2 Epidemiology and Response in Children (SEARCh) study enrolled 175 Maryland households (690 participants) with ≥1 child aged 0-4 years during November 2020-March 2021; individuals vaccinated against COVID-19 were ineligible. At enrollment, participants completed questionnaires about sociodemographic and health status and work, school, and daycare attendance. Participants were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in sera. Logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations (GEE) to account for correlation within households assessed predictors of individual- and household-level SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. Results: Of 681 (98.7%) participants with enrollment serology results, 55 (8.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.3%-10.4%) participants from 21 (12.0%) households were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2. Among seropositive participants, fewer children than adults reported being tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection before enrollment (odds ratio [OR] = 0.23; 95% CI, .06-.73). Seropositivity was similar by age (GEE OR vs 0-4 years: 1.19 for 5-17 years, 1.36 for adults; P = .16) and was significantly higher among adults working outside the home (GEE adjusted OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.4) but not among children attending daycare or school. Conclusions: Before study enrollment, children and adults in this cohort had similar rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection as measured by serology. An adult household member working outside the home increased a household's odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas a child attending daycare or school in person did not.

Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2181-2189, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054900


We compared hospital-acquired catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) episodes diagnosed at acute care hospitals in Catalonia, Spain, during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 with those detected during 2007-2019. We compared the annual observed and predicted CRB rates by using the negative binomial regression model and calculated stratified annual root mean squared errors. A total of 10,030 episodes were diagnosed during 2007-2020. During 2020, the observed CRB incidence rate was 0.29/103 patient-days, whereas the predicted CRB rate was 0.14/103 patient-days. The root mean squared error was 0.153. Thus, a substantial increase in hospital-acquired CRB cases was observed during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 compared with the rate predicted from 2007-2019. The incidence rate was expected to increase by 1.07 (95% CI 1-1.15) for every 1,000 COVID-19-related hospital admissions. We recommend maintaining all CRB prevention efforts regardless of the coexistence of other challenges, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.

Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Humans , Spain/epidemiology , Incidence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Bacteremia/etiology , Catheters/adverse effects
JCI Insight ; 7(8)2022 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807767


BackgroundSARS-CoV-2 infections are frequently milder in children than adults, suggesting that immune responses may vary with age. However, information is limited regarding SARS-CoV-2 immune responses in young children.MethodsWe compared receptor binding domain-binding antibody (RBDAb) titers and SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibody titers, measured by pseudovirus-neutralizing antibody assay in serum specimens obtained from children aged 0-4 years and 5-17 years and in adults aged 18-62 years at the time of enrollment in a prospective longitudinal household study of SARS-CoV-2 infection.ResultsAmong 56 seropositive participants at enrollment, children aged 0-4 years had more than 10-fold higher RBDAb titers than adults (416 vs. 31, P < 0.0001) and the highest RBDAb titers in 11 of 12 households with seropositive children and adults. Children aged 0-4 years had only 2-fold higher neutralizing antibody than adults, resulting in higher binding-to-neutralizing antibody ratios compared with adults (2.36 vs. 0.35 for ID50, P = 0.0004).ConclusionThese findings suggest that young children mount robust antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 following community infections. Additionally, these results support using neutralizing antibody to measure the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in children aged 0-4 years.FundingCDC (award 75D30120C08737).

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Prospective Studies