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2.
Revista Española de Patología ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1466827

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health emergency with numerous clinical facets, including acute kidney injury and acute cerebrovascular disease. Further knowledge of its various pathogenic mechanisms is essential, including coagulation disorders. Monoclonal gammopathy is characterized by the overproduction of a monoclonal immunoglobulin caused by clonal proliferation. Using a postmortem study of ultrasound-guided percutaneous core biopsies, the aim of this report is to present our observations on the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection pathology associated with monoclonal gammopathy. The clinical presentation was acute renal failure. Pathological findings revealed kappa light chain cast nephropathy. SARS-CoV-2 immunohistochemistry was positive in some renal tubular cells. Another notable finding was the presence of a high density of alveolar megakaryocytes, which probably explained the final outcome (acute cerebrovascular disease). Immunohistochemical study for SARS-CoV-2 does not verify the pathogenic effect of the virus and thus its contribution to the acute kidney injury. La enfermedad por coronavirus de 2019 (COVID-19) es una emergencia sanitaria pública global con numerosas facetas clínicas que incluyen renopatía aguda y enfermedad cerebrovascular aguda. Es necesario un conocimiento adicional de su mecanismo patogénico. Los trastornos de coagulación están claramente incluidos en dichos mecanismos. La gammapatía monoclonal se caracteriza por la sobreproducción de inmunoglobulina monoclonal causada por proliferación clonal. Utilizando un estudio postmortem de biopsias básicas percutáneas ecoguiadas, el objetivo de este informe es presentar nuestras observaciones sobre la patología del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo por infección de coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) con gammapatía monoclonal. La presentación clínica fue insuficiencia renal aguda. Los hallazgos patológicos revelaron nefropatía por depósito de cadenas ligeras kappa. La inmunohistoquímica de SARS-CoV-2 fue positiva en ciertas células tubulares renales. La presencia de megacariocitos alveolares (alta densidad) fue un hallazgo notable, que explica probablemente el resultado final del paciente (enfermedad cerebrovascular aguda). El estudio inmunohistoquímico frente a SARS-CoV-2 no verifica el efecto patogénico del virus y, por tanto, su contribución a la nefropatía aguda.

4.
Epilepsy Behav ; 125: 108379, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458792

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess the prevalence, severity, and mortality of COVID-19 in people with epilepsy (PWE) and evaluate seizure control in PWE during and after COVID-19. METHODS: Retrospective, observational, multicenter study conducted in 14 hospitals. Medical records of randomly selected PWE followed at neurology outpatient clinics were reviewed. Proportion of PWE with a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 during 2020 was calculated. Risk factors associated with COVID-19 and its morbimortality were evaluated. RESULTS: 2751 PWE were included, mean age 48.8 years (18-99), 72.4% had focal epilepsy, and 35% were drug-refractory. COVID-19 prevalence in PWE was 5.53%, while in the Spanish population was 4.26%. Proportion of admissions to hospital, ICU, and deaths in PWE were 17.1%, 2%, and 4.61% of COVID-19 cases, while in Spanish population were 10.81%, 0.95%, and 2.57%, respectively. A severe form of COVID-19 occurred in 11.8%; dyslipidemia, institutionalization at long-term care facilities, intellectual disability, and older age were associated risk factors. Older age, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiac disease, and institutionalization were associated with mortality from COVID-19. Seizure control was stable in 90.1% of PWE during acute COVID-19, while 8.6% reported an increase in seizure frequency. During post-COVID-19 follow-up, 4.6% reported seizure control worsening. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 was moderately prevalent in PWE. One out of 5 patients required medical attention and 4.6% died due to COVID-19. Older age, dyslipidemia, institutionalization, and intellectual disability were significant risk factors associated with severe COVID-19. Seizure control remained stable during COVID-19 and throughout long-term follow-up in most PWE who contracted the infection.

