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1.
Pathogens ; 11(4)2022 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810058

ABSTRACT

Children affected by rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB; TB resistant to at least rifampicin) are a neglected group. Each year an estimated 25,000-30,000 children develop RR-TB disease globally. Improving case detection and treatment initiation is a priority since RR-TB disease is underdiagnosed and undertreated. Untreated paediatric TB has particularly high morbidity and mortality. However, children receiving TB treatment, including for RR-TB, respond well. RR-TB treatment remains a challenge for children, their caregivers and TB programmes, requiring treatment regimens of up to 18 months in duration, often associated with severe and long-term adverse effects. Shorter, safer, effective child-friendly regimens for RR-TB are needed. Preventing progression to disease following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is another key component of TB control. The last few years have seen exciting advances. In this article, we highlight key elements of paediatric RR-TB case detection and recent updates, ongoing challenges and forthcoming advances in the treatment of RR-TB disease and infection in children and adolescents. The global TB community must continue to advocate for more and faster research in children on novel and repurposed TB drugs and regimens and increase investments in scaling-up effective approaches, to ensure an equitable response that prioritises the needs of this vulnerable population.

2.
Curr Trop Med Rep ; 8(3): 183-189, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230305

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), continues to affect individuals, communities, and health systems worldwide. Here, we highlight how COVID-19 threatens to jeopardize the tremendous gains made over the last few decades on improving children's health globally. RECENT FINDINGS: In contrast to adults, children with COVID-19 are less likely to develop severe disease requiring hospitalization or die as a direct result of infection. However, the pandemic will likely have other important health impacts disproportionately affecting vulnerable children globally. Possible effects include worsening of poverty and food insecurity; disruption of already strained routine child health services; damage to already imperiled healthcare workforces; a wave of mental health challenges; interruption of education; and increased risks of violence, abuse, exploitation, and neglect. These challenges notwithstanding, the response to COVID-19 may also provide opportunities, such as for health system strengthening, that could improve child health after the pandemic. SUMMARY: The negative impacts of COVID-19 on global child health may be substantial. However, these are not foregone conclusions and much can be done to mitigate the worst outcomes. Child health providers should advocate for an equitable response to COVID-19 that prioritizes the health of vulnerable children and furthers the gains made in global child health.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(6): 1067-1073, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132453

ABSTRACT

Clinical trials of pharmacologic treatments of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are being rapidly designed and implemented in adults. Children are often not considered during development of novel treatments for infectious diseases until very late. Although children appear to have a lower risk compared with adults of severe COVID-19 disease, a substantial number of children globally will benefit from pharmacologic treatments. It will be reasonable to extrapolate efficacy of most treatments from adult trials to children. Pediatric trials should focus on characterizing a treatment's pharmacokinetics, optimal dose, and safety across the age spectrum. These trials should use an adaptive design to efficiently add or remove arms in what will be a rapidly evolving treatment landscape, and should involve a large number of sites across the globe in a collaborative effort to facilitate efficient implementation. All stakeholders must commit to equitable access to any effective, safe treatment for children everywhere.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Humans , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(6): 1067-1073, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-619323

ABSTRACT

Clinical trials of pharmacologic treatments of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are being rapidly designed and implemented in adults. Children are often not considered during development of novel treatments for infectious diseases until very late. Although children appear to have a lower risk compared with adults of severe COVID-19 disease, a substantial number of children globally will benefit from pharmacologic treatments. It will be reasonable to extrapolate efficacy of most treatments from adult trials to children. Pediatric trials should focus on characterizing a treatment's pharmacokinetics, optimal dose, and safety across the age spectrum. These trials should use an adaptive design to efficiently add or remove arms in what will be a rapidly evolving treatment landscape, and should involve a large number of sites across the globe in a collaborative effort to facilitate efficient implementation. All stakeholders must commit to equitable access to any effective, safe treatment for children everywhere.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Humans , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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