Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 46
Filter
1.
Front Nutr ; 9: 853576, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775729

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the impact of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection on the metataxonomic profile and its evolution during the first month of lactation. Methods: Milk samples from 37 women with full-term pregnancies and mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and from 63 controls, collected in the first and fifth postpartum weeks, have been analyzed. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) both in cases and controls. After DNA extraction, the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the gene 16S rRNA was amplified and sequenced using the MiSeq system of Illumina. Data were submitted for statistical and bioinformatics analyses after quality control. Results: All the 1st week and 5th week postpartum milk samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Alpha diversity showed no differences between milk samples from the study and control group, and this condition was maintained along the observation time. Analysis of the beta-diversity also indicated that the study and control groups did not show distinct bacterial profiles. Staphyloccus and Streptococcus were the most abundant genera and the only ones that were detected in all the milk samples provided. Disease state (symptomatic or asymptomatic infection) did not affect the metataxonomic profile in breast milk. Conclusion: These results support that in the non-severe SARS-CoV-2 pregnant woman infection the structure of the bacterial population is preserved and does not negatively impact on the human milk microbiota.

2.
ProQuest Central;
Preprint in English | ProQuest Central | ID: ppcovidwho-328268

ABSTRACT

Introduction The Informed Health Choices (IHC) project developed learning resources to teach primary school children (10 to 12-year-olds) to assess treatment claims and make informed health choices. The aim of our study is to explore the educational context for teaching and learning critical thinking about health in Spanish primary schools. Methods During the 2020-2021 school year, we will conduct 1) a systematic assessment of educational documents and resources, and 2) semi-structured interviews with key education and health stakeholders. In the systematic assessment of educational documents and resources, we will include state and autonomous communities’ curriculums, school educational projects, and commonly used textbooks and other health teaching materials. In the semi-structured interviews, we will involve education and health policy makers, developers of learning resources, developers of health promotion and educational interventions, head teachers, teachers, families, and paediatric primary care providers. We will design and pilot a data extraction form and a semi-structured interview guide to collect the data. We will perform a quantitative and a qualitative analysis of the data to explore how critical thinking about health is being taught and learned in Spanish primary schools. Conclusion We will identify opportunities for and barriers to teaching and learning critical thinking about health in Spanish primary schools. We will formulate recommendations—for both practice and research purposes—on how to use, adapt (if needed), and implement the IHC resources in this context.

3.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327704

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is challenging the global supply chain and equipment needed for mass testing with RT-qPCR, the gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. Here, we propose the RT-LAMP assay as an additional strategy for rapid virus diagnosis. However, its validation as a diagnostic method remains uncertain. In this work, we validated the RT-LAMP assay in 1,266 nasopharyngeal swab samples with confirmed diagnosis by CDC 2019-nCoV RT-qPCR. Our cohort was divided, the first (n=984) was used to evaluate two sets of oligonucleotides (S1 and S3) and the second (n=281) to determine whether RT-LAMP could detect samples with several types of variants. This assay can identify positive samples by color change or fluorescence within 40 minutes and shows high concordance with RT-qPCR in samples with CT ≤35. Also, S1 and S3 are able to detect SARS-CoV-2 with a sensitivity of 68.4% and 65.8%, and a specificity of 98.9% and 97.1%, respectively. Furthermore, RT-LAMP assay identified 279 sequenced samples as positive (99.3% sensitivity) corresponding to the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, Iota, Kappa, Lambda, Mu and Omicron variants. In conclusion, RT-LAMP is able to identify SARS-CoV-2 with good sensitivity and excellent specificity, including all VOC, VOI, VUM and FMV variants.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323431

