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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575292

ABSTRACT

Mucosal immune response in the upper respiratory tract is crucial for the initial control of viral replication, the clearance of SARS-CoV-2, and the progression of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We analyzed the SARS-CoV-2 RNA load and the expression of selected immune genes in the upper respiratory tract (nasopharynx) of 255 SARS-CoV-2 infected patients and evaluated their association with severe COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 replication in the nasopharyngeal mucosa induces the expression of several innate immune genes. High SARS-CoV-2 viral load and low CCL5 expression levels were associated with ICU admission or death, although CCL5 was the best predictor of COVID-19 severity.

2.
J Virol Methods ; 300: 114382, 2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536941

ABSTRACT

Until mass vaccination befalls, control of the new betacoronavirus-associated severe acute respiratory syndrome pandemic (SARS-CoV-2) is based on decreasing virus circulation by social distancing and blocking transmission foci after diagnosis. Globally adopted SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic criteria embrace viral RNA detection by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on nasopharynx secretions, which requires healthcare facilities and specialized personnel for sample collection. To develop an alternative protocol, hydrophilic cotton as the material and saliva as the source for biological sample collection in qRT-PCR/RT-endpoint-PCR SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic methods prepared with local consumables were evaluated using 99 archived nasopharynx samples previously diagnosed as positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 111 prospective saliva samples pared with nasopharynx samples from patients attending the local reference ABC Medical School diagnostic laboratory. The kappa agreement coefficient between the SARS-CoV-2 qRT-PCR and RT-endpoint-PCR was k = 0.97 (95 % CI 0.92-1.00) and k = 0.90 (95 % CI 0.81-0.99), respectively, on SARS-CoV-2-positive archived samples, with the initial qRT-PCR CT under 25. The agreement coefficient of the SARS-CoV-2 alternative saliva diagnostic protocol, when used to test the paired nasopharynx samples, was k = 0.79 (95 % CI 0.56-1,00). These data support that the SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic assay based on self-collected saliva on cotton represents an alternative protocol for mass diagnosis and epidemiological studies in low-income regions.

3.
Trials ; 22(1): 808, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising strategy to break COVID-19 transmission. Although hydroxychloroquine was evaluated for treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis, it is not evaluated for COVID-19 PrEP yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of PrEP with hydroxychloroquine against placebo in healthcare workers at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection during an epidemic period. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial in three hospitals in Barcelona, Spain. From 350 adult healthcare workers screened, we included 269 participants with no active or past SARS-CoV-2 infection (determined by a negative nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 PCR and a negative serology against SARS-CoV-2). Participants allocated in the intervention arm (PrEP) received 400 mg of hydroxychloroquine daily for the first four consecutive days and subsequently, 400 mg weekly during the study period. Participants in the control group followed the same treatment schedule with placebo tablets. RESULTS: 52.8% (142/269) of participants were in the hydroxychloroquine arm and 47.2% (127/269) in the placebo arm. Given the national epidemic incidence decay, only one participant in each group was diagnosed with COVID-19. The trial was stopped due to futility and our study design was deemed underpowered to evaluate any benefit regarding PrEP efficacy. Both groups showed a similar proportion of participants experiencing at least one adverse event (AE) (p=0.548). No serious AEs were reported. Almost all AEs (96.4%, 106/110) were mild. Only mild gastrointestinal symptoms were significantly higher in the hydroxychloroquine arm compared to the placebo arm (27.4% (39/142) vs 15.7% (20/127), p=0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Although the efficacy of PrEP with hydroxychloroquine for preventing COVID-19 could not be evaluated, our study showed that PrEP with hydroxychloroquine at low doses is safe. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04331834 . Registered on April 2, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21612, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500515

