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1.
Computers in Biology & Medicine ; 149:105915, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035906

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a contagious disease;so, predicting its future infections in a provincial region requires the consideration of the related data (i.e., rates of infection, mortality and recovery, etc.) over a period of time. Clearly, the COVID-19 data of a particular provincial region can be easily modelled as a time-series. However, predicting the future COVID-19 infections in a particular region is quite challenging when the availability of COVID-19 dataset of the province is of little quantity. Accordingly, ML models when deployed for such tasks usually results in low infection prediction accuracy. To overcome such issues of low variance and high bias in a model due to data scarcity, multi-source transfer learning (MSTL) along with deep learning may be quite useful and effective. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel technique based on multi-source deep transfer learning (MSDTL) to efficiently forecast the future COVID-19 infections in the provinces with insufficient COVID-19 data. The proposed approach is a novel contribution as it considers the fact that future COVID-19 transmission in a region also depends on its population density and economic conditions (GDP) for accurate forecasting of the infections to tackle the pandemic efficiently. The importance of this feature selection is experimentally proved in this paper. Our proposed approach employs the well-known recurrent neural network architecture, the Long-short term memory (LSTM), a popular deep-learning model for history-dependent tasks. A comparative analysis has been performed with existing state-of-art algorithms to portray the efficiency of LSTM. Thus, formation of MSDTL approach enhances the predictive precision capability of the LSTM. We evaluate the proposed methodology over the COVID-19 dataset from sixty-two provinces belonging to different nations. We then empirically evaluate the performance of the proposed approach using two different evaluation metrics, viz. The mean absolute percentage error and the coefficient of determination. We show that our proposed MSDTL based approach is better in terms of the accuracy of the future infection prediction, and produces improvements up to 96% over its without-TL counterpart.

2.
2021 International Conference on Simulation, Automation and Smart Manufacturing, SASM 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018978

ABSTRACT

Fake news emerged as a challenge for society now a day. Easy accessibility and low cost to the internet makes the fake news propagation task easy. In the Covid-19 pandemic situation, it is required to reduce the proliferation of misleading content to reduce its severe impact. Many existing works are based on lexico-syntactic features using a small training sample size. To address this issue, this study used the Gossip-cop dataset for evaluation. Various supervised techniques of the ML model and advanced deep learning techniques are implemented for intense research. Dataset is crawled from Gossipcop fact-checking websites. The dataset consists of 4,947fake news with text and 16,694 real news. The result of these algorithms helps in differentiating false content from reliable news and improved the accuracy achieved using existing techniques. © 2021 IEEE.

3.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26:S55-S56, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006349

ABSTRACT

Aim and background: Since June 2020, there have been several reports of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A). There is a paucity of a description of MIS-A from India. Materials and methods: A 26-year-old, healthy male, with a previous history of COVID-19, without any known history of chronic disease, with clinical characteristics resembling MIS-A was hospitalised on May 30, 2021. Results: Case presentation: The patient presented with 1 week of persistent high-grade fever (102-degree F) with chills and rigor. The concomitant complaints were left-sided pain in the buccal cavity, left facial swelling, intra-orbital pain, and watery eyes. The respiratory rate was 24/minute, SpO2 was 96% on room air. Ever since the recovery from COVID-19 (1 week back), there was severe pain in the throat with difficulty in breathing, generalised weakness, and loss of appetite. BP was 130/80 mm Hg. The hospital course was notable for profound systemic inflammation, requiring ICU admission. MRI revealed discrete subcentimetric bilateral deep cervical lymph nodes. Blood tests at admission revealed, lymphopenia 15.3%, CRP 61.84 mg/L, total leucocyte count 12.93 (1000/μL), neutrophils 78.7%. Red distribution width (RDW) was marginally elevated to 15%. The patient was managed by IV fluids, IV immunoglobulin. Scrub typhus was excluded by IgM ELISA IgM with a negative titre (0.095). Widal test was negative and excluded enteric fever. d-dimer was within normal limits (125 ng/ mL). Borderline elevation of hepatic enzymes was noted. There was a high SARS-CoV-2 IgII titres (12050.4). The patient improved following intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), IV ascorbic acid, dexamethasone, supportive care and was discharged on day 4, with methylprednisolone for 1 week. Conclusion: Specific treatment is yet to be determined. However, dexamethasone and IVIG allowed controlling the inflammatory process. MIS-A, as a delayed immune complication, requires early recognition, with a multidisciplinary approach and aggressive therapeutic intervention, to yield favourable outcomes. MIS-A should be considered in adults, during the recovery phase from COVID-19. This is perhaps, the first description of MIS-A from India during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The role of IVIG needs further exploration.

