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1.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e32, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683881

ABSTRACT

Gatherings where people are eating and drinking can increase the risk of getting and spreading SARS-CoV-2 among people who are not fully vaccinated; prevention strategies like wearing masks and physical distancing continue to be important for some groups. We conducted an online survey to characterise fall/winter 2020-2021 holiday gatherings, decisions to attend and prevention strategies employed during and before gatherings. We determined associations between practicing prevention strategies, demographics and COVID-19 experience. Among 502 respondents, one-third attended in person holiday gatherings; 73% wore masks and 84% practiced physical distancing, but less did so always (29% and 23%, respectively). Younger adults were 44% more likely to attend gatherings than adults ≥35 years. Younger adults (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 1.53, 95% CI 1.19-1.97), persons who did not experience COVID-19 themselves or have relatives/close friends experience severe COVID-19 (aPR 1.56, 95% CI 1.18-2.07), and non-Hispanic White persons (aPR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13-2.18) were more likely to not always wear masks in public during the 2 weeks before gatherings. Public health messaging emphasizing consistent application of COVID-19 prevention strategies is important to slow the spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Social Participation , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Family , Female , Holidays/psychology , Humans , Male , Meals , Middle Aged , Social Participation/psychology , United States , Young Adult
2.
Disabil Health J ; 14(3): 101096, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Handwashing and surface cleaning and disinfection are two hygiene behaviors promoted to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Persons with disabilities may be at increased risk for severe COVID-19 illness due to underlying medical conditions that have been associated with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe self-reported hygiene behaviors among U.S. adults with disabilities to prevent transmission of COVID-19. METHODS: Data were obtained from the March 2020 Porter Novelli ConsumerStyles survey. This study includes 6463 U.S. adults (≥18 years) who participated in the survey (58.2% response rate). Participants were asked about frequent handwashing and surface disinfection. Participants were also asked six questions to assess disability status and disability type. Prevalence estimates with 95% confidence intervals were calculated; chi-square tests were conducted. RESULTS: A total of 1295 (20.3%) of survey participants reported at least one disability and their hygiene-related behavior. Overall, 91.3% of respondents with disabilities reported frequent handwashing; only 72% reported frequent surface disinfection. Those with hearing, vision, cognition, mobility, self-care, and independent living disabilities (range: 77.9%-90.6%) were significantly less likely than those without any disability (94.0%) to report frequent handwashing. People with vision (62.2%) and independent living (66.8%) disabilities were less likely to report frequent surface disinfection than those without any disability (74.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Practices such as handwashing and disinfecting surfaces are effective for reducing and preventing the spread of COVID-19. Promotion of hygiene-related practices among people with disabilities is essential. Tailored communications and implementation of evidence-based strategies are needed to address hygiene-related behaviors among the subgroups of people with disabilities most affected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Adult , Disinfection , Hand Disinfection , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
3.
J Community Psychol ; 49(7): 2441-2453, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201622

ABSTRACT

People experiencing homelessness are at risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and may experience barriers to hand hygiene, a primary recommendation for COVID-19 prevention. We conducted in-depth interviews with 51 people experiencing sheltered and unsheltered homelessness in Atlanta, Georgia during May 2020 to August 2020 to (1) describe challenges and opportunities related to hand hygiene and (2) assess hand hygiene communication preferences. The primary hand hygiene barrier reported was limited access to facilities and supplies, which has disproportionately impacted people experiencing unsheltered homelessness. This lack of access has reportedly been exacerbated during COVID-19 by the closure of public facilities and businesses. Increased access to housing and employment were identified as long-term solutions to improving hand hygiene. Overall, participants expressed a preference for access to facilities and supplies over hand hygiene communication materials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hand Hygiene , Homeless Persons , Adult , Aged , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Health Communication , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(2): 496-501, 2020 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000462

