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PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263140, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854993


BACKGROUND: Infection by the SARS-Cov-2 virus produces in humans a disease of highly variable and unpredictable severity. The presence of frequent genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the population might lead to a greater susceptibility to infection or an exaggerated inflammatory response. SARS-CoV-2 requires the presence of the ACE2 protein to enter in the cell and ACE2 is a regulator of the renin-angiotensin system. Accordingly, we studied the associations between 8 SNPs from AGTR1, ACE2 and ACE genes and the severity of the disease produced by the SARS-Cov-2 virus. METHODS: 318 (aged 59.6±17.3 years, males 62.6%) COVID-19 patients were grouped based on the severity of symptoms: Outpatients (n = 104, 32.7%), hospitalized on the wards (n = 73, 23.0%), Intensive Care Unit (ICU) (n = 84, 26.4%) and deceased (n = 57, 17.9%). Comorbidity data (diabetes, hypertension, obesity, lung disease and cancer) were collected for adjustment. Genotype distribution of 8 selected SNPs among the severity groups was analyzed. RESULTS: Four SNPs in ACE2 were associated with the severity of disease. While rs2074192 andrs1978124showed a protector effectassuming an overdominant model of inheritance (G/A vs. GG-AA, OR = 0.32, 95%CI = 0.12-0.82; p = 0.016 and A/G vs. AA-GG, OR = 0.37, 95%CI: 0.14-0.96; p = 0.038, respectively); the SNPs rs2106809 and rs2285666were associated with an increased risk of being hospitalized and a severity course of the disease with recessive models of inheritance (C/C vs. T/C-T/T, OR = 11.41, 95% CI: 1.12-115.91; p = 0.012) and (A/A vs. GG-G/A, OR = 12.61, 95% CI: 1.26-125.87; p = 0.0081). As expected, an older age (OR = 1.47), male gender (OR = 1.98) and comorbidities (OR = 2.52) increased the risk of being admitted to ICU or death vs more benign outpatient course. Multivariable analysis demonstrated the role of the certain genotypes (ACE2) with the severity of COVID-19 (OR: 0.31, OR 0.37 for rs2074192 and rs1978124, and OR = 2.67, OR = 2.70 for rs2106809 and rs2285666, respectively). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in hospitalized group for I/D SNP in ACE was not showed (p<0.05), which might be due to the association with the disease. No association between COVID-19 disease and the different AGTR1 SNPs was evidenced on multivariable, nevertheless the A/A genotype for rs5183 showed an higher hospitalization risk in patients with comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Different genetic variants in ACE2 were associated with a severe clinical course and death groups of patients with COVID-19. ACE2 common SNPs in the population might modulate severity of COVID-19 infection independently of other known markers like gender, age and comorbidities.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Female , Genotype , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(6): 895-905, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206759


Transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM) is a life-threatening condition with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. The recent availability of treatment for ATTR-CM has stimulated increased awareness of the disease and patient identification. Stratification of patients with ATTR-CM is critical for optimal management and treatment; however, monitoring disease progression is challenging and currently lacks best-practice guidance. In this report, experts with experience in treating amyloidosis and ATTR-CM developed consensus recommendations for monitoring the course of patients with ATTR-CM and proposed meaningful thresholds and frequency for specific parameters. A set of 11 measurable features across three separate domains were evaluated: (i) clinical and functional endpoints, (ii) biomarkers and laboratory markers, and (iii) imaging and electrocardiographic parameters. Experts recommended that one marker from each of the three domains provides the minimum requirements for assessing disease progression. Assessment of cardiac disease status should be part of a multiparametric evaluation in which progression, stability or improvement of other involved systems in transthyretin amyloidosis should also be considered. Additional data from placebo arms of clinical trials and future studies assessing ATTR-CM will help to elucidate, refine and define these and other measurements.

Amyloid Neuropathies, Familial , Cardiomyopathies , Heart Failure , Amyloid Neuropathies, Familial/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Consensus , Humans , Prealbumin/genetics