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 led the Spanish government to impose a national lockdown in an attempt to control the spread of the infection. Mobility restrictions and the requirement of a medical prescription for serological testing for COVID-19 were included among the control measures. Under this scenario, between April 15th and June 15th, 2020, we performed an observational study including 449 individuals allowed to be tested according to the governmental restrictions, i.e. fulfilling the following prescription requirements: manifestation of COVID-19-compatible symptoms, contact with a confirmed COVID-19 patient, or employment as an essential worker, including health care workers, firefighters and public safety personnel such as police. Importantly, a relevant feature of the studied cohort was that none of the participants had been hospitalized. We analyzed SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositivity in this specific cohort, uncovering intrinsic features of great demographic interest. The overall rate of IgG seropositivity was 33.69% (95% CI: 29.27-38.21). This frequency was comparable among the different participant occupations. A RT-PCR positive test, contact with a household member previously tested positive and the presence of COVID-19-compatible symptoms were positively associated with IgG + results. Among these symptoms, ageusia/anosmia was positively and independently associated with SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositivity, while odynophagia was inversely associated. However, fever, ageusia/anosmia and asthenia were the most frequent symptoms described by IgG + subjects. Therefore, our data illustrate how specific cohorts display particular characteristics that should be taken into account when studying population-wide SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and key defining symptoms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G , COVID-19 Testing , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
5.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 7017-7024, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496747

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Seroprevalence against SARS-CoV-2 within university systems is poorly studied, making evidence-based discussions of educational system reopening difficult. Moreover, few studies evaluate how antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 are maintained over time. We assessed serological response against the SARS-CoV-2 virus among our university students and staff. Patients and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, seroprevalence was determined in 705 randomly selected volunteers, members of the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences of the University of Alcalá, using a chemiluminescent Siemens' SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay for total antibodies. Positive samples were tested for IgG and IgM/IgA using VIRCLIA® MONOTEST (Vircell). A first analysis took place during June 2020, and in those testing positive, a determination of secondary outcomes was performed in November 2020. Results: A total of 130 subjects showed anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (18.5%, 95% CI, 15.8-21.5%). Of these, IgM/IgA was positive in 27 and indeterminate in 19; IgG was positive in 118, indeterminate in 1. After 23 weeks, among 102 volunteers remeasured, IgG became undetectable in 6. Presence of antibodies was associated, in multivariable logistic regression, with exposure to infected patients (31.3%) [OR 1.84, 95% CI, 1.14-2.96; P = 0.012], presence of COVID-19 symptoms (52.4%) [OR 6.88, 95% CI, 4.28-11.06; P < 0.001], and confirmed earlier infection (82.9%) [OR 11.87, 95% CI, 4.26-33.07; P < 0.001]. Conclusions: The faculty of medicine and health sciences personnel and students of our university showed a high infection rate for SARS-CoV-2 during 2020 associated with providing clinical care to infected patients. This emphasizes the importance of the performance of continuous surveillance methods of the most exposed health personnel, including health science students.

6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 718053, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472390

ABSTRACT

Background: The link between coagulation system disorders and COVID-19 has not yet been fully elucidated. Aim: Evaluating the association of non-previously reported coagulation proteins with COVID-19 severity and mortality. Design: Cross-sectional study of 134 COVID-19 patients recruited at admission and classified according to the highest COVID-19 severity reached (asymptomatic/mild, moderate, or severe) and 16 healthy control individuals. Methods: Coagulation proteins levels (antithrombin, prothrombin, factor_XI, factor_XII, and factor_XIII) and CRP were measured in plasma by the ProcartaPlex Panel (Invitrogen) multiplex immunoassay upon diagnosis. Results: We found higher levels of antithrombin, prothrombin, factor XI, factor XII, and factor XIII in asymptomatic/mild and moderate COVID-19 patients compared to healthy individuals. Interestingly, decreased levels of antithrombin and factors XI, XII, and XIII were observed in those patients who eventually developed severe illness. Additionally, survival models showed us that patients with lower levels of these coagulation proteins had an increased risk of death. Conclusion: COVID-19 provokes early increments of some specific coagulation proteins in most patients. However, lower levels of these proteins at diagnosis might "paradoxically" imply a higher risk of progression to severe disease and COVID-19-related mortality.