ABSTRACT

Cleaning and disinfection of frequently touched surfaces and frequent hand hygiene are recommended measures to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, poison center calls regarding exposures to cleaners, disinfectants, and hand sanitizers have increased as compared with prior years, indicating a need to evaluate household safety precautions. An opt-in Internet panel survey of 502 U.S. adults was conducted in May 2020. Survey items evaluated knowledge regarding use and storage of cleaners, disinfectants, and hand sanitizers; attitudes about household cleaning and disinfection; and safety precautions practiced during the prior month. We assigned a knowledge score to each respondent to quantify knowledge of safety precautions and calculated median scores by demographic characteristics and attitudes. We identified gaps in knowledge regarding safe use and storage of cleaners, disinfectants, and hand sanitizers; the overall median knowledge score was 5.17 (95% CI: 4.85-5.50; maximum 9.00). Knowledge scores were lower among younger than older age-groups and among black non-Hispanic and Hispanic respondents compared with white non-Hispanic respondents. A greater proportion of respondents expressed knowledge of safety precautions than the proportion who engaged in these precautions. Tailored communication strategies should be used to reach populations with lower knowledge of cleaning and disinfection safety. In addition, as knowledge alone did not shape individual engagement in safety precautions, health promotion campaigns may specifically emphasize the health risks of unsafe use and storage of cleaners, disinfectants, and hand sanitizers to address risk perception.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Hand Sanitizers , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Family Characteristics , Female , Hand Hygiene/standards , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 550, 2020 Dec 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-958046

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess self-reported hygiene precautions taken by U.S. adults during spring 2020 to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to identify demographic characteristics associated with these hygiene precautions. RESULTS: We obtained data from Porter Novelli Public Services's national survey, Spring ConsumerStyles, conducted March 19-April 9, 2020 among a nationally representative random sample of 6463 U.S. adults aged 18 years or older. We present data from the survey question: "What, if any, precautions are you taking to prevent coronavirus?". Respondents replied yes or no to the following precautions: washing hands often with soap and water and disinfecting surfaces at home and work often. Most respondents reported taking hygiene-related precautions to prevent COVID-19; more respondents reported handwashing (93%) than disinfecting surfaces (74%). Men, younger respondents, those with lower income and education levels, and respondents in self-rated poor health had lower reported rates of both handwashing and disinfecting surfaces. Communications about hygiene precautions for COVID-19 prevention may need to target sub-populations with the greatest gaps in hygiene-related practices. Research identifying barriers to these practices and developing effective messaging could inform and improve these communications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection , Hand Disinfection , Pandemics/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hand Disinfection/methods , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Poverty , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(43): 1571-1575, 2020 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895762

ABSTRACT

Elections occurring during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have been affected by notable changes in the methods of voting, the number and type of polling locations, and in-person voting procedures (1). To mitigate transmission of COVID-19 at polling locations, jurisdictions have adopted changes to protocols and procedures, informed by CDC's interim guidance, developed in collaboration with the Election Assistance Commission (2). The driving principle for this guidance is that voting practices with lower infection risk will be those which reduce the number of voters who congregate indoors in polling locations by offering a variety of methods for voting and longer voting periods. The guidance for in-person voting includes considerations for election officials, poll workers, and voters to maintain healthy environments and operations. To assess knowledge and adoption of mitigation strategies, CDC collaborated with the Delaware Department of Health and Social Services and the Delaware State Election Commission on a survey of poll workers who served during the statewide primary election on September 15, 2020. Among 522 eligible poll workers, 93% correctly answered all three survey questions about COVID-19 transmission. Respondents noted that most voters and poll workers wore masks. However, masks were not always worn correctly (i.e., covering both the nose and mouth). Responses suggest that mitigation measures recommended for both poll workers and voters were widely adopted and feasible, but also highlighted gaps in infection prevention control efforts. Strengthening of measures intended to minimize the risk of poll workers acquiring COVID-19 from ill voters, such as additional training and necessary personal protective equipment (PPE), as well as support for alternative voting options for ill voters, are needed. Adherence to mitigation measures is important not only to protect voters but also to protect poll workers, many of whom are older adults, and thus at higher risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness. Enhanced attention to reducing congregation in polling locations, correct mask use, and providing safe voting options for ill voters are critical considerations to minimize risk to voters and poll workers. Evidence from the Delaware election supports the feasibility and acceptability of implementing current CDC guidance for election officials, poll workers, and voters for mitigating COVID-19 transmission at polling locations (2).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Politics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Delaware/epidemiology , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Young Adult
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(41): 1485-1491, 2020 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874994

