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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(41): e2209042119, 2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36136978

ABSTRACT

Viruses employ a variety of strategies to escape or counteract immune responses, including depletion of cell surface major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), that would ordinarily present viral peptides to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. As part of a screen to elucidate biological activities associated with individual severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral proteins, we found that ORF7a reduced cell surface MHC-I levels by approximately fivefold. Nevertheless, in cells infected with SARS-CoV-2, surface MHC-I levels were reduced even in the absence of ORF7a, suggesting additional mechanisms of MHC-I down-regulation. ORF7a proteins from a sample of sarbecoviruses varied in their ability to induce MHC-I down-regulation and, unlike SARS-CoV-2, the ORF7a protein from SARS-CoV lacked MHC-I downregulating activity. A single amino acid at position 59 (T/F) that is variable among sarbecovirus ORF7a proteins governed the difference in MHC-I downregulating activity. SARS-CoV-2 ORF7a physically associated with the MHC-I heavy chain and inhibited the presentation of expressed antigen to CD8+ T cells. Specifically, ORF7a prevented the assembly of the MHC-I peptide loading complex and caused retention of MHC-I in the endoplasmic reticulum. The differential ability of ORF7a proteins to function in this way might affect sarbecovirus dissemination and persistence in human populations, particularly those with infection- or vaccine-elicited immunity.

2.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(655): eabn9662, 2022 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35895834

ABSTRACT

HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are capable of both blocking viral entry and driving innate immune responses against HIV-infected cells through their Fc region. Vaccination or productive infection results in a polyclonal mixture of class-switched immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies composed of four subclasses, each encoding distinct Fc regions that differentially engage innate immune functions. Despite evidence that innate immunity contributes to protection, the relative contribution of individual IgG subclasses is unknown. Here, we used vectored immunoprophylaxis in humanized mice to interrogate the efficacy of individual IgG subclasses during prevention of vaginal HIV transmission by VRC07, a potent CD4-binding site-directed bNAb. We find that VRC07 IgG2, which lacks Fc-mediated functionality, exhibited substantially reduced protection in vivo relative to other subclasses. Low concentrations of highly functional VRC07 IgG1 yielded substantial protection against vaginal challenge, suggesting that interventions capable of eliciting modest titers of functional IgG subclasses may provide meaningful benefit against infection.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Immunoglobulin G , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , Female , HIV Antibodies , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Mice , Vagina
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(6): e1010572, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749424

ABSTRACT

Antiviral NK cell activity is regulated through the interaction of activating and inhibitory NK cell receptors with their ligands on infected cells. HLA class I molecules serve as ligands for most killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), but no HLA class I ligands for the inhibitory NK cell receptor KIR2DL5 have been identified to date. Using a NK cell receptor/ligand screening approach, we observed no strong binding of KIR2DL5 to HLA class I or class II molecules, but confirmed that KIR2DL5 binds to the poliovirus receptor (PVR, CD155). Functional studies using primary human NK cells revealed a significantly decreased degranulation of KIR2DL5+ NK cells in response to CD155-expressing target cells. We subsequently investigated the role of KIR2DL5/CD155 interactions in HIV-1 infection, and showed that multiple HIV-1 strains significantly decreased CD155 expression levels on HIV-1-infected primary human CD4+ T cells via a Nef-dependent mechanism. Co-culture of NK cells with HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells revealed enhanced anti-viral activity of KIR2DL5+ NK cells against wild-type versus Nef-deficient viruses, indicating that HIV-1-mediated downregulation of CD155 renders infected cells more susceptible to recognition by KIR2DL5+ NK cells. These data show that CD155 suppresses the antiviral activity of KIR2DL5+ NK cells and is downmodulated by HIV-1 Nef protein as potential trade-off counteracting activating NK cell ligands, demonstrating the ability of NK cells to counteract immune escape mechanisms employed by HIV-1.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1 , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Down-Regulation , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Ligands , Receptors, Natural Killer Cell/metabolism , Receptors, Virus , nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics , nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/metabolism
4.
bioRxiv ; 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665005