7.
Revista de Psicopatologia y Psicologia Clinica ; 26(1):13-22, 2021.
Article in Spanish | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1456479

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an unprecedented global crisis, with dramatic changes in people's living conditions and mental health. The aim of this study is to establish predictors of depression, anxiety and stress in people affected by the epidemiological outbreak of COVID-19. Participants comprised 2,376 individuals over 18 years old, 79.6% women, who answered the Scale of Depression, Anxiety and Stress (DASS-21), in addition to scales to assess subjective severity, the search for social support and data related to COVID-19. It was observed that their main predictors were younger age, sleep problems, feeling lonely, not talking about their fears and subjective severity. The conclusion is that there are population groups at risk of experiencing higher levels of depression, anxiety and stress, which evidences the need to develop prevention and intervention strategies to reduce the psychological impact of the pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved) Abstract (Spanish) La pandemia de COVID-19 ha provocado una crisis mundial sin precedentes, con cambios drasticos en las condiciones de vida y en la salud mental de las personas. El proposito de este estudio es establecer predictores de depresion, ansiedad y estres en personas afectadas por el brote epidemiologico de COVID-19. Participaron 2,376 personas mayores de 18 anos, un 79.6% mujeres, quienes contestaron la Escala de Depresion, Ansiedad y Estres (DASS-21), ademas de escalas para evaluar la severidad subjetiva, la busqueda de apoyo social y datos relacionados con COVID-19. Se observo que sus principales predictores fueron tener menor edad, problemas para dormir, sentirse solo, no hablar de sus temores y la severidad subjetiva. Se concluye que existen grupos de poblacion en riesgo de experimentar niveles mas altos de depresion, ansiedad y estres, lo que evidencia la necesidad de desarrollar estrategias de prevencion e intervencion para reducir el impacto psicologico de la pandemia. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

8.
J Intern Med ; 2021 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455598

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies prevent viral replication. Critically ill COVID-19 patients show viral material in plasma, associated with a dysregulated host response. If these antibodies influence survival and viral dissemination in ICU-COVID patients is unknown. PATIENTS/METHODS: We studied the impact of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies levels on survival, viral RNA-load in plasma, and N-antigenaemia in 92 COVID-19 patients over ICU admission. RESULTS: Frequency of N-antigenaemia was >2.5-fold higher in absence of antibodies. Antibodies correlated inversely with viral RNA-load in plasma, representing a protective factor against mortality (Adjusted HR [CI 95%], p): (S IgM [AUC ≥ 60]: 0.44 [0.22; 0.88], 0.020); (S IgG [AUC ≥ 237]: 0.31 [0.16; 0.61], <0.001). Viral RNA-load in plasma and N-antigenaemia predicted increased mortality: (N1-viral load [≥ 2.156 copies/ml]: 2.25 [1.16; 4.36], 0.016); (N-antigenaemia: 2.45 [1.27; 4.69], 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Low anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibody levels predict mortality in critical COVID-19. Our findings support that these antibodies contribute to prevent systemic dissemination of SARS-CoV-2.

9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 736028, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438421

ABSTRACT

Background: Endothelial Activation and Stress Index (EASIX) predict death in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation who develop endothelial complications. Because coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients also have coagulopathy and endotheliitis, we aimed to assess whether EASIX predicts death within 28 days in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective study on COVID-19 patients from two different cohorts [derivation (n = 1,200 patients) and validation (n = 1,830 patients)]. The endpoint was death within 28 days. The main factors were EASIX [(lactate dehydrogenase * creatinine)/thrombocytes] and aEASIX-COVID (EASIX * age), which were log2-transformed for analysis. Results: Log2-EASIX and log2-aEASIX-COVID were independently associated with an increased risk of death in both cohorts (p < 0.001). Log2-aEASIX-COVID showed a good predictive performance for 28-day mortality both in the derivation cohort (area under the receiver-operating characteristic = 0.827) and in the validation cohort (area under the receiver-operating characteristic = 0.820), with better predictive performance than log2-EASIX (p < 0.001). For log2 aEASIX-COVID, patients with low/moderate risk (<6) had a 28-day mortality probability of 5.3% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 4-6.5%], high (6-7) of 17.2% (95% CI = 14.7-19.6%), and very high (>7) of 47.6% (95% CI = 44.2-50.9%). The cutoff of log2 aEASIX-COVID = 6 showed a positive predictive value of 31.7% and negative predictive value of 94.7%, and log2 aEASIX-COVID = 7 showed a positive predictive value of 47.6% and negative predictive value of 89.8%. Conclusion: Both EASIX and aEASIX-COVID were associated with death within 28 days in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. However, aEASIX-COVID had significantly better predictive performance than EASIX, particularly for discarding death. Thus, aEASIX-COVID could be a reliable predictor of death that could help to manage COVID-19 patients.