ABSTRACT

]The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically restricted adolescents’ lives. We used nationwide Norwegian survey data collected from 2014–2021 ( N = 227,258;ages 13–18) to address three essential questions: What are the psychosocial consequences of the pandemic? Are disadvantaged adolescents disproportionally affected by the pandemic? Do pandemic effects vary with geographical variations in infection rates and restrictions? Multilevel models revealed higher depressive symptoms and lower optimism during the pandemic than before the pandemic, even when accounting for the measures’ time trends. Further, alcohol and cannabis use decreased, and screen time increased. Social relationships and conduct problems remained stable. Girls, younger adolescents, and adolescents from low socioeconomic backgrounds were disproportionally affected by the pandemic. The pandemic’s effects varied little with municipality infection rates and restrictions. These findings can inform means and interventions to reduce negative pandemic effects and identify groups that need particular attention during and after the pandemic.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310687

ABSTRACT

Background: The knowledge about the impact of the nonpharmacological measures to control the COVID-19 pandemic can give insight to ways in which they can also be applied for other respiratory diseases and therefore possibly help to reduce the burden of respiratory conditions in health systems. To assess the impact of containment measures of the COVID-19 pandemic on pneumonia hospitalizations in children from 0 to 14 years of age in Brazil.  Methods: Data from hospital admissions for pneumonia were obtained from the Department of Informatics of Brazilian Public Health System database in the period of 2015–2020 and analyzed by macro-regions and age groups. To evaluate the effect of containment measures, used in the pandemic, on the incidence of pneumonia, the absolute reduction (without - with pandemic containment measures) and relative reduction (without - with pandemic containment measures / without pandemic containment measures) were calculated by analyzing the subsets 2015-2019 vs 2020.  Findings: Comparing the subsets of April-August 2015-2019 vs April-August 2020, there was an expressive reduction in the average incidence of hospitalizations, with numbers ranging from -87% [IRR 0.12 (0.10 to 0.14)] for <4 years, -79% [IRR 0.21 (0.07 to 0.57)] for 5-9 years, -73% [IRR 0.26 (0.05 to 1.21)] for 10-14 and -86% [IRR 0.14 (0.06 to 0.29)] for <14 years. When comparing the subsets by macro-regions of Brazil (April-August 2015-2019 vs April-August 2020), a drop in hospitalizations was observed which ranged from -77% [IRR 0.23 (0.15 to 0.34)] in the Southeast to -87% [IRR 0.12 (0.07 to 0.21)] in the Northeast in children under 4 years. For children 5-9 years the fall ranged from -69% [IRR 0.30 (0.11 to 0.79)] in the Southeast region to -90% [IRR 0.10 (0.02 to 0.38)] in the South and in children 10-14 years, hospitalizations ranged from -73% [IRR 0.26 (0.05 to 1.21)] to -89% [IRR 0.19 (0.03 to 0.98)] in the South.  Interpretation: We found a significant decrease in cases of pneumonia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nonpharmacological public health interventions can contribute to the decline of other respiratory infectious diseases. Funding: The present work was carried out with the support of the Coordination of Improvement of Personnel Higher Education - Brazil (CAPES) - Financing Code 001. The funders had no role in study design, data collection, and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Declaration of Interest: None to declare.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310686

ABSTRACT

Background: and Objective: The knowledge about the impact of the nonpharmacological measures to control the COVID-19 pandemic can give insight to ways in which they can also be applied for other respiratory diseases. To assess the impact of containment measures of the COVID-19 pandemic on pneumonia hospitalizations in children from 0 to 14 years of age in Brazil. Methods: Data from hospital admissions for pneumonia were obtained from the Department of Informatics of Brazilian Public Health System database in the period of 2015–2020 and analyzed by macro-regions and age groups. To evaluate the effect of containment measures, used in the pandemic, on the incidence of pneumonia, the absolute reduction and relative reduction were calculated by analyzing the subsets 2015-2019 vs 2020. Results: Comparing the subsets of April-August 2015-2019 vs April-August 2020, there was an expressive reduction in the average incidence of hospitalizations, with numbers ranging from -87% [IRR 0.12 (0.10 to 0.14)] for < 4 years, -79% [IRR 0.21 (0.07 to 0.57)] for 5-9 years, -73% [IRR 0.26 (0.05 to 1.21)] for 10-14 and -86% [IRR 0.14 (0.06 to 0.29)] for <14 years. Conclusion: We found a significant decrease in cases of pneumonia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nonpharmacological public health interventions can contribute to the decline of other respiratory infectious diseases.