ABSTRACT

Viruses employ a variety of strategies to escape or counteract immune responses, including depletion of cell surface major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), that would ordinarily present viral peptides to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. As part of a screen to elucidate biological activities associated with individual SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins, we found that ORF7a reduced cell surface MHC-I levels by approximately 5-fold. Nevertheless, in cells infected with SARS-CoV-2, surface MHC-I levels were reduced even in the absence of ORF7a, suggesting additional mechanisms of MHC-I downregulation. ORF7a proteins from a sample of sarbecoviruses varied in their ability to induce MHC-I downregulation and, unlike SARS-CoV-2, the ORF7a protein from SARS-CoV lacked MHC-I downregulating activity. A single-amino acid at position 59 (T/F) that is variable among sarbecovirus ORF7a proteins governed the difference in MHC-I downregulating activity. SARS-CoV-2 ORF7a physically associated with the MHC-I heavy chain and inhibited the presentation of expressed antigen to CD8+ T-cells. Speficially, ORF7a prevented the assembly of the MHC-I peptide loading complex and causing retention of MHC-I in the endoplasmic reticulum. The differential ability of ORF7a proteins to function in this way might affect sarbecovirus dissemination and persistence in human populations, particularly those with infection- or vaccine-elicited immunity.

5.
Virulence ; 13(1): 890-902, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35587156

ABSTRACT

Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 are central to recovery and immunity from COVID-19. However, the relationship between disease severity and the repertoire of antibodies against specific SARS-CoV-2 epitopes an individual develops following exposure remains incompletely understood. Here, we studied seroprevalence of antibodies to specific SARS-CoV-2 and other betacoronavirus antigens in a well-annotated, community sample of convalescent and never-infected individuals obtained in August 2020. One hundred and twenty-four participants were classified into five groups: previously exposed but without evidence of infection, having no known exposure or evidence of infection, seroconverted without symptoms, previously diagnosed with symptomatic COVID-19, and recovered after hospitalization with COVID-19. Prevalence of IgGs specific to the following antigens was compared between the five groups: recombinant SARS-CoV-2 and betacoronavirus spike and nucleocapsid protein domains, peptides from a tiled array of 22-mers corresponding to the entire spike and nucleocapsid proteins, and peptides corresponding to predicted immunogenic regions from other proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Antibody abundance generally correlated positively with severity of prior illness. A number of specific immunogenic peptides and some that may be associated with milder illness or protection from symptomatic infection were identified. No convincing association was observed between antibodies to Receptor Binding Domain(s) (RBDs) of less pathogenic betacoronaviruses HKU1 or OC43 and COVID-19 severity. However, apparent cross-reaction with SARS-CoV RBD was evident and some predominantly asymptomatic individuals had antibodies to both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV RBDs. Findings from this pilot study may inform development of diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutic antibodies, and provide insight into viral pathogenic mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Humans , Pilot Projects , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1103, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35232959

ABSTRACT

The human hematopoietic stem cell harbors remarkable regenerative potential that can be harnessed therapeutically. During early development, hematopoietic stem cells in the fetal liver undergo active expansion while simultaneously retaining robust engraftment capacity, yet the underlying molecular program responsible for their efficient engraftment remains unclear. Here, we profile 26,407 fetal liver cells at both the transcriptional and protein level including ~7,000 highly enriched and functional fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells to establish a detailed molecular signature of engraftment potential. Integration of transcript and linked cell surface marker expression reveals a generalizable signature defining functional fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells and allows for the stratification of enrichment strategies with high translational potential. More precisely, our integrated analysis identifies CD201 (endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), encoded by PROCR) as a marker that can specifically enrich for engraftment potential. This comprehensive, multi-modal profiling of engraftment capacity connects a critical biological function at a key developmental timepoint with its underlying molecular drivers. As such, it serves as a useful resource for the field and forms the basis for further biological exploration of strategies to retain the engraftment potential of hematopoietic stem cells ex vivo or induce this potential during in vitro hematopoietic stem cell generation.


Subject(s)
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/metabolism , Humans , Liver
8.
Cell ; 185(6): 1041-1051.e6, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202566

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) contains mutations that mediate escape from antibody responses, although the extent to which these substitutions in spike and non-spike proteins affect T cell recognition is unknown. In this study, we show that T cell responses in individuals with prior infection, vaccination, both prior infection and vaccination, and boosted vaccination are largely preserved to Omicron spike and non-spike proteins. However, we also identify a subset of individuals (∼21%) with a >50% reduction in T cell reactivity to the Omicron spike. Evaluation of functional CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cell responses confirmed these findings and revealed that reduced recognition to Omicron spike is primarily observed within the CD8+ T cell compartment potentially due to escape from HLA binding. Booster vaccination enhanced T cell responses to Omicron spike. In contrast to neutralizing immunity, these findings suggest preservation of T cell responses to the Omicron variant, although with reduced reactivity in some individuals.

