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1.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(11): 955-961, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758891

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We analyzed contagions of coronavirus disease 2019 inside school bubble groups in Catalonia, Spain, in the presence of strong nonpharmaceutical interventions from September to December 2020. More than 1 million students were organized in bubble groups and monitored and analyzed by the Health and the Educational departments. METHODS: We had access to 2 data sources, and both were employed for the analysis, one is the Catalan school surveillance system and the other of the educational department. As soon as a positive index case is detected by the health system, isolation is required for all members of the bubble group, in addition to a mandatory proactive systematic screening of each individual. All infected cases are reported. It permits the calculation of the average reproductive number (R*), corresponding to the average number of infected individuals per index case. RESULTS: We found that propagation inside of the bubble group was small. Among 75% index cases, there was no transmission to other members in the classroom, with an average R* across all ages inside the bubble of R* = 0.4. We found a significant age trend in the secondary attack rates, with the R* going from 0.2 in preschool to 0.6 in high school youth. CONCLUSIONS: The secondary attack rate depends on the school level and therefore on the age. Super-spreading events (outbreaks of 5 cases or more) in childhood were rare, only occurring in 2.5% of all infections triggered from a pediatric index case.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Students , Adolescent , Age Factors , Algorithms , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Models, Statistical , Population Surveillance , Spain/epidemiology
2.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263741, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690714

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite their clear lesser vulnerability to COVID-19, the extent by which children are susceptible to getting infected by SARS-CoV-2 and their capacity to transmit the infection to other people remains inadequately characterized. We aimed to evaluate the role of school reopening and the preventive strategies in place at schools in terms of overall risk for children and community transmission, by comparing transmission rates in children as detected by a COVID-19 surveillance platform in place in Catalonian Schools to the incidence at the community level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Infections detected in Catalan schools during the entire first trimester of classes (September-December 2020) were analysed and compared with the ongoing community transmission and with the modelled predicted number of infections. There were 30.486 infections (2.12%) documented among the circa 1.5M pupils, with cases detected in 54.0% and 97.5% of the primary and secondary centres, respectively. During the entire first term, the proportion of "bubble groups" (stable groups of children doing activities together) that were forced to undergo confinement ranged between 1 and 5%, with scarce evidence of substantial intraschool transmission in the form of chains of infections, and with ~75% of all detected infections not leading to secondary cases. Mathematical models were also used to evaluate the effect of different parameters related to the defined preventive strategies (size of the bubble group, number of days of confinement required by contacts of an index case). The effective reproduction number inside the bubble groups in schools (R*), defined as the average number of schoolmates infected by each primary case within the bubble, was calculated, yielding a value of 0.35 for primary schools and 0.55 for secondary schools, and compared with the outcomes of the mathematical model, implying decreased transmissibility for children in the context of the applied measures. Relative homogenized monthly cumulative incidence ([Formula: see text]) was assessed to compare the epidemiological dynamics among different age groups and this analysis suggested the limited impact of infections in school-aged children in the context of the overall community incidence. CONCLUSIONS: During the fall of 2020, SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 cases detected in Catalan schools closely mirrored the underlying community transmission from the neighbourhoods where they were set and maintaining schools open appeared to be safe irrespective of underlying community transmission. Preventive measures in place in those schools appeared to be working for the early detection and rapid containment of transmission and should be maintained for the adequate and safe functioning of normal academic and face-to-face school activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Residence Characteristics , Schools , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Incidence , Models, Theoretical , Spain/epidemiology
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 751705, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686480