10.
JAMA ; 326(6): 499-518, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413703

ABSTRACT

Importance: Clinical trials assessing the efficacy of IL-6 antagonists in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 have variously reported benefit, no effect, and harm. Objective: To estimate the association between administration of IL-6 antagonists compared with usual care or placebo and 28-day all-cause mortality and other outcomes. Data Sources: Trials were identified through systematic searches of electronic databases between October 2020 and January 2021. Searches were not restricted by trial status or language. Additional trials were identified through contact with experts. Study Selection: Eligible trials randomly assigned patients hospitalized for COVID-19 to a group in whom IL-6 antagonists were administered and to a group in whom neither IL-6 antagonists nor any other immunomodulators except corticosteroids were administered. Among 72 potentially eligible trials, 27 (37.5%) met study selection criteria. Data Extraction and Synthesis: In this prospective meta-analysis, risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. Inconsistency among trial results was assessed using the I2 statistic. The primary analysis was an inverse variance-weighted fixed-effects meta-analysis of odds ratios (ORs) for 28-day all-cause mortality. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality at 28 days after randomization. There were 9 secondary outcomes including progression to invasive mechanical ventilation or death and risk of secondary infection by 28 days. Results: A total of 10 930 patients (median age, 61 years [range of medians, 52-68 years]; 3560 [33%] were women) participating in 27 trials were included. By 28 days, there were 1407 deaths among 6449 patients randomized to IL-6 antagonists and 1158 deaths among 4481 patients randomized to usual care or placebo (summary OR, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.79-0.95]; P = .003 based on a fixed-effects meta-analysis). This corresponds to an absolute mortality risk of 22% for IL-6 antagonists compared with an assumed mortality risk of 25% for usual care or placebo. The corresponding summary ORs were 0.83 (95% CI, 0.74-0.92; P < .001) for tocilizumab and 1.08 (95% CI, 0.86-1.36; P = .52) for sarilumab. The summary ORs for the association with mortality compared with usual care or placebo in those receiving corticosteroids were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.68-0.87) for tocilizumab and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.61-1.38) for sarilumab. The ORs for the association with progression to invasive mechanical ventilation or death, compared with usual care or placebo, were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.70-0.85) for all IL-6 antagonists, 0.74 (95% CI, 0.66-0.82) for tocilizumab, and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.74-1.34) for sarilumab. Secondary infections by 28 days occurred in 21.9% of patients treated with IL-6 antagonists vs 17.6% of patients treated with usual care or placebo (OR accounting for trial sample sizes, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.85-1.16). Conclusions and Relevance: In this prospective meta-analysis of clinical trials of patients hospitalized for COVID-19, administration of IL-6 antagonists, compared with usual care or placebo, was associated with lower 28-day all-cause mortality. Trial Registration: PROSPERO Identifier: CRD42021230155.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cause of Death , Coinfection , Disease Progression , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial
11.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12): 3296-3302, 2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of remdesivir has demonstrated a significant reduction in the time to recovery in patients with COVID-19. However, the impact on mortality is still controversial. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate whether there is a specific subgroup of patients in whom an active antiviral therapy also reduces the mortality. METHODS: Patients admitted for >48 h in our hospital for a SARS-CoV-2 confirmed or suspected infection from February 2020 to February 2021 were retrospectively analysed. The primary outcome of the study was mortality at 30 days. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of mortality. RESULTS: In total, 2607 patients (438 receiving remdesivir and 2169 not) were included with a median (IQR) age of 65 (54-77) years and 58% were male. Four hundred and seventy-six were admitted to the ICU (18.3%) and 264 required invasive mechanical ventilation (10.1%). The global 30 day mortality rate was 10.7%. Pre-admission symptom duration of 4-6 days and ≤3 days was associated with a 1.5- and 2.5-fold increase in the mortality rate, respectively, in comparison with >6 days and treatment with remdesivir was independently associated with a lower mortality rate (OR = 0.382, 95% CI = 0.218-0.671). The analysis showed that the major difference was among patients with shorter pre-admission symptom duration (<6 days). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ≤3 days and 4-6 days from symptom onset to admission are associated with a 2.5- and 1.5-fold higher risk of death, respectively. Remdesivir was associated with 62% reduced odds of death versus standard-of-care and its survival benefit increased with shorter duration of symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(9)2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374553