5.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(8): 1073-1080, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assessing the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 immune response among patients receiving dialysis can define its durability in a highly clinically relevant context because patients receiving dialysis share the characteristics of persons most susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG in seroprevalent patients receiving dialysis. DESIGN: Prospective. SETTING: Nationwide sample from dialysis facilities. PATIENTS: 2215 patients receiving dialysis who had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection as of July 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Remainder plasma from routine monthly laboratories was used to measure semiquantitative RBD IgG index value over 6 months. RESULTS: A total of 2063 (93%) seroprevalent patients reached an assay detectable response (IgG index value ≥1). Most (n = 1323, 60%) had responses in July with index values classified as high (IgG ≥10); 1003 (76%) remained within this stratum. Adjusted median index values declined slowly but continuously (July vs. December values were 21 vs. 13; P < 0.001). The trajectory of the response did not vary by age group, sex, race/ethnicity, or diabetes status. Patients without an assay detectable response (n = 137) were more likely to be White and in the younger (18 to 44 years) or older (≥80 years) age groups and less likely to have diabetes and hypoalbuminemia. LIMITATION: Lack of data on symptoms or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction diagnosis, cohort of persons who survived infection, and use of a semiquantitative assay. CONCLUSION: Despite impaired immunity, most seropositive patients receiving dialysis maintained RBD antibody levels over 6 months. A slow and continual decline in median antibody levels over time was seen, but no indication that subgroups with impaired immunity had a shorter-lived humoral response was found. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Ascend Clinical Laboratories.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Protein Domains/immunology , Renal Dialysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406900

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, telephone medical consultations and telematic training sessions were set up for patients treated in the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Unit of the Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, with the joint collaboration of the medical and nursing staff. We conducted a retrospective study to determine the degree of satisfaction between face-to-face and telematic care, showing that the quality of care perceived by patients has been maintained.

7.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394648

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients on dialysis are at increased risk for COVID-19-related complications. However, a substantial fraction of patients on dialysis belong to groups more likely to be hesitant about vaccination. METHODS: With the goal of identifying strategies to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake among patients on hemodialysis, we conducted a nationwide vaccine acceptability survey, partnering with a dialysis network to distribute an anonymized English and Spanish language online survey in 150 randomly selected facilities in the United States. We used logistic regression to evaluate characteristics of vaccine-hesitant persons. RESULTS: A total of 1515 (14% of eligible) patients responded; 20% of all responders, 29% of patients aged 18-44 years, and 29% of Black responders reported being hesitant to seek the COVID-19 vaccine, even if the vaccine was considered safe for the general population. Odds of vaccine hesitancy were higher among patients aged 18-44 years versus those 45-64 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.0 to 2.3), Black patients versus non-Hispanic White patients (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.7), Native Americans or Pacific Islanders versus non-Hispanic White patients (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.7), and women versus men (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.0). About half (53%) of patients who were vaccine hesitant expressed concerns about side effects. Responders' main information sources about COVID-19 vaccines were television news and dialysis staff (68% and 38%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of patients receiving in-center hemodialysis in the United States are hesitant about seeking COVID-19 vaccination. Facilitating uptake requires outreach to younger patients, women, and Black, Native American, or Pacific Islander patients, and addressing concerns about side effects.

8.
Education Sciences ; 11(8):386, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1335024

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) as a pandemic on 11 March 2020, and educational institutions have had to modify most of their activities (face-to-face activities were suspended). This situation forced academic institutions to modify the evaluation format of students. The use of proctoring systems quickly became widespread, although some controversies arose. The two main discussions regarding these systems are the integrity of the assessment and the capacity of the students to adapt to this new assessment method, without changes in theirs scores. To elucidate two controversies, we have analyzed the preferences and the scores obtained from a trial of 660 scores from 332 students of the third grade of Veterinary Medicine. The experiment involved three modalities of exam: an online format from home using the Respondus Lockdown Browser system (Modality 1), online in person using the Respondus Lockdown Browser system with the supervision of a teacher (Modality 2), or paper format in person with the supervision of a teacher (Modality 3). The results obtained showed that the students preferred Modality 1 (online at home with Respondus Lockdown Browser system). No statistical differences between the scores obtained by students were found between the three modalities analyzed. The proctoring system is a good method to adjudicate exams in higher education institutions, and the scores of students are similar to those obtained through traditional evaluation and control systems.