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 affects children to a lesser extent than adults but they can still get infected and transmit SARS-CoV-2 to their contacts. Field deployable non-invasive sensitive diagnostic techniques are needed to evaluate the infectivity dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in pediatric populations and guide public health interventions, particularly if this population is not fully vaccinated. We evaluated the utility of high-throughput Luminex assays to quantify saliva IgM, IgA and IgG antibodies against five SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) antigens in a contacts and infectivity longitudinal study in 122 individuals (52 children and 70 adults). We compared saliva versus serum/plasma samples in infected children and adults diagnosed by weekly RT-PCR over 35 days (n=62), and those who consistently tested negative over the same follow up period (n=60), in the Summer of 2020 in Barcelona, Spain. Saliva antibody levels in SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive individuals were significantly higher than in negative individuals and correlated with those measured in sera/plasmas. Asymptomatic infected individuals had higher levels of anti-S IgG than symptomatic individuals, suggesting a protective anti-disease role for antibodies. Higher anti-S IgG and IgM levels in serum/plasma and saliva, respectively, in infected children compared to infected adults could also be related to stronger clinical immunity in them. Among infected children, males had higher levels of saliva IgG to N and RBD than females. Despite overall correlation, individual clustering analysis suggested that responses that may not be detected in blood could be patent in saliva, and vice versa. In conclusion, measurement of SARS-CoV-2-specific saliva antibodies should be considered as a complementary non-invasive assay to serum/plasma to determine COVID-19 prevalence and transmission in pediatric populations before and after vaccination campaigns.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , Saliva , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(1): 66-73, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the role of children in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission is critical to guide decision-making for schools in the pandemic. We aimed to describe the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 among children and adult staff in summer schools. METHODS: During July 2020, we prospectively recruited children and adult staff attending summer schools in Barcelona who had SARS-CoV-2 infection. Primary SARS-CoV-2 infections were identified through (1) a surveillance program in 22 summer schools of 1905 participants, involving weekly saliva sampling for SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) during 2-5 weeks; and (2) cases identified through the Catalonian Health Surveillance System of children diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection by nasopharyngeal RT-PCR. All centers followed prevention protocols: bubble groups, handwashing, face masks, and conducting activities mostly outdoors. Contacts of a primary case within the same bubble were evaluated by nasopharyngeal RT-PCR. Secondary attack rates and the effective reproduction number in summer schools (Re*) were calculated. RESULTS: Among the >2000 repeatedly screened participants, 30 children and 9 adults were identified as primary cases. A total of 253 close contacts of these primary cases were studied (median, 9 [interquartile range, 5-10] for each primary case), among which 12 new cases (4.7%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. The Re* was 0.3, whereas the contemporary rate in the general population from the same areas in Barcelona was 1.9. CONCLUSIONS: The transmission rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection among children attending school-like facilities under strict prevention measures was lower than that reported for the general population. This suggests that under preventive measures schools are unlikely amplifiers of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, supporting current recommendations for school opening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Spain/epidemiology
5.
Frontiers in public health ; 9, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1563781

ABSTRACT

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, lockdown strategies have been widely used to contain SARS-CoV-2 virus spread. Children and adolescents are especially vulnerable to suffering psychological effects as result of such measures. In Spain, children were enforced to a strict home lockdown for 42 days during the first wave. Here, we studied the effects of lockdown in children and adolescents through an online questionnaire. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain using an open online survey from July (after the lockdown resulting from the first pandemic wave) to November 2020 (second wave). We included families with children under 16 years-old living in Spain. Parents answered a survey regarding the lockdown effects on their children and were instructed to invite their children from 7 to 16 years-old (mandatory scholar age in Spain) to respond a specific set of questions. Answers were collected through an application programming interface system, and data analysis was performed using R. Results: We included 1,957 families who completed the questionnaires, covering a total of 3,347 children. The specific children's questionnaire was completed by 167 kids (7–11 years-old), and 100 adolescents (12–16 years-old). Children, in general, showed high resilience and capability to adapt to new situations. Sleeping problems were reported in more than half of the children (54%) and adolescents (59%), and these were strongly associated with less time doing sports and spending more than 5 h per day using electronic devices. Parents perceived their children to gain weight (41%), be more irritable and anxious (63%) and sadder (46%). Parents and children differed significantly when evaluating children's sleeping disturbances. Conclusions: Enforced lockdown measures and isolation can have a negative impact on children and adolescent's mental health and well-being. In future waves of the current pandemic, or in the light of potential epidemics of new emerging infections, lockdown measures targeting children, and adolescents should be reconsidered taking into account their infectiousness potential and their age-specific needs, especially to facilitate physical activity and to limit time spent on electronic devices.

6.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 309, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Surveillance tools to estimate viral transmission dynamics in young populations are essential to guide recommendations for school opening and management during viral epidemics. Ideally, sensitive techniques are required to detect low viral load exposures among asymptomatic children. We aimed to estimate SARS-CoV-2 infection rates in children and adult populations in a school-like environment during the initial COVID-19 pandemic waves using an antibody-based field-deployable and non-invasive approach. METHODS: Saliva antibody conversion defined as ≥ 4-fold increase in IgM, IgA, and/or IgG levels to five SARS-CoV-2 antigens including spike and nucleocapsid constructs was evaluated in 1509 children and 396 adults by high-throughput Luminex assays in samples collected weekly in 22 summer schools and 2 pre-schools in 27 venues in Barcelona, Spain, from June 29th to July 31st, 2020. RESULTS: Saliva antibody conversion between two visits over a 5-week period was 3.22% (49/1518) or 2.36% if accounting for potentially cross-reactive antibodies, six times higher than the cumulative infection rate (0.53%) assessed by weekly saliva RT-PCR screening. IgG conversion was higher in adults (2.94%, 11/374) than children (1.31%, 15/1144) (p=0.035), IgG and IgA levels moderately increased with age, and antibodies were higher in females. Most antibody converters increased both IgG and IgA antibodies but some augmented either IgG or IgA, with a faster decay over time for IgA than IgG. Nucleocapsid rather than spike was the main antigen target. Anti-spike antibodies were significantly higher in individuals not reporting symptoms than symptomatic individuals, suggesting a protective role against COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Saliva antibody profiling including three isotypes and multiplexing antigens is a useful and user-friendlier tool for screening pediatric populations to detect low viral load exposures among children, particularly while they are not vaccinated and vulnerable to highly contagious variants, and to recommend public health policies during pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Pandemics , Saliva , Schools , Spain/epidemiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
J Infect ; 82(3): 414-451, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386002

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study describes the characteristics of children requiring admission with an acute lower-respiratory disease (ALRD) during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemics. METHODS: Epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological data from patients with ALRD (pneumonia, bronchiolitis, bronchospasm) admitted to a reference paediatric hospital in Spain during the pandemic peak (week 11-20/2020) were prospectively analysed. RESULTS: 110 patients were included. 7 were SARS-CoV-2(+) and they were older in comparison to SARS-CoV-2(-). Among SARS-CoV-2(+) patients, pneumonia was the main clinical diagnosis (6/7) and bronchospasm was absent. Only 1 of 29 infants diagnosed with bronchiolitis was SARS-CoV-2(+). Lower values of leucocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and platelets and higher values of creatinine were found in SARS-CoV-2(+). Human-rhinovirus/enterovirus was the main detection (11/32). There were not differences in PICU admission rates between SARS-CoV-2(+) and (-). CONCLUSIONS: Most of the ALRD episodes identified during the pandemics were not related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 was mainly found causing pneumonia in older children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Spain/epidemiology
8.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355050