4.
New Microbes New Infect ; 48: 101003, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004381
5.
Journal of Marine Medical Society ; 24(3):25-29, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1997942

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The world is enveloped with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic with modern medicine and public health facing their most significant challenges ever posed. As the number of COVID-19 cases increased worldwide, an important issue of concern was the continuation of routine immunization services for children. This study has been conceptualized to assess the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on infant Immunization. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive study conducted in an urban community amongst healthy children < 1-year-old from January 2018 to September 2021. Immunization records of infants were obtained from data generated during each immunization session and strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat analysis was done using a questionnaire. Results: During the study, a total of 3518 vaccinations were done, a total of 3010 vaccinations (85.5%) were done on time, and the total delayed vaccinations were 508 (14.5%). The difference among the years was statistically significant, with the highest delay in the year 2020 (P < 0.001). However, in the year 2021, the number of vaccinations carried out from April to September was 568, with delayed vaccination of only 10.9%. Conclusion: The Armed Forces childhood immunization program could be sustained during the COVID-19 pandemic due to a multitude of contributing factors such as adherence to national guidelines that prioritized vaccination, infrastructure, and availability of trained workforce and most importantly commitment to strict COVID appropriate behavior.

6.
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology ; 12:S30, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1996318

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There is limited evidence regarding HE management in patients with ACLF. We conducted a prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial to study the efficacy of intravenous branched chain amino acids (IV-BCAA) with lactulose versus lactulose alone for improvement in HE at 24h, day 3 & day 7. Duration of ICU stay and survival at days 7 and 28 was compared. Methods: CANONIC ACLF patients with HE grades>=2 were randomized into two groups - experimental arm (IV-BCAA - 500mL/day for 3 days + Lactulose;n=39) and comparator arm (Lactulose alone;n=37). Six patients developed COVID-19 after randomization & were excluded (4-experimental arm & 2-comparator arm). HE Grade was assessed by West Haven Classification and Hepatic Encephalopathy Scoring Algorithm (HESA). ACLF severity was determined by CLIF-C ACLF and MELD scores. All patients received standard of care. Results: Both groups were similar in baseline characteristics including grade of HE (2.85 ± 0.75 vs 2.82 ± 0.66;P = 0.864) and CLIF-C ACLF score (54.19 ± 5.55 vs 54.79 ± 5.74;P = 0.655). Overall survival was 40% at 28 days (48.5% vs 31.4%;P=0.143). Significant improvement in HESA score by 1 grade at 24h was seen in 14 patients (40%) in BCAA arm and 6 patients (17.14%) in control group (P=0.034) which translated to shorter ICU stay in the BCAA arm. Median change in HESA score at 24h was significantly more in BCAA arm than control arm (P=0.006), however, this was not sustained at day 3 or 7. Ammonia levels did not correlate with HE grade (Spearman correlation coefficient (-0.0843;P=0.295). Conclusion: Intravenous BCAA leads to early but ill-sustained improvement in grade of HE and reduced ICU stay in ACLF.

7.
Indian Journal of Community Health ; 34(2):144-146, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1989114

ABSTRACT

It has been two years since the first case of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) was detected in India in the state of Kerala in March 2020. (1) The Government and the citizens of India have united together to combat the virus since then. India is the largest democracy in the world and the second highest populous country with an estimated 1.36 billion population. The country has witnessed three major waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in the past 3 years, the second being the worse. In the month of June 2022, India has reported a cumulative total of approximately 4.34 crore confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 511,903 deaths. The state of Maharashtra has been the worst effected in all three waves. Presently the recovery rate from COVID-19 in India has crossed 98%. (2). © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

8.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-186-S-187, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967255