9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2116572, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305100

ABSTRACT

Importance: Seroprevalence studies complement data on detected cases and attributed deaths in assessing the cumulative spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Objective: To estimate seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in patients receiving dialysis and adults in the US in January 2021 before the widespread introduction of COVID-19 vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from the third largest US dialysis organization (US Renal Care), which has facilities located nationwide, to estimate SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among US patients receiving dialysis. Remainder plasma (ie, plasma that would have otherwise been discarded) of all patients receiving dialysis at US Renal Care facilities from January 1 to 31, 2021, was tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Patients were excluded if they had a documented dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or if a residence zip code was missing from electronic medical records. Crude seroprevalence estimates from this sample (January 2021) were standardized to the US adult population using the 2018 American Community Survey 1-year estimates and stratified by age group, sex, self-reported race/ethnicity, neighborhood race/ethnicity composition, neighborhood income level, and urban or rural status. These data and case detection rates were then compared with data from a July 2020 subsample of patients who received dialysis at the same facilities. Exposures: Age, sex, race/ethnicity, and region of residence as well as neighborhood race/ethnicity composition, poverty, population density, and urban or rural status. Main Outcomes and Measures: The spike protein receptor-binding domain total antibody assay (Siemens Healthineers; manufacturer-reported sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 99.8%) was used to estimate crude SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in the unweighted sample, and then the estimated seroprevalence rates for the US dialysis and adult populations were calculated, adjusting for age, sex, and region. Results: A total of 21 464 patients (mean [SD] age, 63.1 [14.2] years; 12 265 men [57%]) were included in the unweighted sample from January 2021. The patients were disproportionately older (aged 65-79 years, 7847 [37%]; aged ≥80 years, 2668 [12%]) and members of racial/ethnic minority groups (Hispanic patients, 2945 [18%]; non-Hispanic Black patients, 4875 [29%]). Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 18.9% (95% CI, 18.3%-19.5%) in the sample, with a seroprevalence of 18.7% (95% CI, 18.1%-19.2%) standardized to the US dialysis population, and 21.3% (95% CI, 20.3%-22.3%) standardized to the US adult population. In the unweighted sample, younger persons (aged 18-44 years, 25.9%; 95% CI, 24.1%-27.8%), those who self-identified as Hispanic or living in Hispanic neighborhoods (25.1%; 95% CI, 23.6%-26.4%), and those living in the lowest-income neighborhoods (24.8%; 95% CI, 23.2%-26.5%) were among the subgroups with the highest seroprevalence. Little variability was observed in seroprevalence by geographic region, population density, and urban or rural status in the January 2021 sample (largest regional difference, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.1-1.3] higher odds of seroprevalence in residents of the Northeast vs West). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of patients receiving dialysis in the US, fewer than 1 in 4 patients had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies 1 year after the first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected in the US. Results standardized to the US population indicate similar prevalence of antibodies among US adults. Vaccine introduction to younger individuals, those living in neighborhoods with a large population of racial/ethnic minority residents, and those living in low-income neighborhoods may be critical to disrupting the spread of infection.


Subject(s)
Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dialysis/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
11.
Enseñanza & Teaching ; 38(2):67-85, 2020.
Article in Spanish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1201788