7.
Frontiers in microbiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1678693

ABSTRACT

The exact role of viral replication in patients with severe COVID-19 has not been extensively studied, and it has only been possible to demonstrate the presence of replicative virus for more than 3 months in a few cases using different techniques. Our objective was to study the presence of RNA SARS-CoV-2 in autopsy samples of patients who died from COVID-19 long after the onset of symptoms. Secondary superimposed pulmonary infections present in these patients were also studied. We present an autopsy series of 27 COVID-19 patients with long disease duration, where pulmonary and extrapulmonary samples were obtained. In addition to histopathological analysis, viral genomic RNA (gRNA) and viral subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) were detected using RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, and viral protein was detected using immunohistochemistry. This series includes 26 adults with a median duration of 39 days from onset of symptoms to death (ranging 9–108 days), 92% of them subjected to immunomodulatory therapy, and an infant patient. We detected gRNA in the lung of all but one patient, including those with longer disease duration. SgRNA was detected in 11 out of 17 patients (64.7%) with illness duration up to 6 weeks and in 3 out of 9 patients (33.3%) with more than 6 weeks of disease progression. Viral protein was detected using immunohistochemistry and viral mRNA was detected using in situ hybridization in 3 out of 4 adult patients with illness duration of <2 weeks, but in none of the 23 adult patients with an illness duration of >2 weeks. A remarkable result was the detection of viral protein, gRNA and sgRNA in the lung cells of the pediatric patient after 95 days of illness. Additional pulmonary infections included: 9 acute bronchopneumonia, 2 aspergillosis, 2 cytomegalovirus, and 1 BK virus infection. These results suggest that in severe COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 could persist for longer periods than expected, especially in immunocompromised populations, contributing to the persistence of chronic lung lesions. Additional infections contribute to the fatal course of the disease.

8.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 56(4): 285-298, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), related to infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) of intestinal cells through the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor in the brush border. Also, patients are treated with multiple antibiotics. Therefore, an increase in gut dysbiosis and in the prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is expected in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted using the terms "gut microbiota," "gut mycobiota," "dysbiosis" AND "COVID-19"; "Clostridium difficile," "Clostridioides difficile" AND "COVID-19"; "probiotics," "bacteriotherapy AND COVID-19." Only case series, observational and experimental studies were included. RESULTS: A total of 384 papers were retrieved and 21 fulfilled selection criteria. Later, a new paper was identified, thus 22 papers were reviewed. Main findings: (1) gut bacterial dysbiosis has been found in fecal samples of COVID-19 patients, with enrichment of opportunistic organisms and decrease of beneficial commensals such as Faecalibacterium prausnitizii. Dysbiosis is related to inflammatory markers and illness severity. (2) There is evidence for abnormal gut barrier and bacterial translocation with a negative impact in the lungs. (3) Fungal dysbiosis correlating with pulmonary mycobiota, has also been found. (4) There is controversy in the CDI rates among COVID-19 patients versus controls and pandemic versus prepandemic era. (5) There is no available evidence yet to support bacteriotherapy in COVID-19. (6) Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been proposed for COVID-19, although there is no evidence to support it. Also, FMT can be safely used during the pandemic for CDI if strict screening protocols for donors and fecal product are implemented. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 there is bacterial and fungal dysbiosis that correlates with systemic and pulmonary inflammation, and illness severity. Further investigations are warranted to determine the efficacy of bacteriotherapy and FMT for modulating gut dysbiosis in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , COVID-19/therapy , Clostridium Infections/therapy , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Dysbiosis/therapy , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Nat Hum Behav ; 6(2): 217-228, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641965