ABSTRACT

Frequent hand hygiene, including handwashing with soap and water or using a hand sanitizer containing ≥60% alcohol when soap and water are not readily available, is one of several critical prevention measures recommended to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).* Previous studies identified demographic factors associated with handwashing among U.S. adults during the COVID-19 pandemic (1,2); however, demographic factors associated with hand sanitizing and experiences and beliefs associated with hand hygiene have not been well characterized. To evaluate these factors, an Internet-based survey was conducted among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years during June 24-30, 2020. Overall, 85.2% of respondents reported always or often engaging in hand hygiene following contact with high-touch public surfaces such as shopping carts, gas pumps, and automatic teller machines (ATMs).† Respondents who were male (versus female) and of younger age reported lower handwashing and hand sanitizing rates, as did respondents who reported lower concern about their own infection with SARS-CoV-2§ and respondents without personal experience with COVID-19. Focused health promotion efforts to increase hand hygiene adherence should include increasing visibility and accessibility of handwashing and hand sanitizing materials in public settings, along with targeted communication to males and younger adults with focused messages that address COVID-19 risk perception.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , /statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , /statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1443-1449, 2020 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842498

ABSTRACT

Washing hands often, especially during times when one is likely to acquire and spread pathogens,* is one important measure to help prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as well as other pathogens spread by respiratory or fecal-oral transmission (1,2). Studies have reported moderate to high levels of self-reported handwashing among adults worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic (3-5)†; however, little is known about how handwashing behavior among U.S. adults has changed since the start of the pandemic. For this study, survey data from October 2019 (prepandemic) and June 2020 (during pandemic) were compared to assess changes in adults' remembering to wash their hands in six situations.§ Statistically significant increases in reported handwashing were seen in June 2020 compared with October 2019 in four of the six situations; the odds of remembering to wash hands was 2.3 times higher among respondents after coughing, sneezing, or blowing their nose, 2.0 times higher before eating at a restaurant, and 1.7 times higher before eating at home. Men, young adults aged 18-24 years, and non-Hispanic White (White) adults were less likely to remember to wash hands in multiple situations. Strategies to help persons remember to wash their hands frequently and at important times should be identified and implemented, especially among groups reporting low prevalence of remembering to wash their hands.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(23): 705-709, 2020 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-546968

ABSTRACT

A recent report described a sharp increase in calls to poison centers related to exposures to cleaners and disinfectants since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (1). However, data describing cleaning and disinfection practices within household settings in the United States are limited, particularly concerning those practices intended to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. To provide contextual and behavioral insight into the reported increase in poison center calls and to inform timely and relevant prevention strategies, an opt-in Internet panel survey of 502 U.S. adults was conducted in May 2020 to characterize knowledge and practices regarding household cleaning and disinfection during the COVID-19 pandemic. Knowledge gaps were identified in several areas, including safe preparation of cleaning and disinfectant solutions, use of recommended personal protective equipment when using cleaners and disinfectants, and safe storage of hand sanitizers, cleaners, and disinfectants. Thirty-nine percent of respondents reported engaging in nonrecommended high-risk practices with the intent of preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission, such as washing food products with bleach, applying household cleaning or disinfectant products to bare skin, and intentionally inhaling or ingesting these products. Respondents who engaged in high-risk practices more frequently reported an adverse health effect that they believed was a result of using cleaners or disinfectants than did those who did not report engaging in these practices. Public messaging should continue to emphasize evidence-based, safe practices such as hand hygiene and recommended cleaning and disinfection of high-touch surfaces to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in household settings (2). Messaging should also emphasize avoidance of high-risk practices such as unsafe preparation of cleaning and disinfectant solutions, use of bleach on food products, application of household cleaning and disinfectant products to skin, and inhalation or ingestion of cleaners and disinfectants.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfection , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Detergents/poisoning , Disinfectants/poisoning , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Poison Control Centers/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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