ABSTRACT

La COVID-19 es la contracción del nombre de la enfermedad nacida en diciembre de 2019 en la ciudad china de Wuhan originada por el virus SARS-CoV-2 y origen de la primera pandemia mundial del siglo XXI según la OMS. La virulencia y gravedad de este virus ha tenido consecuencias en todos los ámbitos y costumbres de todo el planeta Tierra. En este artículo se presentan las modificaciones que la Covid-19 ha obligado a realizar en la docencia de la educación secundaria en una zona especialmente sensible de la Comunidad Autónoma de Castilla y León (la zona de sur y oeste de Salamanca de baja cobertura de la España vaciada). Para conocer cómo acomodar la docencia de esta zona geográfica en este nivel de enseñanza se realizó una encuesta a 294 alumnos escolarizados en Educación Secundaria Obligatoria con edades comprendidas entre 12-16 años. Igualmente se pasó la encuesta a las 261 familias de esos estudiantes. El objetivo de la encuesta era conocer con total transparencia la posibilidad de acceso de los estudiantes a las TIC para poder planificar el periodo de docencia no presencial derivado del confinamiento establecido por el Gobierno central. Los resultados de la encuesta aconsejaron modificar la enseñanza presencial por la enseñanza a través de la metodología de la enseñanza a distancia. Su oportuna puesta en marcha ha permitido desarrollar una auténtica y eficaz enseñanza personalizada e inclusiva que ha posibilitado a prácticamente la totalidad del alumnado de la España vaciada de la provincia de Salamanca superar el curso escolar 2019/2020.

12.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249466, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186603

ABSTRACT

Patients on dialysis are at high risk for death due to COVID-19, yet a significant proportion do survive as evidenced by presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 8% of patients in the U.S. in July 2020. It is unclear whether patients with seropositivity represent the subgroup with robust health status, who would be more likely to mount a durable antibody response. Using data from a July 2020 sample of 28,503 patients receiving dialysis, we evaluated the cross-sectional association of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity with laboratory surrogates of patient health. In separate logistic regression models, we assessed the association of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity with seven laboratory-based covariates (albumin, creatinine, hemoglobin, sodium, potassium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone), across the entire range of the laboratory and in comparison to a referent value. Models accounted for age, sex, region, race and ethnicity, and county-level COVID-19 deaths per 100,000. Odds of seropositivity for albumin 3 and 3.5 g/dL were 2.1 (95% CI 1.9-2.3) and 1.3 (1.2-1.4) respectively, compared with 4 g/dL. Odds of seropositivity for serum creatinine 5 and 8 mg/dL were 1.8 (1.6-2.0) and 1.3 (1.2-1.4) respectively, compared with 12.5 mg/dL. Lower values of hemoglobin, sodium, potassium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone were associated with higher odds of seropositivity. Laboratory values associated with poorer health status and higher risk for mortality were also associated with higher likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in patients receiving dialysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(4): 1110-1117, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056579

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is public health concern across the world. Data on the epidemiology among patients on hemodialysis in Latin America and low- and middle-income countries are limited. Methods: Using electronic medical records from the second largest dialysis network in Guatemala, we performed a retrospective analysis of all adult patients on hemodialysis with the diagnosis of COVID-19 to estimate incidence of infection and to describe the demographics, comorbidities, and outcomes. We stratified incidence rate by region. We reviewed data from May 1 to July 31, 2020, with outcome data ascertained up to August 28, 2020. Results: Of 3201 patients undergoing hemodialysis, 325 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 (incidence rate 102/1000 patients on hemodialysis, compared with 3/1000 in the general population). Incidence was higher in the Central region (207/1000) and lowest in the Southeast region (33/1000), and unlike in the general population, the incidence was lower in Guatemala City. The mean age of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 was 51.1 years (standard deviation [SD] 14.8 years), and 84 (25.8%) were female. The median length of hospital stay was 12 days (interquartile range [IQR] 10-16 days). Two hundred twenty-nine (69.8%) of the patients recovered, 90 patients died (27.7%), and 6 (1.8%) patients were still in the hospital at the time of last follow-up. Conclusion: The incidence of diagnosed COVID-19 in Guatemalan patients on hemodialysis was much higher than reported in the general population, with outcomes similar to those described in high-income countries. Rural regions had higher incidence rates than the major metropolitan area.

