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1.
Frontiers in microbiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837406

ABSTRACT

Background Antibody testing is often used for serosurveillance of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and chemiluminescence-based antibody tests are quite sensitive and specific for such serological testing. Rapid antibody tests against different antigens are developed and effectively used for this purpose. However, their diagnostic efficiency, especially in real-life hospital setting, needs to be evaluated. Thus, the present study was conducted in a dedicated COVID-19 hospital in New Delhi, India, to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of a rapid antibody kit against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods Sixty COVID-19 confirmed cases by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were recruited and categorized as early, intermediate, and late cases based on the days passed after their first RT-PCR–positive test report, with 20 subjects in each category. Twenty samples from pre-COVID era and 20 RT-PCR–negative collected during the study period were taken as controls. immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against the RBD of the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 virus were detected by rapid antibody test and compared with the total antibody against the nucleocapsid (N) antigen of SARS-CoV-2 by electrochemiluminescence-based immunoassay (ECLIA). Results The detection of IgM against the RBD of the spike protein by rapid kit was less sensitive and less specific for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, diagnostic efficacy of IgG by rapid kit was highly sensitive and specific when compared with the total antibody against N antigen measured by ECLIA. Conclusion It can be concluded that detection of IgM against the RBD of S protein by rapid kit is less effective, but IgG detection can be used as an effective diagnostic tool for SARS-CoV-2 infection in real-life hospital setting.

2.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(5): 1780-1786, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835158

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the retinal microvascular changes in patients, recovered from severe COVID-19 during the second wave of the pandemic in North India. Methods: In this observational cross-sectional study, 70 eyes of 35 patients who recovered from severe COVID-19 during the second wave underwent detailed ophthalmic evaluation 4-6 weeks after discharge. Twelve controls were also enrolled, and the difference in the findings between the case and control groups on optical coherence tomography (OCTA) were studied. Result: The ages of study participants ranged from 27 to 60 years with the male:female ratio being 1.05:1. The fundus changes suggestive of ischemia in the form of cotton wool spots and vascular tortuosity were seen in 25 eyes (35.71%). Increased venous tortuosity was the most common finding seen in 23 eyes (32.85%), of which 10 eyes (28.57%) had concurrent hypertensive retinopathy (HTR) changes. There was a significant reduction in the mean vascular density (VD) and perfusion density (PD) for both the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) at inner, outer ring, and whole (P < 0.05). Foveal avascular zone was significantly enlarged in both the SCP (P = 0.01) and the DCP (P = 0.03). The mean ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) was significantly reduced in comparison to controls (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Severe COVID-19 can result in microvascular changes at the macula in the form of reduction in vascular and perfusion density, which can be evaluated using OCTA. As structural changes precede functional changes, a close watch is recommended in patients showing compromise in retinal microvasculature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macula Lutea , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retinal Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
3.
Indian Journal of Medical Specialities ; 13(2):113-118, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1786171

ABSTRACT

Background: Sudden surge of mucormycosis cases in India needs an urgent attention as multiple factors have been implicated. However, diabetes mellitus remains to be one of the most important and modifiable factors. Methodology: We prospectively followed 11 patients with mucormycosis in May 2021 and June 2021, admitted to our hospital to study the possible etiologies. Results: Out of the 11 patients, six were males and five were females, with an average age of 52.45 years. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was the ubiquitous comorbidity, and every patient presented with uncontrolled hyperglycemia (six out of them were in diabetic ketoacidosis). Glycated hemoglobin levels ranged from 10.2% to 15.1%. Out of 11 patients, four patients were non-COVID, whereas five patients had a history of COVID-19 infection. All these five post COVID-19 patients presented approximately 20 days after recovery, out of which one patient had severe infection who was hospitalized. The remaining two patients were COVID-19-positive. Out of 11 patients, 10 patients had rhino-orbital mucormycosis at presentation, among which four patients had cerebral involvement, and one out of them later developed invasive disease. However, one patient had only pulmonary mucormycosis at presentation. Serum ferritin was raised in all the patients, and six had serum zinc levels below the reference range. Serum flow cytometry showed leukopenia with normal CD4:CD8 ratio in seven patients. In the clinical outcome, six patients expired, whereas five patients responded to the treatment and were discharged on oral posaconazole therapy. Conclusion: From our study, it is quite evident that uncontrolled diabetes and its complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis were an important risk factor for the occurrence of mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients as well as non-COVID-19 patients, even without exposure to steroids or oxygen. Thus, blood glucose levels should be kept at optimum level during the management of COVID-19 patients. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Indian Journal of Medical Specialities is the property of Wolters Kluwer India Pvt Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

