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1.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(11): 1265-1269, 2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rhino cerebral mucormycosis is an uncommon opportunistic infection of the nasal sinuses and brain, and a group of saprophytic fungi causes it. During the second wave of COVID-19, India witnessed an unprecedented number of patients with rhino cerebral mucormycosis. Invasion of the cavernous sinus and occlusion of the internal carotid artery in many cases resulted in a stroke. The study aimed to assess the clinical and neuroimaging predictors of stroke in patients with rhino cerebral mucormycosis. We also evaluated the predictors of death in these patients at 90 days. METHODS: A prospective study was performed at a tertiary care centre in India between July 2021 and September 2021. We enrolled consecutive microbiologically confirmed patients of rhino cerebral mucormycosis. All patients underwent neuroimaging of the brain. Treatment comprised of anti-fungal drugs and endoscopic nasal/sinus debridement. We followed the patients for 90 days and assessed the predictors of stroke and mortality RESULTS: Forty-four patients with rhino cerebral mucormycosis were enrolled. At inclusion, in 24 patients, the RT-PCR test for SARS-COV-2 was negative. Diabetes mellitus was the most frequent (72.7 %) underlying risk factor; in most, diabetes mellitus was recently discovered. At inclusion or subsequent follow-up, stroke was seen in 11 (25 %) patients. Only seven patients had hemiparesis. Imaging revealed internal carotid artery occlusion in 17 (38.6 %) patients. Hypertension, corticosteroid use, and cavernous sinus thrombosis were independent predictors of stroke. Nine (20.5 %) died during follow-up, and stroke was an independent predictor of death. CONCLUSION: Stroke indicated poor prognosis among rhino cerebral mucormycosis patients encountered during the second wave of the COVID-19 epidemic.

2.
Clin Pathol ; 15: 2632010X221126987, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053548

ABSTRACT

Background: Secondary bacterial and fungal infections in COVID patients have been documented during current pandemic. The present study provides detailed account of histomorphology of debridement tissue received for suspected fungal infections. The primary objective was to determine the morphological characteristics that must be recognized for the identification of fungal hyphae. Methods: The detailed histological examination of debridement tissue was performed. Demographic and clinical findings with treatment provided was recorded. Presence or absence of necrosis and lecocytoclasis was noted. Results: A total of 110 cases of debrided tissues were included in the study. Eosinophilic granular necrosis with lecocytoclasis was observed in 103cases; fungal elements were identified in 89.3% (92/103) of these. Eleven cases where necrosis was observed, strong suspicion of fungus was reported, 6 of them displayed fungus on KOH preparation, 3 on repeat biopsy. However, in 2 of these cases, neither KOH nor repeat biopsies identified the fungus. Mucor with aspergillus was observed in 7 cases and actinomyces in 3. In all these 10 cases dense fungal colonies were evident. In 7 cases careful observation revealed fruiting bodies of aspergillus. Cotton ball appearance of actinomyces was evident. Mucor infection in current disease was so rampant that aseptate ribbon like branching mucor hyphae were evident on H&E sections. Diabetes was significantly associated with fungal infection (97.2%; 70/72; P < .005). 90% [19/21] of the patients who were on room air and diagnosed with fungal infection were diabetic. Conclusions: Eosinophilic granular necrosis with the presence of neutrophilic debris in a case of suspected fungal disease suggests the presence of fungal elements. This warrants processing of the entire tissue deposited for examination, careful observation, application of fungal stains, and repeat biopsy if clinical suspicion is strong. Moreover, uncontrolled diabetes is more frequently associated with secondary fungal infection in COVID patients as compared to oxygen therapy.

3.
Neuroimmunology Reports ; 2:100089-100089, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1782186

ABSTRACT

Background Many central and peripheral nervous system complications, following COVID-19 vaccination, have been described. We report an unusual case of central demyelinating disorder, following the administration of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 SARS-CoV-2 (COVISHIELD™) vaccine. Case-report The 28-year female developed sudden onset headache followed by weakness of the left upper and lower limbs, and gait ataxia. Neurological symptoms developed two weeks after administration of the first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 SARS-CoV-2 (COVISHIELD™) vaccine. Magnetic resonance imaging brain revealed T2/FLAIR hyperintense lesions involving bilateral subcortical white matter, splenium of the corpus callosum, and both cerebellar hemispheres. Few lesions showed blooming on gradient echo sequence suggestive of a hemorrhagic component. Post-contrast T1 images showed mild enhancement of demyelinating lesions. The patient was treated intravenously with methylprednisolone. After 12 weeks of follow-up, there was a substantial improvement in her symptoms. She became independent in all her activities of daily living. Conclusion In conclusion, this is an unusual case of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis following ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 SARS-CoV-2 (COVISHIELD™) vaccination.

5.
Neurol Sci ; 43(1): 3-40, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491166

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines have brought us a ray of hope to effectively fight against deadly pandemic of COVID-19 and hope to save lives. Many vaccines have been granted emergency use authorizations by many countries. Post-authorization, a wide spectrum of neurological complications is continuously being reported following COVID-19 vaccination. Neurological adverse events following vaccination are generally mild and transient, like fever and chills, headache, fatigue, myalgia and arthralgia, or local injection site effects like swelling, redness, or pain. The most devastating neurological post-vaccination complication is cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Cerebral venous sinus is frequently reported in females of childbearing age, generally following adenovector-based vaccination. Another major neurological complication of concern is Bell's palsy that was reported dominantly following mRNA vaccine administration. Acute transverse myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and acute demyelinating polyneuropathy are other unexpected neurological adverse events that occur as result of phenomenon of molecular mimicry. Reactivation of herpes zoster in many persons, following administration of mRNA vaccines, has been also recorded. Considering the enormity of recent COVID-19-vaccinated population, the number of serious neurological events is miniscule. Large collaborative prospective studies are needed to prove or disprove causal association between vaccine and neurological adverse events occurring vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(1): 206-222, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206776