ABSTRACT

Background: High no-show rates for colonoscopy have been previously associated with poor clinical outcomes, decreased operational efficiency, and diminished utilization of resources. Studies have suggested that addressing barriers like poor health literacy, logistical challenges, and psycho-emotional issues could reduce no-show rates for colonoscopies. Recently, digital navigation tools designed to eliminate such barriers are an emerging trend with promising results leading to better outcomes for patients undergoing colonoscopy. Objective: The goal of this study was to examine the feasibility of an automated, text message-based digital navigation program and determine the impact on no-show rates for patients undergoing colonoscopies. Methods: Rx.Health developed a Digital Navigation Pathway (DNP) that consisted of bowel-prep instructions, appointment reminders, driving instructions, microlearning videos, and educational messaging. Providers at the Gastroenterology (GI) clinic of NYC Health + Hospitals/Lincoln Medical Center prescribed this pathway through RxUniverse, a digital medicine unification platform, to the patients' smartphones. The sample included patients scheduled for colonoscopy between October 2019 to March 2020 (pre-intervention) and October 2020 to March 2021 (post-intervention). Through a year over year analysis, the mean no-show rates and the number of scheduled colonoscopies at the GI clinic were compared between the pre-intervention and post-intervention groups. Furthermore, as a part of the pre/post program implementation analysis, the colonoscopy utilization patterns at the GI clinic were compared. Results: There were 567 colonoscopies scheduled during the pre-intervention period and 381 scheduled colonoscopies in the post-intervention period. The average no-show rate in the pre-intervention group was 27.81 percent compared to 4.46 percent (p<0.00001)* in the post-intervention group, which translated into an 83.9 percent reduction in no-show rates at the GI clinic. Furthermore, this resulted in 23.7 colonoscopies saved per 100 scheduled colonoscopies in the post-intervention group. Conclusion: Patients that were enrolled in the digital navigation program were more likely to show up to their scheduled colonoscopy appointment compared to patients in the preintervention group. Given the pre-/post implementation study design and COVID-19 pandemic that occurred during the intervention period, future cluster randomized controlled trials should be conducted to examine if there is an association between digital navigation programs and no-show rates for patients undergoing colonoscopies. (Figure Presented) Figure 1. Colonoscopy Bowel Preparation Digital Navigation Pathway (Figure Presented) Figure 2. The Effect of DNPs on No-Show Rates during the Pre- and Post-intervention Period (p < 0.00001) *

9.
1st International Conference on Informatics, ICI 2022 ; : 98-102, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1932109

ABSTRACT

Epidemics can prove to be disastrous, which has been further emphasized by the recent COVID-19 pandemic, and several countries like India lack sufficient resources to meet the population's needs. It is therefore important that the limited testing and protective resources are utilized such that the disease spread is minimized and their reach to the most vulnerable demographic is maximized. This paper studies the scope of intelligent agents in aiding authorities with such policy-making decisions. This is done by exploring the performance of various action selection methods on custom environments dealing with socio-economic groups and Indian states. Experiments using multi-armed bandit techniques provide greater insight into administrative decisions surrounding resource allocation and their future potential for greater use in similar scenarios. © 2022 IEEE.

10.
8th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems, ICACCS 2022 ; : 440-444, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1922641

ABSTRACT

This study assesses emotional resilience (ER) among people residing in the eastern region of India based on six demographic factors age, gender, education, marital status, working hours and financial status. MATERIAL/METHODS: Researchers conducted a survey through questionnaire among people aged 25 and 75 (mean age =50, mathrm{N}=508) from 1 September 2021 to 20 October 2021 after two COVID-19 outbreaks and analysed the data using the chi-square test, Cronbach alpha, multiple regression (MR) and logistic regression (LR). RESULTS: Results of present research show that ER negatively correlates with age (coeff. =14.315, mathrm{p}=5.298mathrm{E}-11) and positively with financial status (mathrm{t}=8.924, mathrm{p}=1.876mathrm{E}-09). The three personality characteristics impacting ER most were: 1. I am playful. I find humour in rough situations and can laugh at myself. 2. I am curious. I ask questions. I want to know how things work. I like to try new ways of doing things. 3. I learn valuable lessons from my experiences and the experiences of others. CONCLUSION: Of six demographic variables, only two (age and financial status) correlated with ER. © 2022 IEEE.