4.
IJID Reg ; 3: 44-53, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708321

ABSTRACT

Objective: To gain better insight into the extent of secondary bacterial and fungal infections in hospitalized patients in India, and to assess how these alter the course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) so that control measures can be suggested. Methods: In this retrospective, multicentre study, the data of all patients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), admitted to hospital between March 2020 and July 2021, were accessed from the electronic health records of a network of 10 hospitals across five states in North India. Results: Of 19,852 patients testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR and admitted to the study hospitals during the study period, 1940 (9.8%) patients developed secondary infections (SIs). Patients with SIs were, on average, 8 years older than patients without SIs (median age 62.6 vs 54.3 years; P<0.001). The risk of SIs was significantly (P<0.001) associated with age, severity of disease at admission, diabetes, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), and ventilator use. The most common site of infection was urine (41.7%), followed by blood (30.8%) and sputum/bronchoalveolar lavage/endotracheal fluid (24.8%); the least common was pus/wound discharge (2.6%). Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) were the most common organisms (63.2%), followed by Gram-positive cocci (GPC) (19.6%) and fungi (17.3%). Most patients with SIs were on multiple antimicrobials. The most commonly used antibiotics against GNB were beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors (76.9%), carbapenems (57.7%), cephalosporins (53.9%), and antibiotics against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (47.1%). Empirical use of antibiotics against GPC was seen in 58.9% of patients with SIs, and empirical use of antifungals was observed in 56.9% of patients with SIs. The average length of hospital stay for patients with SIs was almost twice as long as that of patients without SIs (median 13 vs 7 days). Overall mortality among patients with SIs (40.3%) was more than eight times higher than that among patients without SIs (4.6%). Only 1.2% of patients with SIs with mild COVID-19 at admission died, compared with 17.5% of those with moderate COVID-19 at admission and 58.5% of those with severe COVID-19 at admission (P<0.001). The mortality rate was highest in patients with bloodstream infections (49.8%), followed by those with hospital-acquired pneumonia (47.9%), urinary tract infections (29.4%), and skin and soft tissue infections (29.4%). The mortality rate in patients with diabetes with SIs was 45.2%, compared with 34.3% in those without diabetes (P<0.001). Conclusions: SIs complicate the course of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. These patients tend to have a much longer hospital stay, a higher requirement for oxygen and ICU care, and a significantly higher mortality rate compared with those without SIs. The groups most vulnerable to SIs are patients with more severe COVID-19, elderly patients and patients with diabetes. Judicious empirical use of combination antimicrobials in these groups of vulnerable patients can save lives. It is desirable to have region- or country-specific guidelines for appropriate use of antibiotics and antifungals to prevent their overuse.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313026