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically restricted adolescents' lives. We used nationwide Norwegian survey data from 2014-2021 (N = 227,258; ages 13-18) to examine psychosocial outcomes in adolescents before and during the pandemic. Multilevel models revealed higher depressive symptoms and less optimistic future life expectations during the pandemic, even when accounting for the measures' time trends. Moreover, alcohol and cannabis use decreased, and screen time increased. However, the effect sizes of all observed changes during the pandemic were small. Overall, conduct problems and satisfaction with social relationships remained stable. Girls, younger adolescents and adolescents from low socio-economic backgrounds showed more adverse changes during the pandemic. Estimated changes in psychosocial outcomes varied little with municipality infection rates and restrictions. These findings can inform means and interventions to reduce negative psychological outcomes associated with the pandemic and identify groups that need particular attention during and after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Mental Health , Psychology , Screen Time , Social Behavior , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Needs Assessment , Norway/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e26292, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic low back pain is the most prevalent chronic pain condition worldwide and access to behavioral pain treatment is limited. Virtual reality (VR) is an immersive technology that may provide effective behavioral therapeutics for chronic pain. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to conduct a double-blind, parallel-arm, single-cohort, remote, randomized placebo-controlled trial for a self-administered behavioral skills-based VR program in community-based individuals with self-reported chronic low back pain during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A national online convenience sample of individuals with self-reported nonmalignant low back pain with duration of 6 months or more and with average pain intensity of 4 or more/10 was enrolled and randomized 1:1 to 1 of 2 daily (56-day) VR programs: (1) EaseVRx (immersive pain relief skills VR program); or (2) Sham VR (2D nature content delivered in a VR headset). Objective device use data and self-reported data were collected. The primary outcomes were the between-group effect of EaseVRx versus Sham VR across time points, and the between-within interaction effect representing the change in average pain intensity and pain-related interference with activity, stress, mood, and sleep over time (baseline to end-of-treatment at day 56). Secondary outcomes were global impression of change and change in physical function, sleep disturbance, pain self-efficacy, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, pain medication use, and user satisfaction. Analytic methods included intention-to-treat and a mixed-model framework. RESULTS: The study sample was 179 adults (female: 76.5%, 137/179; Caucasian: 90.5%, 162/179; at least some college education: 91.1%, 163/179; mean age: 51.5 years [SD 13.1]; average pain intensity: 5/10 [SD 1.2]; back pain duration ≥5 years: 67%, 120/179). No group differences were found for any baseline variable or treatment engagement. User satisfaction ratings were higher for EaseVRx versus Sham VR (P<.001). For the between-groups factor, EaseVRx was superior to Sham VR for all primary outcomes (highest P value=.009), and between-groups Cohen d effect sizes ranged from 0.40 to 0.49, indicating superiority was moderately clinically meaningful. For EaseVRx, large pre-post effect sizes ranged from 1.17 to 1.3 and met moderate to substantial clinical importance for reduced pain intensity and pain-related interference with activity, mood, and stress. Between-group comparisons for Physical Function and Sleep Disturbance showed superiority for the EaseVRx group versus the Sham VR group (P=.022 and .013, respectively). Pain catastrophizing, pain self-efficacy, pain acceptance, prescription opioid use (morphine milligram equivalent) did not reach statistical significance for either group. Use of over-the-counter analgesic use was reduced for EaseVRx (P<.01) but not for Sham VR. CONCLUSIONS: EaseVRx had high user satisfaction and superior and clinically meaningful symptom reduction for average pain intensity and pain-related interference with activity, mood, and stress compared to sham VR. Additional research is needed to determine durability of treatment effects and to characterize mechanisms of treatment effects. Home-based VR may expand access to effective and on-demand nonpharmacologic treatment for chronic low back pain. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04415177; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04415177. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.2196/25291.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronic Pain/therapy , Health Behavior , Low Back Pain/therapy , Pain Management/methods , Virtual Reality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Self Report , Time Factors , Young Adult
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e3970-e3973, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559838

ABSTRACT

A woman with mild coronavirus disease 2019 developed cervical adenopathy, being diagnosed of Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis. We performed fine needle aspiration, and demonstrate that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is found in lymph nodes even in mild disease along with a strong expansion of terminally differentiated effector memory CD4+ T cells, a cell population that is practically absent in lymph nodes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Female , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Lymph Nodes , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e055227, 2021 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541888