9.
medRxiv ; 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018386

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) contains mutations that mediate escape from infection and vaccine-induced antibody responses, although the extent to which these substitutions in spike and non-spike proteins affect T cell recognition is unknown. Here we show that T cell responses in individuals with prior infection, vaccination, both prior infection and vaccination, and boosted vaccination are largely preserved to Omicron spike and non-spike proteins. However, we also identify a subset of individuals (∻21%) with a >50% reduction in T cell reactivity to the Omicron spike. Evaluation of functional CD4 + and CD8 + memory T cell responses confirmed these findings and reveal that reduced recognition to Omicron spike is primarily observed within the CD8 + T cell compartment. Booster vaccination substantially enhanced T cell responses to Omicron spike. In contrast to neutralizing immunity, these findings suggest preservation of T cell responses to the Omicron variant, although with reduced reactivity in some individuals.

10.
Cell ; 185(3): 457-466.e4, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995482

ABSTRACT

Recent surveillance has revealed the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (BA.1/B.1.1.529) harboring up to 36 mutations in spike protein, the target of neutralizing antibodies. Given its potential to escape vaccine-induced humoral immunity, we measured the neutralization potency of sera from 88 mRNA-1273, 111 BNT162b, and 40 Ad26.COV2.S vaccine recipients against wild-type, Delta, and Omicron SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses. We included individuals that received their primary series recently (<3 months), distantly (6-12 months), or an additional "booster" dose, while accounting for prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Remarkably, neutralization of Omicron was undetectable in most vaccinees. However, individuals boosted with mRNA vaccines exhibited potent neutralization of Omicron, only 4-6-fold lower than wild type, suggesting enhanced cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibody responses. In addition, we find that Omicron pseudovirus infects more efficiently than other variants tested. Overall, this study highlights the importance of additional mRNA doses to broaden neutralizing antibody responses against highly divergent SARS-CoV-2 variants.

11.
Cancer Cell ; 40(1): 103-108.e2, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990570

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer are more likely to have impaired immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. We study the breadth of responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants after primary vaccination in 178 patients with a variety of tumor types and after booster doses in a subset. Neutralization of alpha, beta, gamma, and delta SARS-CoV-2 variants is impaired relative to wildtype, regardless of vaccine type. Regardless of viral variant, mRNA1273 is the most immunogenic, followed by BNT162b2, and then Ad26.COV2.S. Neutralization of more variants (breadth) is associated with a greater magnitude of wildtype neutralization, and increases with time since vaccination; advancing age associates with a lower breadth. The concentrations of anti-spike protein antibody are a good surrogate for breadth (positive predictive value of =90% at >1,000 U/mL). Booster SARS-CoV-2 vaccines confer enhanced breadth. These data suggest that achieving a high antibody titer is desirable to achieve broad neutralization; a single booster dose with the current vaccines increases the breadth of responses against variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Neoplasms/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Aging/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Immunocompromised Host , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Load
12.
medRxiv ; 2021 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34931201

ABSTRACT

Recent surveillance has revealed the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (BA.1/B.1.1.529) harboring up to 36 mutations in spike protein, the target of vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies. Given its potential to escape vaccine-induced humoral immunity, we measured neutralization potency of sera from 88 mRNA-1273, 111 BNT162b, and 40 Ad26.COV2.S vaccine recipients against wild type, Delta, and Omicron SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses. We included individuals that were vaccinated recently (<3 months), distantly (6-12 months), or recently boosted, and accounted for prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Remarkably, neutralization of Omicron was undetectable in most vaccinated individuals. However, individuals boosted with mRNA vaccines exhibited potent neutralization of Omicron only 4-6-fold lower than wild type, suggesting that boosters enhance the cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibody responses. In addition, we find Omicron pseudovirus is more infectious than any other variant tested. Overall, this study highlights the importance of boosters to broaden neutralizing antibody responses against highly divergent SARS-CoV-2 variants.