11.
2nd International Conference on Biologically Inspired Techniques in Many Criteria Decision Making, BITMDM 2021 ; 271:649-656, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1919734

ABSTRACT

Share market is a chaotic and ever-changing place for making predictions, as there is no defined procedure to evaluate or forecast the value of a share of a company. Methods like time series, technical, statistical and fundamental analysis are used to predict the price of a share. However, these methods have not proven to be very consistent and precise for making predictions. COVID-19 has further deteriorated the chances to find such a tool as the markets have taken a huge hit in the first quarter of 2020. In this paper, support vector machine and multiple regression algorithms will be implemented for predicting stock market prices. Our aim is to find the machine learning algorithm which can predict the stock prices most accurately before and during the pandemic. The accuracy for every algorithm will be compared and the algorithm which is the most accurate would be considered ideal. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

12.
Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology ; 15(4):49-58, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1913209

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Mask usage and hand hygiene are the pillars of defense against the novel pathogen causing COVID-19. This study was conducted to compare these practices among healthcare workers (HCWs) and nonhealthcare workers (nonHCWs) and to examine the outlook toward the healthcare sector among the two. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey (via Google forms) using snowball sampling was conducted. Appropriate ethical clearance was taken from the Institutional Ethical Committee (IEC). HCWs and nonHCWs 18 years of age or older with basic literacy in English and with internet access were included. RESULTS: There were 404 total respondents (M:F ratio: 0.87:1;mean age: 30.16±9.63 years). Among the respondents, 63.3 percent were HCWs while 35.6 percent were nonHCWs. Persons performing hand hygiene more than10 times/ day were found to be almost three times more likely to develop skin dryness (odds ratio [OR]: 2.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.372, 6.362). Female participants were found to be 2.5 times more likely to develop dryness (odds ratio: 2.594, 95% CI: 1.590, 4.234). Use of gloves was found to be a protective factor against development of dryness (odds ratio: 0.485,95% CI: 0.287, 0.818). A statistically significant correlation was found between mask acne and female respondents (p-value=0.000), HCWs (p-value=0.000), and use of N95 mask in combination with surgical mask (p-value=0.04). LIMITATIONS: Being an online survey, responses could not be captured from people with limited internet access and of lower socioeconomic strata. CONCLUSION: There is a considerable burden of preventive measures on HCWs and nonHCWs alike. Significant dermatological implications are seen with frequent hand hygiene and mask usage.

13.
Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics ; 24(SUPPL 1):A2, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1896137