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the prevalence of sexual violence (SV) and associated factors in Spanish young adults in the last year and before, during and after the COVID-19 lockdown. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study based on the online 'SV in Young People Survey' (2020). SETTING: Non-institutionalised population residing in Spain. PARTICIPANTS: 2515 men and women aged 18-35 years old. The participants were obtained from a probability based, online closed panel of adults aged 16 or older that is representative of the non-institutionalised population. The sample designed includes quotas by sex, age, region and country of origin. OUTCOMES MEASURES AND ANALYSES: SV victimisation by sociodemographics, sexual attraction and couple-related characteristics during the past year and before, during and after the COVID-19 lockdown (March-June 2020). Prevalence ratios were calculated using robust Poisson regression models. RESULTS: In Spain, 8.5% of young people experienced SV during the past year. The greatest prevalence was observed in women with bisexual attraction (17.5%) and in men with homosexual attraction (14.2%). During the COVID-19 lockdown, the prevalence of SV victimisation was lower (1.9%), but unwanted intercourses increased, affecting 64.4% of those exposed to SV during the period. People with homosexual or bisexual attraction were more likely to experience SV in all of the studied periods (PRbefore: 2.01; p<0.001; PRduring: 2.63 p=0.002; PRafter: 2.67; p<0.001). Women were more likely than men to experience SV prior to the lockdown, while no cohabitation increased the likelihood to experience SV after this period CONCLUSIONS: SV victimisation in Spanish youth is high. During COVID-19, there were changes in the magnitude of factors associated with SV. It seems that SV events decreased in people who did not live with their partners, but unwanted intercourses increased. The development of prevention strategies to address SV in youth should take into account social inequalities by sex, sexual orientation and origin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sex Offenses , Adolescent , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 580584, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526779

ABSTRACT

Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continue to increase worldwide. Although some data from pediatric series are available, more evidence is required, especially in neonates, a group with specific characteristics that deserve special attention. This study aimed to describe general and clinical characteristics, management, and treatment of postnatal-acquired (community and nosocomial/hospital-acquired) COVID-19 neonatal cases in Spain. Methods: This was a national prospective epidemiological study that included cases from a National Registry supported by the Spanish Society of Neonatology. Neonates with postnatal SARS-CoV-2 infection were included in this study. General data and infection-related information (mode and source of transmission, age at diagnosis, clinical manifestations, need for hospitalization, admission unit, treatment administered, and complementary studies performed, hospital stay associated with the infection) were collected. Results: A total of 40 cases, 26 community-acquired and 14 nosocomial were registered. Ten were preterm newborns (2 community-acquired and 8 nosocomial COVID-19 cases). Mothers (in both groups) and healthcare workers (in nosocomial cases) were the main source of infection. Hospital admission was required in 22 community-acquired cases [18 admitted to the neonatal intermediate care unit (NIMCU) and 4 to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)]. Among nosocomial COVID-19 cases (n = 14), previously admitted for other reasons, 4 were admitted to the NIMCU and 10 to the NICU. Ten asymptomatic patients were registered (5 in each group). In the remaining cases, clinical manifestations were generally mild in both groups, including upper respiratory airways infection, febrile syndrome or acute gastroenteritis with good overall health. In both groups, most severe cases occurred in preterm neonates or neonates with concomitant pathologies. Most of the cases did not require respiratory support. Hydroxychloroquine was administered to 4 patients in the community-acquired group and to 2 patients in the nosocomial group. Follow-up after hospital discharge was performed in most patients. Conclusions: This is the largest series of COVID-19 neonatal cases in Spain published to date. Although clinical manifestations were generally mild, prevention, treatment, and management in this group are essential.