ABSTRACT

Development of a vaccine against HIV remains a major target goal in the field. The recent success of mRNA vaccines against the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is pointing out a new era of vaccine designs against pathogens. Here, we have generated two types of mRNA vaccine candidates against HIV-1; one based on unmodified vectors and the other on 1-methyl-3'-pseudouridylyl modified vectors expressing a T cell multiepitopic construct including protective conserved epitopes from HIV-1 Gag, Pol and Nef proteins (referred to as RNA-TMEP and RNA-TMEPmod, respectively) and defined their biological and immunological properties in cultured cells and in mice. In cultured cells, both mRNA vectors expressed the corresponding protein, with higher levels observed in the unmodified mRNA, leading to activated macrophages with differential induction of innate immune molecules. In mice, intranodal administration of the mRNAs induced the activation of specific T cell (CD4 and CD8) responses, and the levels were markedly enhanced after a booster immunization with the poxvirus vector MVA-TMEP expressing the same antigen. This immune activation was maintained even three months later. These findings revealed a potent combined immunization regimen able to enhance the HIV-1-specific immune responses induced by an mRNA vaccine that might be applicable to human vaccination programs with mRNA and MVA vectors.

14.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5650-5654, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363693

ABSTRACT

The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of two antigen rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDTs) to diagnose severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We evaluated Panbio and SD-Biosensor Ag-RDTs. We employed 186 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) negative samples to evaluate the specificity and 170 PCR positive samples to assess the sensitivity. We evaluated their sensitivity according to Cycle threshold (C t ) values and days post onset of symptoms (d.p.o.). Tests were compared using the McNemar's test. Agreement was evaluated using the kappa score. Specificity was 100% for Panbio and 97.3% for SD-Biosensor. Sensitivity for samples with C t ≤ 20 was 100% for both assays and for samples with C t = 20-25 was 93.0% (Panbio) and 95.3% (SD-Biosensor) (p = 1.000). Sensitivity decreased for samples wit C t = 25-30 (Panbio: 41.3%, SD-Biosensor: 52.2%, p = 0.125) and samples with C t ≥ 30 (Panbio: 5.0%, SD-Biosensor: 17.5%, p = 0.063). Sensitivity within seven d.p.o. was 87.7% for Panbio and 90.4% for SD-Biosensor and notably decreased after seven d.p.o. Agreement with PCR was excellent for high viral load samples (C t ≤ 25): Panbio, 98.9%, kappa = 0.974; SD-Biosensor, 97.4%, kappa = 0.940. Agreement between Ag-RDTs was excellent (94.9%, kappa = 0.882). Panbio and SD-Biosensor Ag-RDTs showed excellent agreement and diagnostic performance results for samples with high viral loads (C t ≤ 25) or samples within seven d.p.o.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Biosensing Techniques , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Load
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e040775, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361993

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Identifying undetected clinical signs is imperative in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2. OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of clinical gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Clinical outcomes and recovery rates associated with gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions were also assessed. DESIGN: A prospective study was performed in 80 patients admitted to Hospital Clínic of Barcelona (Spain) for COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients were re-evaluated in the ward daily until discharge. Gustatory and olfactory dysfunction symptoms were retrospectively collected from emergency room (ER) charts after first assessments. Follow-up was performed in telemedicine consultation. SETTING: The single-centre study was performed in a hospitalisation ward at a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive patients meeting hospitalisation criteria for COVID-19 pneumonia were eligible. Study exclusion criteria were patients who could not speak, had previous gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions or whose PCR tests for SARS-CoV-19 were negative. INTERVENTIONS: Systematic assessment of gustatory and olfactory symptoms with standardised questions. OUTCOMES: Prevalence of gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. RESULTS: Of the 80 study subjects, 62.5% were male and the median age was 57 years. Half of the cohort (n=40) presented with comorbidities. The prevalence of chemosensitive disorder was 73.8% (n=59) (95% CI: 63.8 to 83.8), although self-reported symptoms were recorded in only 26.3% (n=21) of patients in the ER. Gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions were observed in 58.8% (n=47) and 55% (n=44) of cases, respectively. They were also the first symptoms in 25% (n=20) of patients. Anosmia was associated with ageusia, OR: 7, 95% CI: 2.3 to 21.8, p=0.001). No differences in clinical outcomes were observed when patients with and without gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions were compared. Recovery rates were 20% (n=10) and 85% (n=42) at days 7 and 45, respectively. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions in COVID-19 pneumonia was much higher than in self-report. Presence of gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions was not a predictor of clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders
16.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(3)2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309903