13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 798235, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34917099

ABSTRACT

While human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and HLA-like proteins comprise an overwhelming majority of known ligands for NK-cell receptors, the interactions of NK-cell receptors with non-conventional ligands, particularly carbohydrate antigens, is less well described. We previously found through a bead-based HLA screen that KIR3DS1, a formerly orphan member of the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) family, binds to HLA-F. In this study, we assessed the ligand binding profile of KIR3DS1 to cell lines using Fc fusion constructs, and discovered that KIR3DS1-Fc exhibited binding to several human cell lines including ones devoid of HLA. To identify these non-HLA ligands, we developed a magnetic enrichment-based genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 knock-out screen approach, and identified enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate as crucial for the binding of KIR3DS1-Fc to K562 cells. This interaction between KIR3DS1 and heparan sulfate was confirmed via surface plasmon resonance, and removal of heparan sulfate proteoglycans from cell surfaces abolished KIR3DS1-Fc binding. Testing of additional KIR-Fc constructs demonstrated that KIR family members containing a D0 domain (KIR3DS1, KIR3DL1, KIR3DL2, KIR2DL4, and KIR2DL5) bound to heparan sulfate, while those without a D0 domain (KIR2DL1, KIR2DL2, KIR2DL3, and KIR2DS4) did not. Overall, this study demonstrates the use of a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 knock-out strategy to unbiasedly identify unconventional ligands of NK-cell receptors. Furthermore, we uncover a previously underrecognized binding of various activating and inhibitory KIRs to heparan sulfate proteoglycans that may play a role in NK-cell receptor signaling and target-cell recognition.


Subject(s)
Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans/agonists , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Receptors, KIR3DS1/metabolism , Receptors, KIR/agonists , CRISPR-Associated Protein 9/metabolism , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , K562 Cells , Ligands , Signal Transduction
14.
J Infect Dis ; 225(7): 1141-1150, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34888672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding immunogenicity and effectiveness of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines is critical to guide rational use. METHODS: We compared the immunogenicity of mRNA-1273, BNT-162b2, and Ad26.COV2.S in healthy ambulatory adults. We performed an inverse-variance meta-analysis of population-level effectiveness from public health reports in > 40 million individuals. RESULTS: A single dose of either mRNA vaccine yielded comparable antibody and neutralization titers to convalescent individuals. Ad26.COV2.S yielded lower antibody concentrations and frequently undetectable neutralization titers. Bulk and cytotoxic T-cell responses were higher in mRNA1273 and BNT162b2 than Ad26.COV2.S recipients. Regardless of vaccine, <50% of vaccinees demonstrated CD8+ T-cell responses. Antibody concentrations and neutralization titers increased comparably after the first dose of either vaccine, and further in recipients of a second dose. Prior infection was associated with high antibody concentrations and neutralization even after a single dose and regardless of vaccine. Neutralization of Beta, Gamma, and Delta strains were poorer regardless of vaccine. In meta-analysis, relative to mRNA1273 the effectiveness of BNT162b2 was lower against infection and hospitalization, and Ad26COV2.S was lower against infection, hospitalization, and death. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in the immunogenicity correlates with variable effectiveness of the 3 vaccines deployed in the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic
15.
medRxiv ; 2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671780

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding immunogenicity and effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is critical to guide rational use. METHODS: We compared the immunogenicity of mRNA-1273, BNT-162b2 or Ad26.COV2.S in ambulatory adults in Massachusetts, USA. To correlate immunogenicity with effectiveness of the three vaccines, we performed an inverse-variance meta-analysis of population level effectiveness from public health reports in >40 million individuals. RESULTS: A single dose of either mRNA vaccine yielded comparable antibody and neutralization titers to convalescent individuals. Ad26.COV2.S yielded lower antibody concentrations and frequently negative neutralization titers. Bulk and cytotoxic T-cell responses were higher in mRNA1273 and BNT162b2 than Ad26.COV2.S recipients, and <50% of vaccinees demonstrate CD8+ T-cell responses to spike peptides. Antibody concentrations and neutralization titers increased comparably after the first dose of either vaccine, and further in recipients of a second dose. Prior infection was associated with high antibody concentrations and neutralization even after a single dose and regardless of vaccine. Neutralization of beta, gamma and delta strains were poorer regardless of vaccine. Relative to mRNA1273, the effectiveness of BNT162b2 was lower against infection and hospitalization; and Ad26COV2.S was lower against infection, hospitalization and death. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in the immunogenicity correlates with variable effectiveness of the three FDA EUA vaccines deployed in the USA.