14.
J Infect Dis ; 224(9): 1489-1499, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a complex antibody response that varies by orders of magnitude between individuals and over time. METHODS: We developed a multiplex serological test for measuring antibodies to 5 SARS-CoV-2 antigens and the spike proteins of seasonal coronaviruses. We measured antibody responses in cohorts of hospitalized patients and healthcare workers followed for up to 11 months after symptoms. A mathematical model of antibody kinetics was used to quantify the duration of antibody responses. Antibody response data were used to train algorithms for estimating time since infection. RESULTS: One year after symptoms, we estimate that 36% (95% range, 11%-94%) of anti-Spike immunoglobulin G (IgG) remains, 31% (95% range, 9%-89%) anti-RBD IgG remains, and 7% (1%-31%) of anti-nucleocapsid IgG remains. The multiplex assay classified previous infections into time intervals of 0-3 months, 3-6 months, and 6-12 months. This method was validated using data from a seroprevalence survey in France, demonstrating that historical SARS-CoV-2 transmission can be reconstructed using samples from a single survey. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to diagnosing previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, multiplex serological assays can estimate the time since infection, which can be used to reconstruct past epidemics.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Serologic Tests/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibody Formation , Antibody Specificity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
15.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258865, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480456

ABSTRACT

Socioeconomic crisis and humanitarian disasters can cause increased stress for women who experience inter-partner violence (IPV). This study analyzed the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on this important issue, their related health and social services and working conditions from the perspectives of professionals in different sectors. Forty-three semi-structured interviews were carried out with 47 professionals (44 women and 3 men) from 40 different entities (September 2020-April 2021). This content analysis suggests that the pandemic and its associated prevention measures have had a negative impact on women exposed to IPV and their children, which affected their social wellbeing. Professionals described burnout, difficult and slow administrative processes, and problems with coordination and access to information. These negative impacts were mitigated, in part, by the work of professionals, but this suggests that a series of key strategies are needed to improve the response capacity of the service sector to IPV in situations of crisis. These improvements are related to the availability of human and material resources; an efficient coordination network between the professionals from different sectors; existence of informal support networks in the community; protocols/procedures and prior training for better implementation; and greater flexibility and accessibility of basic services that benefit women who experience IPV.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Pandemics , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Spain/epidemiology
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 720716, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354867

ABSTRACT

Objetive: To address the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 and the evolutionary profile of immune compounds in breastmilk of positive mothers according to time and disease state. Methods: Forty-five women with term pregnancies with confirmed non-severe SARS-CoV-2 infection (case group), and 96 SARS-CoV-2 negative women in identical conditions (control group) were approached, using consecutive sample. Weekly (1st to 5th week postpartum) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in nasopharyngeal swabs (cases) and breastmilk (cases and controls) were obtained. Concentration of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in breastmilk (cases and controls) were determined at 1st and 5th week post-partum. Results: Thirty-seven (study group) and 45 (control group) women were enrolled. Symptomatic infection occurred in 56.8% of women in the study group (48% fever, 48% anosmia, 43% cough). SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not found in breastmilk samples. Concentrations of cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-6, IL-9, IL-13, and TNF-α) chemokines (eotaxin, IP-10, MIP-1α, and RANTES) and growth factors (FGF, GM-CSF, IL7, and PDGF-BB) were higher in breastmilk of the study compared with the control group at 1st week postpartum. Immune compounds concentrations decreased on time, particularly in the control group milk samples. Time of nasopharyngeal swab to become negative influenced the immune compound concentration pattern. Severity of disease (symptomatic or asymptomatic infection) did not affect the immunological profile in breast milk. Conclusions: This study confirms no viral RNA and a distinct immunological profile in breastmilk according to mother's SARS-CoV-2 status. Additional studies should address whether these findings indicate efficient reaction against SARS-CoV-2 infection, which might be suitable to protect the recipient child.