ABSTRACT

Background: Antibody testing are often used for serosurveillance of COVID-19. ELISA and Chemiluminesence based antibody test are quiet sensitive and specific for such serological testing. Rapid antibody tests are developed and effectively used for this purpose. But their diagnostic efficiency needs to be evaluated. So, the present study was conducted in a dedicated COVID-19 hospital in Delhi, India to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of a Rapid antibody kit for COVID-19. Material and Method : Sixty COVID-19 confirmed cases by RT-PCR were recruited and categorized as early, intermediate and late cases based on the number of days of their first RT-PCR + ve tests, 20 subjects in each category. Twenty samples from pre-covid era were taken as controls. IgM and IgG antibodies against RBD of spike protein (S) of SARS-CoV2 virus were detected by Rapid antibody test and compared with total antibody against the nucleocapsid (N) antigen of SARS-CoV-2 by Electrochemiluminescence based Immunoassay (ECLIA). Results The detection IgM against Receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike protein by rapid kit was 0-37.5% sensitive and 0-100% specific for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, efficacy of detection of IgG by rapid kit was 87–89% sensitive and 75–100% specific when compared with total antibody against N antigen measured by ECLIA based immunoassay. Conclusion It can be concluded that detection of IgM against RBD of S protein by rapid kit is not effective but IgG detection can be used as an effective diagnostic tool for SARS-COV-2 infection.

6.
Clin Chim Acta ; 527: 11-16, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611645

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Monoclonal/biclonalgammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS/BGUS) is observed in COVID-19. This study was conducted to determine the changes in serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) in COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this descriptive (cross-sectional) study, serum inflammatory markers (CRP, IL-6 and ferritin) were measured and SPEP was carried out by capillary electrophoresis method in 35 controls and 30 moderate & 58 severe COVID-19 cases. RESULTS: Serum inflammatory markers were increased in COVID-19 cases with severity. M-band(s), ß-γ bridging and pre-albumin band(s) on SPEP were observed in 15.5, 11 & 12% of severe cases and 3, 4 & 0% moderate COVID-19 cases respectively. Area under curve (AUC) of α 1 and α 2 bands of SPEP increased significantly in severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that SPEP changes like the appearance of M-band(s) indicating MGUS(BGUS), ß- γ bridging indicating the presence of fast-moving immunoglobulins, pre-albumin band indicating the rise in serum transthyretin level and the increase in AUC of α 1 and α 2 bands indicating the rise in positive acute phase reactants occur in COVID-19. The occurrence and magnitude of these changes are higher in severe COVID-19 than that in moderate COVID-19. The diagnostic and prognostic significance of these SPEP changes are worth exploring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Blood Proteins , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electrophoresis, Capillary , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(11): 1280-1285, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526937

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is strong evidence for the use of corticosteroid in the management of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, there is still uncertainty about the timing of corticosteroids. We undertook a modified Delphi study to develop expert consensus statements on the early identification of a subset of patients from non-severe COVID-19 who may benefit from using corticosteroids. METHODS: A modified Delphi was conducted with two anonymous surveys between April 30, 2021, and May 3, 2021. An expert panel of 35 experts was selected and invited to participate through e-mail. The consensus was defined as >70% votes in multiple-choice questions (MCQ) on Likert-scale type statements, while strong consensus as >90% votes in MCQ or >50% votes for "very important" on Likert-scale questions in the final round. RESULTS: Twenty experts completed two rounds of the survey. There was strong consensus for the increased work of breathing (95%), a positive six-minute walk test (90%), thorax computed tomography severity score of >14/25 (85%), new-onset organ dysfunction (using clinical or biochemical criteria) (80%), and C-reactive protein >5 times the upper limit of normal (70%) as the criteria for patients' selection. The experts recommended using oral or intravenous (IV) low-dose corticosteroids (the equivalent of 6 mg/day dexamethasone) for 5-10 days and monitoring of oxygen saturation, body temperature, clinical scoring system, blood sugar, and inflammatory markers for any "red-flag" signs. CONCLUSION: The experts recommended against indiscriminate use of corticosteroids in mild to moderate COVID-19 without the signs of clinical worsening. Oral or IV low-dose corticosteroids (the equivalent of 6 mg/day dexamethasone) for 5-10 days are recommended for patients with features of disease progression based on clinical, biochemical, or radiological criteria after 5 days from symptom onset under close monitoring. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: How to cite this article: Nasa P, Chaudhry D, Govil D, Daga MK, Jain R, Chhallani AA, et al. Expert Consensus Statements on the Use of Corticosteroids in Non-severe COVID-19. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(11):1280-1285.