ABSTRACT

“Newer Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems” Satish K. Garg, MD Professor of Medicine and Pediatrics, Director of adult Diabetes program, University of Colorado Denver and Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora, Colorado. Over the past decade there have been many advances in diabetes technologies, such as Continuous Glucose Monitoring devices/systems (CGMs), insulin-delivery devices, and hybrid closed-loop systems. There have been significant advances in CGMs in the past decade. In fact, ten years ago very few people use to believe in the use of CGMs, even though they had been available for the past two decades. Many providers used to question who, why, and when will patients ever use CGMs similar to the questions asked about Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) about four decades ago. At the time of this writing, more than five million people world-wide are using a CGM for their diabetes management, especially those who require insulin (all patients with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and about 20% of patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D)). Total sales of all CGMs now exceeds more than $7 billion and the use of SMBG is going down every day. Most of the CGMs have improved their accuracy significantly in the past two decades. I still remember doing studies on the GlucoWatch and earlier versions of Dexcom STS where mean absolute relative difference (MARD) used to be in the range of 15-26%. Now most of the CGMs (Guardian by Medtronic, G6 by Dexcom, and Libre 2 by Abbott) have single-digit MARD. In addition, the majority of the new CGMs do not require calibrations and the newer CGMs last for 10-14 days. An implantable CGM by Senseonics (Eversense®) is approved in the USA for 3 months and a different version is approved in Europe for 6 months. FDA has still not approved the 6-month version of Eversense® implantable sensor in the USA, which also has single-digit accuracy. The newer CGMs that are likely to be launched in the next 3-6 months;hopefully around the ATTD Conference, include 10.5-day Dexcom G7 (60% smaller than the existing G6), 7-day Medtronic Guardian 4, 14-day Libre 3, and 6-month Eversense®. Most of the newer CGM data can be viewed on Android or iOS/iPhone smart devices, and in many instances they have several features like predictive alarms and alerts, easy insertion, automatic initialization (in some instances down to 27 mins, Dexcom G7) with single-digit MARDs. It has also been noticed that arm insertion site might have better accuracy than abdomen or other sites like the buttock for kids. Lag time between YSI and different sensors have been reported differently, sometimes it's down to 2-3 mins;however, in many instances, it's still 15-20 mins. Diabetes effects communities of color disproportionately higher. For example, the highest prevalence of diabetes in the USA is amongst Native Americans (14.7%), which is nearly two times higher than Caucasians. African Americans and Hispanics also have higher prevalence of diabetes in the USA. It's also known that LatinX, African Americans, and Native Americans are much less likely to be offered new technologies like continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII/insulin pumps) and CGMs. Use of technology, especially CGMs, is expected to remove many of the social barriers and disparities in care for people with diabetes. A large database during the COVID-19 pandemic recently reported better Time-in-Range (TIR) in patients with diabetes irrespective of their ethnic background. However, the baseline TIR was significantly lower for minorities as compared to Caucasians. I believe the future will bring a larger increase in the use of CGMs for people with insulin-requiring diabetes (estimated at more than 100 million people globally) and those with T2D on non-insulin therapies (estimated at more than 400 million people globally). I also envision an increase in the number of pre-diabetes patients (estimated at more than 200 million people globally) using CGMs so that early medical intervention for diabetes management can be entertained. The intermittent or continuou use of CGM would depend upon the clinical needs. Needless to say, healthy individuals without diabetes (who can afford CGMs) might even use these technologies for self-evaluation of their glucose profiles after meals.

14.
Journal International Medical Sciences Academy ; 35(1):62-66, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880921

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In order to halt the progression of COVID-19, governments of many countries including India implemented national lockdown. In view of the sudden closure of educational institutions, remote teaching was implemented with the help of online learning or E-learning. Thus, the aim of the study was assessing the attitudes and perceptions of MBBS students regarding the effectiveness of e-learning and the impact of COVID-19 on the student’s mental wellbeing and learning. Methods: The survey instrument was a self-administered questionnaire consisting of 17 close ended questions and 3 open ended question. It has 3 sociodemographic questions, 13 questions assessing their attitudes and perceptions regarding the effectiveness of e-learning and 4 questions investigating the impact of COVID-19 on the student’s mental wellbeing and learning. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS (version 20). Results: A total of 404 undergraduate students studying in FMHS, SGT University, Gurugram participated in the survey. A major part of the students (57.1%) was using their Mobile phones for e-learning followed by 24.6% using their Personal computer or Laptop, 12% were using combination of these devices and 6.3% using tablets. Due to inconsistent internet connection, most of the students (71.5%) were facing challenges. 64.9% of the respondents faced distraction during the class such as lack of audio clarity, internet connection problems, lack of environment, concentration issues, notifications and social media, student teacher interactions, practical aspect not covered and lack of physical interaction with the teacher. The continuous screen time posed a major problem for students who suffered from strain in the eyes (58.3%), headache (18.7%), neck pain (8.8%), back pain (6.3%) or all of the above problems (7.7%). Thus, 84.1% of the undergraduate students preferred conventional Classroom learning to e-learning. Conclusions: Implementation of strict social distancing and lockdown in COVID-19 era, has mandated the pedagogy of remote learning which remains the only viable option for teaching and learning in these difficult times. The students should be advised to follow good ergonomic practices to maintain their ocular health and should be motivated to enhance their mental well-being and learning amid COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
1st International Conference on Technologies for Smart Green Connected Society 2021, ICTSGS 2021 ; 107:9957-9966, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874831