Subject(s)
Chemokines/analysis , Cytokines/analysis , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/analysis , Milk, Human/chemistry , Milk, Human/immunology , Adult , Breast Feeding , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Mothers , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral
18.
Microorganisms ; 9(7)2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323309

ABSTRACT

In December 2020, UK authorities warned of the rapid spread of a new SARS-CoV-2 variant, belonging to the B.1.1.7 lineage, known as the Alpha variant. This variant is characterized by 17 mutations and 3 deletions. The deletion 69-70 in the spike protein can be detected by commercial platforms, allowing its real-time spread to be known. From the last days of December 2020 and over 4 months, all respiratory samples with a positive result for SARS-CoV-2 from patients treated in primary care and the emergency department were screened to detect this variant based on the strategy S gene target failure (SGTF). The first cases were detected during week 53 (2020) and reached >90% of all cases during weeks 15-16 (2021). During this period, the B.1.1.7/SGTF variant spread at a rapid and constant replacement rate of around 30-36%. The probability of intensive care unit admission was twice higher among patients infected by the B.1.1.7/SGTF variant, but there were no differences in death rate. During the peak of the third pandemic wave, this variant was not the most prevalent, and it became dominant when this wave was declining. Our results confirm that the B.1.1.7/SGTF variant displaced other SARS-CoV-2 variants in our healthcare area in 4 months. This displacement has led to an increase in the burden of disease.

19.
J Infect Dis ; 224(9): 1489-1499, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317919

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a complex antibody response that varies by orders of magnitude between individuals and over time. METHODS: We developed a multiplex serological test for measuring antibodies to 5 SARS-CoV-2 antigens and the spike proteins of seasonal coronaviruses. We measured antibody responses in cohorts of hospitalized patients and healthcare workers followed for up to 11 months after symptoms. A mathematical model of antibody kinetics was used to quantify the duration of antibody responses. Antibody response data were used to train algorithms for estimating time since infection. RESULTS: One year after symptoms, we estimate that 36% (95% range, 11%-94%) of anti-Spike immunoglobulin G (IgG) remains, 31% (95% range, 9%-89%) anti-RBD IgG remains, and 7% (1%-31%) of anti-nucleocapsid IgG remains. The multiplex assay classified previous infections into time intervals of 0-3 months, 3-6 months, and 6-12 months. This method was validated using data from a seroprevalence survey in France, demonstrating that historical SARS-CoV-2 transmission can be reconstructed using samples from a single survey. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to diagnosing previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, multiplex serological assays can estimate the time since infection, which can be used to reconstruct past epidemics.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Serologic Tests/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibody Formation , Antibody Specificity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
20.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(9): 2818-2824, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The knowledge about the impact of the nonpharmacological measures to control the COVID-19 pandemic can give insight into ways in which they can also be applied for other respiratory diseases. To assess the impact of containment measures of the COVID-19 pandemic on pneumonia hospitalizations in children from 0 to 14 years of age in Brazil. METHODS: Data from hospital admissions for pneumonia were obtained from the Department of Informatics of Brazilian Public Health System database in the period of 2015-2020 and analyzed by macroregions and age groups. To evaluate the effect of containment measures, on the incidence of pneumonia, the absolute reduction and relative reduction were calculated by analyzing the subsets 2015-2019 vs. 2020. RESULTS: Comparing the subsets of April-August 2015-2019 vs. April-August 2020 for Brazil (total), there was an significant reduction in the average incidence of hospitalizations, with numbers ranging from -82% [IRR 0.17 (0.14-0.21)] for <4 years (prepandemic 741.8/100,000 vs. pandemic 132.7/100.000), -83% [IRR 0.17 (0.10-0.27)] for 5-9 years (prepandemic 113.6/100,000 vs. pandemic 19.6/100.000), -77% [IRR 0.23 (0.11-0.46)] for 10-14 (prepandemic 42.0/100,000 vs. pandemic 9.8/100.000) and -82% [IRR 0.18 (0.15-0.21)] for all children ≤14 years (prepandemic 897.4/100,000 vs. pandemic 162.1/100.000). CONCLUSION: We found a significant decrease in cases of all cause pneumonia in children under 14 years and especially in the age group <9 years during the COVID-19 pandemic, which may be associated with the nonpharmacological measures applied to control the SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL