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Cancer Research ; 82(4 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1779441


Background Detection of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) in patients (pts) who have completed treatment for early-stage triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with a very high risk of future relapse. Identifiying those at high risk of subsequent relapse may allow tailoring of further therapy to delay or prevent recurrence. The c-TRAK TN trial assessed the utility of prospective ctDNA surveillance in pts treated for TNBC and the activity of pembrolizumab (P) in pts with ctDNA detected. Methods c-TRAK TN, a multi-centre phase II trial with integrated prospective screening component, enrolled pts with early-stage TNBC and either residual disease following neoadjuvant chemotherapy, or tumour size >20mm and/or axillary lymph node involvement if adjuvant chemotherapy was given. Tumour tissue was sequenced to identify somatic mutations suitable for tracking using personalised digital PCR ctDNA assays (BioRad QX200). Pts had "active" ctDNA surveillance via blood sample testing every 3 months to 12 months (potential up to 18 months if S samples missed due to COVID) during which time if ctDNA was detected (ctDNA+) pts could be randomised 2:1 to P (200mg i.v. q 3 weeks for 1 year) or observation (Obs). Pts and clinicians were blinded to ctDNA+ results unless they were allocated P, when staging scans were done and those free of clinical recurrence started treatment. Following advice from the Independent Data Monitoring Committee, the Obs arm closed on 16/06/2020 with all subsequent ctDNA+ pts allocated P. Following the completion of active ctDNA surveillance, 3-monthly visits continued to 24 months to be analysed retrospectively. The aim was to recruit 150 pts to ctDNA surveillance, assuming 30% would be ctDNA+ within 12 months, allowing ctDNA+ rate to be estimated with a 2-sided 95%CI of +/-7.3%. Co-primary endpoints are i) rates of ctDNA detection by 12 and 24 months from start of ctDNA surveillance;ii) rates of sustained ctDNA clearance on P defined as absence of detectable ctDNA, or disease recurrence 6 months after starting P. Results 208 pts were registered between 30/01/18 and 06/12/19, 185 had tumour sequenced, 171 (92.4%) had trackable mutations, and 161 entered ctDNA surveillance. The rate of ctDNA detection by 12 months after start of surveillance was 27.3% (44/161, 95% CI 20.6-34.9). ctDNA+ rates from baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 month ctDNA samples were 23/161 (14.3%), 6/115 (5.2%), 6/99 (5.1%), 7/84 (8.3%), and 2/84 (2.4%) respectively. An additional 2 pts were ctDNA+ on COVID extended active surveillance at 15 (1/51, 2%) or 18 months (1/11, 9%). 7 pts relapsed without prior ctDNA detection. 45 pts entered the therapeutic component of the trial (initially 31 to P and 14 to Obs). 1 Obs pt was re-allocated to P. Of pts allocated to P, 72% (23/32) had metastatic disease at time of ctDNA detection on staging scans (75% (12/16) who were ctDNA+ at baseline and 69% (11/16) at other timepoints). 4 pts declined to start P, largely due to COVID concerns. Of the 5 pts who commenced P, at the time of analysis none achieved sustained ctDNA clearance and 4 had recurred. In pts allocated to Obs, median time to recurrence was 4.1 months (95% CI: 3.2-not-defined). Conclusion The c-TRAK TN trial is to our knowledge the first study to assess the proof-of-principle of whether ctDNA assays have clinical utility in guiding further therapy in TNBC. Relatively few pts commenced P treatment precluding assessment of potential activity. At enrollment, patients had a relatively high of rate of undiagnosed metastatic disease when imaged. Our findings have implications for future trial design, emphasizing the importance of early start of ctDNA testing, and more sensitive and/or more frequent ctDNA testing regimes.