ABSTRACT

Encephalopathy and encephalitis are major and devastating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus-associated central nervous system complications. Hypoxic/metabolic changes produced by intense inflammatory response against the virus triggers cytokine storm and subsequently acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure. Hypoxic/metabolic changes result in encephalopathy. The presence of comorbidities predisposes to hypoxic/metabolic changes responsible for encephalopathy. Altered consciousness, ranging from mild confusion, delirium, to deep coma, is hallmark clinical features. Cortical and subcortical T2/FLAIR signal changes are common neuroimaging abnormalities. In a few isolated case reports of SARS-CoV-2 encephalitis, the virus has been demonstrated in cerebrospinal fluid. The presence of anosmia and ageusia can help in differentiation from other encephalopathies. We analyzed published reports on coronavirus disease 2019-associated encephalopathy. Encephalopathy is common in older patients, the majority are more than 50 years of age. The patients having encephalopathy/encephalitis are either severely or critically ill. Many patients were already on mechanical ventilation. Lung abnormalities are noted in almost all of the patients, presenting with encephalopathy. Encephalopathy is always preceded by commoner clinical features, like, fever, cough, dyspnoea, and headache. In majority, patients are already in the intensive care unit, when encephalopathy develops.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnosis , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/complications , Age Factors , Ageusia , Brain Diseases/complications , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Headache , Humans
8.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(1): 84-92, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167911

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a distinct entity that rapidly evolves and may abruptly culminate in to a critical illness. As per Chinese experience, approximately, 15% of patients of COVID-19 progress to severe disease and 5% become critically ill. The incidence of severe and critical illness is higher among men, patients older than 65 years of age and in persons with other medical comorbidities. Cytokine storm cause pronounced lung damage and multiorgan failure. Coagulopathy is a key component of severe COVID-19. Critically ill patients are generally predisposed to a high risk of thromboembolism as well. Lymphopenia predisposes to severe disease. None of the antiviral or immunomodulators has proven efficacy in severe COVID-19. Supplemental oxygen need be administered in patients with hypoxemia. Excessive breathing effort, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), encephalopathy, and multiorgan failure are indications for mechanical ventilation. In a large number of patients, the overall outcome is poor. Health care workers in intensive care units are exposed to the enormous risk of acquiring hospital acquired SARS-COV-2 infection.

9.
J Spinal Cord Med ; : 1-15, 2021 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127250

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Recent literature points towards myelitis, like encephalitis, as a common central nervous system complication of COVID-19. This review elaborates on disorders of the spinal cord caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. OBJECTIVES: To review the published data about SARS-CoV-2-associated spinal cord disorders and assess their clinical, neuroimaging, treatment, and prognostic aspects. METHODS: The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched for published cases using the search items "COVID-19 OR SARS-CoV-2 AND myelitis", "COVID-19 OR SARS-CoV-2 AND myelopathy", and "COVID-19 OR SARS-CoV-2 AND spinal cord". RESULTS: Thirty-three isolated cases were included in the present review, of which 14 were aged 60 years and above (range: 3-70 years). Eighteen patients had lung abnormalities on chest imaging. Eight patients had developed either an areflexic paraparesis or quadriparesis. In 17 patients, neuroimaging demonstrated longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, while 3 cases showed neuroimaging changes in the spinal cord as a part of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis syndrome. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations revealed inflammatory changes in 18 patients. However, the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the CSF was discovered in 2 patients. In 2 patients, anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were demonstrated in the CSF. Following treatment, 13 patients were able to walk. CONCLUSIONS: A variety of COVID-19-related spinal cord manifestations, such as acute transverse myelitis, acute necrotizing myelitis, SARS-CoV-2 myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, hypoxic myelopathy, MOG antibody-associated myelitis, spinal cord infarction, and spinal epidural abscess, have been reported. The possible mechanisms of this involvement being direct invasion, cytokine storm, coagulopathy, and an autoimmune response. However, response to treatment has been generally unsatisfactory, with many patients having residual weakness necessitating long-term rehabilitation.

10.
Neurol Sci ; 41(11): 3039-3056, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-758038

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 that has an affinity for neural tissue. There are reports of encephalitis, encephalopathy, cranial neuropathy, Guillain-Barrè syndrome, and myositis/rhabdomyolysis in patients with COVID-19. In this review, we focused on the neuromuscular manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We analyzed all published reports on SARS-CoV-2-related peripheral nerve, neuromuscular junction, muscle, and cranial nerve disorders. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction is now accepted as an early manifestation of COVID-19 infection. Inflammation, edema, and axonal damage of olfactory bulb have been shown in autopsy of patients who died of COVID-19. Olfactory pathway is suggested as a portal of entry of SARS-CoV-2 in the brain. Similar to involvement of olfactory bulb, isolated oculomotor, trochlear and facial nerve has been described. Increasing reports Guillain-Barrè syndrome secondary to COVID-19 are being published. Unlike typical GBS, most of COVID-19-related GBS were elderly, had concomitant pneumonia or ARDS, more prevalent demyelinating neuropathy, and relatively poor outcome. Myalgia is described among the common symptoms of COVID-19 after fever, cough, and sore throat. Duration of myalgia may be related to the severity of COVID-19 disease. Few patients had muscle weakness and elevated creatine kinase along with elevated levels of acute-phase reactants. All these patients with myositis/rhabdomyolysis had severe respiratory complications related to COVID-19. A handful of patients with myasthenia gravis showed exacerbation of their disease after acquiring COVID-19 disease. Most of these patients recovered with either intravenous immunoglobulins or steroids.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Neuromuscular Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adolescent , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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