ABSTRACT

We aimed to assess the duration of nasopharyngeal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA persistence in adults self-confined at home after acute infection; and to identify the associations of SARS-CoV-2 persistence with respiratory virus co-detection and infection transmission. A cross-sectional intra-household study was conducted in metropolitan Barcelona (Spain) during the time period of April to June 2020. Every adult who was the first family member reported as SARS-CoV-2-positive by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as well as their household child contacts had nasopharyngeal swabs tested by a targeted SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and a multiplex viral respiratory panel after a 15 day minimum time lag. Four-hundred and four households (404 adults and 708 children) were enrolled. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 137 (33.9%) adults and 84 (11.9%) children. Rhinovirus/Enterovirus (RV/EV) was commonly found (83.3%) in co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 in adults. The mean duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA presence in adults' nasopharynx was 52 days (range 26-83 days). The persistence of SARS-CoV-2 was significantly associated with RV/EV co-infection (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 9.31; 95% CI 2.57-33.80) and SARS-CoV-2 detection in child contacts (aOR 2.08; 95% CI 1.24-3.51). Prolonged nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA persistence beyond the acute infection phase was frequent in adults quarantined at home during the first epidemic wave; which was associated with RV/EV co-infection and could enhance intra-household infection transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Enterovirus Infections/complications , Picornaviridae Infections/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enterovirus/genetics , Enterovirus/isolation & purification , Family Health , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Quarantine , RNA, Viral/analysis , Rhinovirus/genetics , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Time Factors , Young Adult
9.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(11): 955-961, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We analyzed contagions of coronavirus disease 2019 inside school bubble groups in Catalonia, Spain, in the presence of strong nonpharmaceutical interventions from September to December 2020. More than 1 million students were organized in bubble groups and monitored and analyzed by the Health and the Educational departments. METHODS: We had access to 2 data sources, and both were employed for the analysis, one is the Catalan school surveillance system and the other of the educational department. As soon as a positive index case is detected by the health system, isolation is required for all members of the bubble group, in addition to a mandatory proactive systematic screening of each individual. All infected cases are reported. It permits the calculation of the average reproductive number (R*), corresponding to the average number of infected individuals per index case. RESULTS: We found that propagation inside of the bubble group was small. Among 75% index cases, there was no transmission to other members in the classroom, with an average R* across all ages inside the bubble of R* = 0.4. We found a significant age trend in the secondary attack rates, with the R* going from 0.2 in preschool to 0.6 in high school youth. CONCLUSIONS: The secondary attack rate depends on the school level and therefore on the age. Super-spreading events (outbreaks of 5 cases or more) in childhood were rare, only occurring in 2.5% of all infections triggered from a pediatric index case.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Students , Adolescent , Age Factors , Algorithms , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Models, Statistical , Population Surveillance , Spain/epidemiology
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 110: 363-370, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328748

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To validate and implement an optimized screening method for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA combining use of self-collected raw saliva samples, single-step heat-treated virus inactivation and RNA extraction, and direct RT-qPCR. METHODS: This was a three-phase study conducted in Barcelona (Spain) during June to October, 2020. The three phases were (1) analytical validation against standard RT-qPCR in saliva samples; (2) diagnostic validation against standard RT-qPCR using paired saliva-nasopharyngeal samples obtained from asymptomatic teenagers and adults in a sports academy; and (3) pilot screening of asymptomatic health workers in a tertiary hospital. RESULTS: In phase 1, the detection yield of the new method was comparable to that of standard RT-qPCR. In phase 2, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity values in 303 self-collected saliva samples were 95.7% (95% confidence interval 79.0-99.2%) and 100.0% (95% confidence interval 98.6-100.0%), respectively. In phase 3, only 17 (0.6%) of the saliva samples self-collected by 2709 participants without supervision were invalid. The rapid analytical workflow with the new method (up to 384 batched samples could be processed in less than 2 hours) yielded 24 (0.9%) positive results in the remaining 2692 saliva samples. Paired nasopharyngeal specimens were all positive by standard RT-qPCR. CONCLUSIONS: Direct RT-qPCR on self-collected raw saliva is a simple, rapid, and accurate method with potential to be scaled up for enhanced SARS-CoV-2 community-wide screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Nasopharynx , RNA, Viral , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Saliva , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(12): e970-e977, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269552

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Susceptibility of children and adults to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and persistence of antibody response to the virus after infection resolution remain poorly understood, despite their significant public health implications. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional seroprevalence study with volunteer families that included at least 1 first-reported adult case positive by SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and at least 1 child aged <15 years living in the same household under strict home confinement was conducted in the metropolitan Barcelona Health Region, Spain, during the pandemic period 28 April 2020-3 June 2020. All household members were tested at home using a rapid SARS-CoV-2 antibody assay with finger prick-obtained capillary blood. RESULTS: A total of 381 family households including 381 first-reported PCR-positive adult cases and 1084 contacts (672 children, 412 adults) were enrolled. SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence rates were 17.6% (118 of 672) in children and 18.7% (77 of 335) in adult contacts (P = .64). Among first-reported cases, seropositivity rates varied from 84.0% in adults previously hospitalized and tested within 6 weeks since the first positive PCR result to 31.5% in those not hospitalized and tested after that lag time (P < .001). Nearly all (99.9%) positive children were asymptomatic or had mild symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Children appear to have similar probability as adults to become infected by SARS-CoV-2 in quarantined family households but remain largely asymptomatic. Adult antibody protection against SARS-CoV-2 seems to be weak beyond 6 weeks post-infection confirmation, especially in cases that have experienced mild disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology
13.
An Pediatr (Engl Ed) ; 93(5): 343.e1-343.e8, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-871718