ABSTRACT

Background: The role of bronchoscopy in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a matter of debate. Patients and methods: This observational multicentre study aimed to analyse the prognostic impact of bronchoscopic findings in a consecutive cohort of patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Patients were enrolled at 17 hospitals from February to June 2020. Predictors of in-hospital mortality were assessed by multivariate logistic regression. Results: A total of 1027 bronchoscopies were performed in 515 patients (age 61.5±11.2 years; 73% men), stratified into a clinical suspicion cohort (n=30) and a COVID-19 confirmed cohort (n=485). In the clinical suspicion cohort, the diagnostic yield was 36.7%. In the COVID-19 confirmed cohort, bronchoscopies were predominantly performed in the intensive care unit (n=961; 96.4%) and major indications were: difficult mechanical ventilation (43.7%), mucus plugs (39%) and persistence of radiological infiltrates (23.4%). 147 bronchoscopies were performed to rule out superinfection, and diagnostic yield was 42.9%. There were abnormalities in 91.6% of bronchoscopies, the most frequent being mucus secretions (82.4%), haematic secretions (17.7%), mucus plugs (17.6%), and diffuse mucosal hyperaemia (11.4%). The independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were: older age (OR 1.06; p<0.001), mucus plugs as indication for bronchoscopy (OR 1.60; p=0.041), absence of mucosal hyperaemia (OR 0.49; p=0.041) and the presence of haematic secretions (OR 1.79; p=0.032). Conclusion: Bronchoscopy may be indicated in carefully selected patients with COVID-19 to rule out superinfection and solve complications related to mechanical ventilation. The presence of haematic secretions in the distal bronchial tract may be considered a poor prognostic feature in COVID-19.

17.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5650-5654, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231857

ABSTRACT

The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of two antigen rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDTs) to diagnose severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We evaluated Panbio and SD-Biosensor Ag-RDTs. We employed 186 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) negative samples to evaluate the specificity and 170 PCR positive samples to assess the sensitivity. We evaluated their sensitivity according to Cycle threshold (C t ) values and days post onset of symptoms (d.p.o.). Tests were compared using the McNemar's test. Agreement was evaluated using the kappa score. Specificity was 100% for Panbio and 97.3% for SD-Biosensor. Sensitivity for samples with C t ≤ 20 was 100% for both assays and for samples with C t = 20-25 was 93.0% (Panbio) and 95.3% (SD-Biosensor) (p = 1.000). Sensitivity decreased for samples wit C t = 25-30 (Panbio: 41.3%, SD-Biosensor: 52.2%, p = 0.125) and samples with C t ≥ 30 (Panbio: 5.0%, SD-Biosensor: 17.5%, p = 0.063). Sensitivity within seven d.p.o. was 87.7% for Panbio and 90.4% for SD-Biosensor and notably decreased after seven d.p.o. Agreement with PCR was excellent for high viral load samples (C t ≤ 25): Panbio, 98.9%, kappa = 0.974; SD-Biosensor, 97.4%, kappa = 0.940. Agreement between Ag-RDTs was excellent (94.9%, kappa = 0.882). Panbio and SD-Biosensor Ag-RDTs showed excellent agreement and diagnostic performance results for samples with high viral loads (C t ≤ 25) or samples within seven d.p.o.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Biosensing Techniques , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Load
18.
J Clin Virol ; 137: 104781, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091783