16.
Cell ; 184(17): 4401-4413.e10, 2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265281

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants that escape convalescent and vaccine-induced antibody responses has renewed focus on the development of broadly protective T-cell-based vaccines. Here, we apply structure-based network analysis and assessments of HLA class I peptide stability to define mutationally constrained CD8+ T cell epitopes across the SARS-CoV-2 proteome. Highly networked residues are conserved temporally among circulating variants and sarbecoviruses and disproportionately impair spike pseudotyped lentivirus infectivity when mutated. Evaluation of HLA class I stabilizing activity for 18 globally prevalent alleles identifies CD8+ T cell epitopes within highly networked regions with limited mutational frequencies in circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants and deep-sequenced primary isolates. Moreover, these epitopes elicit demonstrable CD8+ T cell reactivity in convalescent individuals but reduced recognition in recipients of mRNA-based vaccines. These data thereby elucidate key mutationally constrained regions and immunogenic epitopes in the SARS-CoV-2 proteome for a global T-cell-based vaccine against emerging variants and SARS-like coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , HLA Antigens/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
17.
Cell Rep ; 36(2): 109378, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260940

ABSTRACT

Defining factors that govern CD8+ T cell immunodominance is critical for the rational design of vaccines for viral pathogens. Here, we assess the contribution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class-I-peptide stability for 186 optimal HIV epitopes across 18 HLA alleles using transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)-deficient mono-allelic HLA-expressing cell lines. We find that immunodominant HIV epitopes increase surface stabilization of HLA class-I molecules in comparison to subdominant epitopes. HLA class-I-peptide stability is also strongly correlated with overall immunodominance hierarchies, particularly for epitopes from high-abundance proteins (e.g., Gag). Moreover, HLA alleles associated with HIV protection are preferentially stabilized by epitopes derived from topologically important viral regions at a greater frequency than neutral and risk alleles. These findings indicate that relative stabilization of HLA class-I is a key factor for CD8+ T cell epitope immunodominance hierarchies, with implications for HIV control and the design of T-cell-based vaccines.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Peptides/immunology , Alleles , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Protein Denaturation , Protein Stability , Surface Properties
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 667393, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122425

ABSTRACT

Humanized bone marrow-liver-thymus (HuBLT) mice are a revolutionary small-animal model that has facilitated the study of human immune function and human-restricted pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). These mice recapitulate many aspects of acute and chronic HIV-1 infection, but exhibit weak and variable T-cell responses when challenged with HIV-1, hindering our ability to confidently detect HIV-1-specific responses or vaccine effects. To identify the cause of this, we comprehensively analyzed T-cell development, diversity, and function in HuBLT mice. We found that virtually all HuBLT were well-reconstituted with T cells and had intact TCRß sequence diversity, thymic development, and differentiation to memory and effector cells. However, there was poor CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responsiveness to physiologic stimuli and decreased TH1 polarization that correlated with deficient reconstitution of innate immune cells, in particular monocytes. HIV-1 infection of HuBLT mice showed that mice with higher monocyte reconstitution exhibited greater CD8+ T cells responses and HIV-1 viral evolution within predicted HLA-restricted epitopes. Thus, T-cell responses to immune challenges are blunted in HuBLT mice due to a deficiency of innate immune cells, and future efforts to improve the model for HIV-1 immune response and vaccine studies need to be aimed at restoring innate immune reconstitution.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/immunology , Immune Reconstitution , Animals , Biological Evolution , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , HIV Infections/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred NOD , Mice, SCID , Viremia
20.
Cell ; 184(9): 2372-2383.e9, 2021 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743213

ABSTRACT

Vaccination elicits immune responses capable of potently neutralizing SARS-CoV-2. However, ongoing surveillance has revealed the emergence of variants harboring mutations in spike, the main target of neutralizing antibodies. To understand the impact of these variants, we evaluated the neutralization potency of 99 individuals that received one or two doses of either BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccines against pseudoviruses representing 10 globally circulating strains of SARS-CoV-2. Five of the 10 pseudoviruses, harboring receptor-binding domain mutations, including K417N/T, E484K, and N501Y, were highly resistant to neutralization. Cross-neutralization of B.1.351 variants was comparable to SARS-CoV and bat-derived WIV1-CoV, suggesting that a relatively small number of mutations can mediate potent escape from vaccine responses. While the clinical impact of neutralization resistance remains uncertain, these results highlight the potential for variants to escape from neutralizing humoral immunity and emphasize the need to develop broadly protective interventions against the evolving pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mutation/genetics , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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