14.
Neurology ; 95(10): e1417-e1425, 2020 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992612

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This article estimates the incidence and fatality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and identifies potential risk factors for fatality in patients with active epilepsy. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional observational study of patients with active epilepsy and COVID-19. A control group was used to compare the cumulative incidence and case-fatality rate (CFR). The main outcomes of the study were cumulative incidence, defined as number of patients with active epilepsy and COVID-19 admitted to an emergency department divided by the total number of patients with epilepsy at risk, and CFR based on the number of deaths during the enrollment period. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate risk factors for fatality in patients with active epilepsy. RESULTS: Of the 1,537 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 21 (1.3%) had active epilepsy. The cumulative incidence (95% confidence interval [CI]) of COVID-19 in patients with epilepsy was higher (1.2% [0.6-2.4]) compared to the population without epilepsy (0.5% [0.5-0.5]). In reverse transcription PCR-positive patients, there were no significant differences in CFR in patients with active epilepsy compared to patients without epilepsy (33.3% vs 8.3%; p = 0.266). Of the 21 patients with active epilepsy, 5 (23%) died. In multivariate analysis, the factor associated with fatality in patients with active epilepsy was hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 2.8 [95% CI 1.3-21.6]). In another model, age (OR 1.0 [95% CI 1.0-1.1]) and epilepsy (OR 5.1 [95% CI 1.3-24.0]) were associated with fatality during hospitalization. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 cumulative incidence was higher in patients with active epilepsy. Epilepsy was associated with fatality during hospitalization. Hypertension was associated with fatality in patients with epilepsy.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Incidence , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19794, 2020 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927620

ABSTRACT

The prognosis of a patient with COVID-19 pneumonia is uncertain. Our objective was to establish a predictive model of disease progression to facilitate early decision-making. A retrospective study was performed of patients admitted with COVID-19 pneumonia, classified as severe (admission to the intensive care unit, mechanic invasive ventilation, or death) or non-severe. A predictive model based on clinical, laboratory, and radiological parameters was built. The probability of progression to severe disease was estimated by logistic regression analysis. Calibration and discrimination (receiver operating characteristics curves and AUC) were assessed to determine model performance. During the study period 1152 patients presented with SARS-CoV-2 infection, of whom 229 (19.9%) were admitted for pneumonia. During hospitalization, 51 (22.3%) progressed to severe disease, of whom 26 required ICU care (11.4); 17 (7.4%) underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 32 (14%) died of any cause. Five predictors determined within 24 h of admission were identified: Diabetes, Age, Lymphocyte count, SaO2, and pH (DALSH score). The prediction model showed a good clinical performance, including discrimination (AUC 0.87 CI 0.81, 0.92) and calibration (Brier score = 0.11). In total, 0%, 12%, and 50% of patients with severity risk scores ≤ 5%, 6-25%, and > 25% exhibited disease progression, respectively. A risk score based on five factors predicts disease progression and facilitates early decision-making according to prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data
16.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(4): e13707, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760138

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence and fatality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and identify risk factors to fatality in patients with inflammatory articular diseases (IAD). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional observational study of IAD patients and COVID-19 with controls matched for age, sex, and RT-PCR. A control group was used to compare the cumulative incidence (CI) and case fatality rate (CFR). The main outcomes of the study were CI and CFR. Other variables included comorbidities, treatments, and characteristics of the COVID-19. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate risk factors for fatality in patients with IAD. RESULTS: Of the 1537 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 23/1537 (1.49%) had IAD 13 (0.8%) had rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 5 psoriatic arthritis (PsA) (0.3%) and 5 axial spondyloarthritis (0.3%). There were no significant differences in CI of COVID-19 and CFR in patients with IAD compared with COVID-19 patients without IAD. In RT-PCR positive patients, the CI of COVID-19 in PsA and AS was higher. Of the 23 IAD patients, 2 RA patients (8.6%) died. The patients did no show characteristics of the COVID-19 disease different from the population. In multivariate analysis, the factor associated with fatality in patients with IAD was older age (OR [95% CI], 1.1 [1.0-1.2]). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 CI, fatality rate and other features do not seem to be increased in IAD patients. Older age was associated with fatality in patients with IAD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Joint Diseases , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Incidence , Joint Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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