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Antigen rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDT) have been developed as reliable tools to control the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The objective of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of two Ag-RDTs. METHODS: We evaluated CerTest SARS-CoV-2 Ag One Step Card Test and Panbio COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test Device Ag-RDTs. We included 320 nasopharyngeal samples: 150 PCR negative samples to assess the specificity and 170 PCR positive samples to evaluate the sensitivity. We also evaluated their sensitivity according to cycle threshold (Ct) values and the time from the onset of symptoms. Tests were compared using the McNemar's test and agreement was evaluated using the kappa score (k). RESULTS: Both Ag-RDTs showed a specificity of 100 %. Overall sensitivity was 53.5 % for CerTest and 60.0 % for Panbio. For samples with Ct≤ 25, sensitivity was 94.0 % for CerTest and 96.4 % for Panbio (p = 0.500). Regarding samples with Ct>25, sensitivity was 14.0 % for CerTest and 24.4 % for Panbio (p = 0.004). Sensitivity for samples within the first 5 days after the onset of symptoms were 84.8 % for CerTest and 91.3 % for Panbio (p = 0.250) and notably decreased for samples taken after the fifth day. Both Ag-RDTs showed an excellent agreement between them (agreement = 96.7 %, k = 0.920). Agreement with PCR was also excellent for high viral load samples (Ct<25) for CerTest (98.0 %, k = 0.954) and Panbio (98.8 %, k = 0.973). CONCLUSIONS: CerTest SARS-CoV-2 and Panbio COVID-19 Ag showed excellent performance and agreement results for samples with high viral loads (Ct ≤ 25) or samples taken within the first 5 days after the onset of symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods , Viral Load
19.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(6): e13501, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma has been linked to disease severity and mortality. We compared RT-qPCR to droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma from COVID-19 patients (mild, moderate, and critical disease). METHODS: The presence/concentration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma was compared in three groups of COVID-19 patients (30 outpatients, 30 ward patients and 30 ICU patients) using both RT-qPCR and ddPCR. Plasma was obtained in the first 24h following admission, and RNA was extracted using eMAG. ddPCR was performed using Bio-Rad SARS-CoV-2 detection kit, and RT-qPCR was performed using GeneFinder™ COVID-19 Plus RealAmp Kit. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Science. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected, using ddPCR and RT-qPCR, in 91% and 87% of ICU patients, 27% and 23% of ward patients and 3% and 3% of outpatients. The concordance of the results obtained by both methods was excellent (Cohen's kappa index = 0.953). RT-qPCR was able to detect 34/36 (94.4%) patients positive for viral RNA in plasma by ddPCR. Viral RNA load was higher in ICU patients compared with the other groups (P < .001), by both ddPCR and RT-qPCR. AUC analysis revealed Ct values (RT-qPCR) and viral RNA load values (ddPCR) can similarly differentiate between patients admitted to wards and to the ICU (AUC of 0.90 and 0.89, respectively). CONCLUSION: Both methods yielded similar prevalence of RNAemia between groups, with ICU patients showing the highest (>85%). RT-qPCR was as useful as ddPCR to detect and quantify SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia in plasma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Aged , Ambulatory Care , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Patients' Rooms , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 3: 100041, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046227

ABSTRACT

Background: We aimed to describe changes in characteristics and treatment strategies of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 and detail the mortality trend over time. Methods: Observational cohort study of all consecutive patients admitted ≥ 48 h to Hospital Clinic of Barcelona for COVID-19 (1 March-30 September 2020). Findings: A total of 1645 consecutive patients with COVID-19 were assessed over a 7-month period. Overall mortality (≤30 days) was 9.7% (159 patients), 7.7% in patients hospitalised in regular wards and 16.7 % in patients requiring ICU admission. Overall mortality decreased from 11.6% in the first month to 1.4% in the last month, reflecting a progressive, significant downward trend (p for trend <0.001). Patients' age changed over time, peaking in June. Most changes in the use of antivirals and anti-inflammatory treatments were documented. Age (OR 1.1, CI 1.1-1.12), chronic heart disease, (OR 1.7, CI 1.1-2.9), D-dimer>700 ng/mL (OR 2.3, CI 1.3-4.1), ferritin>489 ng/mL (OR 1.9; CI 1.5-3.2), C-RP>7 mg/dL (OR 2.6; CI 1.5-4.6), and shorter duration from symptom onset to hospital admission (OR 1.11; CI 1.04-1.17) were factors associated with 30-day mortality at hospital admission. Conversely, hospital admission in the last months (OR 0.80; CI 0.65-0.98) was significantly associated with lower mortality. Interpretation: In-hospital mortality has decreased in patients with COVID-19 over the last, few months, even though main patient characteristics remain similar. Several changes made when managing patients may explain this decreasing trend. Our study provides current data on mortality of patients hospitalised with COVID-19 that might be useful in establishing quality of standard of care. Funding: EIT Health, European Union´s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme), EDRD. PPA [CM18/00132], NGP [FI19/00133], and CGV [FIS PI18/01061], have received grants from Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, ISCIII.

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