ABSTRACT

E-learning has become one of the most debated concepts in today's global education industry. While some speak in favour of e-learning, others criticize e-learning and state that it cannot cultivate better results compared to traditional learning. In today's Covid situation, e-learning has become necessary for universities around the world, this research has once again focused on this topic to identify whether e-learning can positively influence the performance of students or not. While identifying the same, three factors are selected that are technical competency, e-learning standards and e-learning infrastructure. After collecting data and information from existing empirical research works, it was found that e-learning can cultivate positive results in terms of student's performance in different universities and classes. However, it was found that for that positive performance, technical competency must be high and the standard of materials shared through e-learning must be effective enough. In terms of infrastructure, contradictory results are found as one research work stated that it is not vital for improved performance while the other stated that it is important for better academic performance. Overall, this research identified that e-learning can increase academic performance with the right tools and techniques implemented with it. © The Electrochemical Society

16.
1st International Conference on Technologies for Smart Green Connected Society 2021, ICTSGS 2021 ; 107:4327-4335, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874779

ABSTRACT

This research paper is based on a fieldwork project, undertaken by the group of volunteer students in collaboration with Indian Development for Human Care (IDHC society), India. Slums are a global phenomenon that may be witnessed in nearly any city on the planet. Children from low-income families who live in slums are deprived of numerous essential facilities that non-slum children enjoy in general, therefore they require special attention. We as a team started the research by understanding the work and establishing good relationships with the staff and students to comprehend the way of their working in a better way. We were introduced to the youngsters with whom we will be working for their better future. We started by teaching them basic English, mathematics, basic habits, personal hygiene;we decided to plant trees as a good environment is necessary for our well-being, in this research work we spread awareness in our neighborhood regarding planting trees and keeping the surroundings clean. Also, spread awareness regarding Covid-19 to underprivileged children. © The Electrochemical Society

17.
18.
2021 International Conference on Computational Performance Evaluation, ComPE 2021 ; : 614-618, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1831746

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 has been vast and enormous on every sector globally. But a tremendous change in the plan of action has been seen in the healthcare facilities and Education Sector. With the drastic shift from full-time offline modes of teaching to an online or hybrid model of teaching and learning, learning analytics has gained momentum. Learning Analytics can be broadly defined as a field focused on analyzing educational data to understand and improve learning processes. Precision in the education sector and its effectiveness in the learning process have been the areas of major academic investigations in the last decade of scholarly research work. This research study explores the available literature to make an empirical understanding of the development in this field of study. The primary objective is to explore the various constructs that lead to precise learning analytics, leading to the precision in higher education of the country. In alignment with the significant change in the functioning of the higher education institutions due to COVID-19, the study also focuses on the impact of COVID-19 in the development of learning analytics to promote a judicious learning environment for individuals and institutions. The study incorporates qualitative descriptive methodology for the analysis of the research objectives. The findings from this study corroborate the existing literature on learning analytics. It also aims to add a further scope of work in the same field. The study also outlines the significant drawback in promoting sustainable and precise learning in higher education. © 2021 IEEE.