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV2 pandemic dimension has affected the Hospital Pediatrics Medicine assistance in our country. New challenges generated by COVID-19 require a series of proactive measures, based on existing scientific knowledge and standards of good practice, that allow the Pediatric Hospital services readiness and operability. Hospital Internal Pediatrics, as responsible of integral care of the hospitalized child, plays a leading role in the new hospital model emerging from this crisis. This review analyzes the impact of the current SARS-CoV2 epidemic on pediatric care, and perspective of new COVID-19 outbreaks in coexistence with other viral infections. Changes secondary to pandemic involved in Hospital pediatric units must be analyzed, and how to prepare for future epidemics, also the involvement of pediatric units in adult care and the possible opportunities for improvement. Assistance of patients with chronic complex conditions in epidemic circumstances, safety aspects, opportunities for teaching and ethical considerations are reviewed. The Spanish Society of Hospital Pediatrics Medicine offers with this article a series of resources for Internal pediatric Medicine practitioners responsible to face next challenges in pediatric hospitalization units.


La dimensión de la pandemia por SARS-CoV2 ha afectado a la organización asistencial de la Pediatría Hospitalaria de nuestro país. Los nuevos retos generados por la COVID-19 exigen una serie de medidas proactivas basadas en los conocimientos científicos existentes y las normas de buena práctica, que permitan la preparación y la mayor operatividad de los servicios pediátricos hospitalarios. La Pediatría Interna Hospitalaria, como responsable de la atención integral del niño hospitalizado, tiene un papel principal en el nuevo modelo de hospital surgido de esta epidemia. En la presente revisión se analiza la repercusión pediátrica que ha tenido la epidemia por SARS-CoV2 y la preparación ante futuros rebrotes, en posible coexistencia con otras infecciones virales. Se revisa también la implicación de las unidades pediátricas en la asistencia de adultos y la atención de pacientes crónicos complejos y se ofrecen recomendaciones sobre aspectos de seguridad, consideraciones éticas y docencia de los futuros pediatras durante la crisis. La Sociedad Española de Pediatría Hospitalaria (SEPHO) pretende con este documento ofrecer a los pediatras internistas hospitalarios una serie de reflexiones y recursos de utilidad en un escenario con muchas incertidumbres.

15.
An Pediatr (Engl Ed) ; 93(5): 343.e1-343.e8, 2020 Nov.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638544

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 pandemic dimension has affected the Hospital Pediatrics Medicine assistance in our country. New challenges generated by COVID-19 require a series of proactive measures, based on existing scientific knowledge and standards of good practice, that allow the Pediatric Hospital services readiness and operability. Hospital Internal Pediatrics, as responsible of integral care of the hospitalized child, plays a leading role in the new hospital model emerging from this crisis. This review analyzes the impact of the current SARS-CoV-2 epidemic on pediatric care, and perspective of new COVID-19 outbreaks in coexistence with other viral infections. Changes secondary to pandemic involved in Hospital Pediatric units, how to prepare for future epidemics, also the involvement of pediatric units in adult care and the possible opportunities for improvement need to be revised. Assistance of patients with chronic complex conditions in epidemic circumstances, safety aspects, opportunities for teaching and ethical considerations are reviewed. The Spanish Society of Hospital Pediatrics Medicine offers with this article a series of resources for Internal Pediatric Medicine practitioners responsible to face next challenges in pediatric hospitalization units.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Pediatric/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pediatrics/methods , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Global Health , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pediatrics/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
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