19.
Endocrine Practice ; 27(12 SUPPL):S44, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1768069

ABSTRACT

Objective(s): To evaluate the association of diabetes with clinical characteristics, severity, and mortality among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Material(s) and Method(s): We conducted a retrospective, singlecenter evaluation of 68 patients hospitalised due to COVID-19 for comparison of the clinical, radiological, biochemical parameters between the T2DM and nonT2DM groups. Result(s): 24 (35.2%) were T2DM and 44 (64.7%) did not have diabetes (nonT2DM). 4 T2DM were also hypertensives. Among the 68 patients, 53 (77.9%) were discharged and 15 (22%) died. Of the patients who died, 6 (40%) were T2DM. The difference in mortality in T2DM and non T2DM was comparable (p=0.76 ns). The mean age (years) was 54.2 (±16.45, minimum 18, maximum 81, 95% CI 50.3 to 58.2). There was a significant difference between the mean age of T2DM 61.8 (±14.7, 95% CI 55.6 to 68) as compared to nonT2DM 50.1 (±50.1, 95% CI 45.2 to 55), p= 0.0042. The mean D Dimer levels were comparable between the T2DM (1108±2352, 95% CI 114.7 to 2101) and nonT2DM groups (1287±8538, 95% CI 754.3 to 5946);p=0.21. D dimer was higher than the threshold of 250 ng/mL in 18 (75.9%) in T2DM, as compared to 31 (70.4%) in nonT2DM. There were 14 males (20.5%) and 10 females (14.71%) with T2DM, and 28 males (41.18%) and 16 females (23.53%), who were non-diabetic. There was no significant association between the gender and diabetes (p=0.79). There was a significant difference for the grade of severity as assessed by symptoms at hospitalization (mild, moderate, severe) (p=0.46). There were 11 (16.1%), 10 (14.7%) and 3 (4.4%) T2DM patients who were mild, moderate, and severe respectively. The mean CT severity score was comparable across the T2DM (10.54±4.4, 95% CI 8.6 to 12.4) and nonT2DM (12.34±3.9, 95% CI 11.15 to 13.5). Based on CT severity score 18, there was a single case of T2DM who died as compared to three cases of nonT2DM, of which two expired. The mean change in the SpO2 at room air from at hospitalization to discharge was comparable in T2DM, n=18 (9.7±3.8, 95% CI 8.3 to 11) and nonT2DM, n=35 (12.2±7.5, 95% CI 8.4 to 16);p=0.11 ns. In both groups SpO2 at discharge was >96%. The mean number of days of hospitalization (9.6±3.8, 95% CI 8 to 11.3) was comparable between the T2DM and non T2DM (10.3±4.7, 95% CI 8.8 to 11.7);p=0.55 ns. 60 (88.2%) were on Remdesivir. Based on the number of patients administered Remdesivir, there were 20 (29.4%) in T2DM as compared to 40 (58.8%) in nonT2DM;p=0.43 ns. Of the patients who survived, 47 (69.1%) were administered Remdesivir. Conclusion(s): In our study there was an extensive usage of Remdesivir, irrespective of diabetes, gender, clinical characteristics, and risk factors. We attribute comparable outcomes in T2DM and nonT2DM, to the early administration of Remdesivir along with the standard care approach. Our findings might further guide recommendations for COVID-19 management.

20.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S397, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746409

ABSTRACT

Background. Covid-19 has accelerated global demand for easily distributed vaccines. Furthermore, as variant SARS-CoV-2 strains that circumvent antibody responses emerge, cross-protective vaccines provide substantial public health benefits. Vaxart is developing a shelf stable oral tablet vaccine that incorporates both the spike (S) and the more conserved nucleocapsid (N) proteins. Vaxart's vaccine platform uses a non-replicating adenovirus and a TLR3 agonist as an adjuvant. Methods. In an open-label phase 1 clinical study, 35 healthy subjects received either a single low (1x1010 IU;n=15) or high (5x1010 IU;n=15) dose of the vaccine candidate VXA-CoV2-1 with a small cohort receiving 2 low doses. PBMCs were taken at pre- and 7 days post-vaccination and restimulated with S and N peptides from SARSCoV-2 or the 4 human endemic coronaviruses (HCoV). Cells were stained for CD4/ CD8/CD107a (surface) and IFNγ/TNFα (intracellular). Subjects that received an intramuscular (i.m.) mRNA vaccine had PBMCs taken at the same timepoints and were compared in the same assay. Results. The study's results indicate that the VXA-CoV2-1 tablet was well tolerated. The majority of subjects had an increase in S-specific anti-viral CD8+ T cell responses. 19/26 (73%) subjects had a measurable CD8+ T cell response on day 8 above baseline, on average 1.5-4.6%. In a comparator experiment with the 2 SARS-CoV-2 i.m. mRNA vaccines, VXA-CoV2-1 outperformed other vaccine candidates with a >3.5-fold increase in S specific antiviral CD8 T cell responses. T cell responses specific to the 4 endemic HCoV were increased by 0.6% in subjects given VXA-CoV2-1. Conclusion. Here we describe a room temperature stable tablet that induces SARS-CoV-2 S specific CD8 T cells of high magnitude after one dose in humans. Overall, the level of antiviral SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells, particularly IFNg-producing CD8s, induced following oral immunization with VXA-CoV2-1 are of higher magnitude than the mRNA vaccines currently in use against COVID-19. T cell responses against 4 endemic HCoV were also induced. Because T cells may be important in protecting against death and severe infection, these results suggest that VXA-CoV2-1 could be cross-protective against a wide array of emerging pandemic coronaviruses.

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