8.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab ; 25(3): 198-201, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512852

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid dysfunction in COVID-19 and study its association with disease severity in COVID-19. METHODS: Patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection who were admitted to dedicated COVID hospital were recruited over 3 months period. Those with pre-existing thyroid disease were excluded. The thyroid function tests were performed and correlated with interleukin-6 levels. RESULTS: A total of 164 patients (14 children) with mean(SD) age 53.85 (19.54) years were recruited. The proportion of patients with mild, moderate and severe disease were 22 (13.4%), 78 (47.6%) and 64 (39.0%), respectively, among which 12 (54.5%), 56 (71.8%) and 43 (67.2%) patients had thyroid dysfunction, respectively; P = 0.309. Eighty eight (53.7%) had sick euthyroid (84 had low fT3 only), 14 had overt hypothyroidism and 9 had thyroiditis. Median (IQR) levels of serum fT3 showed significant decline from mild category [4.54 (3.81, 5.27)], to moderate [3.95 (3.67, 4.24)] and severe category [3.56 (3.22, 3.89)]; P = 0.011. Low fT3 had significant risk [odds ratio (95% CI)] of death [2.634 (1.01, 6.87); P = 0.031] and elevated IL-6 [2.575 (1.084, 6.118); P = 0.021]. CONCLUSION: Sick euthyroid was seen in the majority of patients hospitalized with COVID. Low fT3 was associated with death and increased inflammation, suggesting poor prognosis.

9.
Indian Heart J ; 73(6): 674-681, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471995

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 pandemic has led to unprecedented increase in rates of stress and burn out among healthcare workers (HCWs). Heart rate variability (HRV) has been shown to be reflective of stress and burnout. The present study evaluated the prevalence of burnout and attempted to develop a HRV based predictive machine learning (ML) model to detect burnout among HCWs during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Mini-Z 1.0 survey was collected from 1615 HCWs, of whom 664, 512 and 439 were frontline, second-line and non-COVID HCWs respectively. Burnout was defined as score ≥3 on Mini-Z-burnout-item. A 12-lead digitized ECG recording was performed and ECG features of HRV were obtained using feature extraction. A ML model comprising demographic and HRV features was developed to detect burnout. RESULTS: Burnout rates were higher among second-line workers 20.5% than frontline 14.9% and non-COVID 13.2% workers. In multivariable analyses, features associated with higher likelihood of burnout were feeling stressed (OR = 6.02), feeling dissatisfied with current job (OR = 5.15), working in a chaotic, hectic environment (OR = 2.09) and feeling that COVID has significantly impacted the mental wellbeing (OR = 6.02). HCWs with burnout had a significantly lower HRV parameters like root mean square of successive RR intervals differences (RMSSD) [p < 0.0001] and standard deviation of the time interval between successive RR intervals (SDNN) [p < 0.001]) as compared to normal subjects. Extra tree classifier was the best performing ML model (sensitivity: 84%) CONCLUSION: In this study of HCWs from India, burnout prevalence was lower than reports from developed nations, and was higher among second-line versus frontline workers. Incorporation of HRV based ML model predicted burnout among HCWs with a good accuracy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Burnout, Psychological , Electrocardiography , Health Personnel , Humans , India/epidemiology , Machine Learning , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103220, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is an incontrovertible fact that the Rhino Orbital Cerebral Mucormycosis (ROCM) upsurge is being seen in the context of COVID-19 in India. Briefly presented is evidence that in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 and injudicious use of corticosteroids may be largely responsible for this malady. OBJECTIVE: To find the possible impact of COVID 19 infection and various co-morbidities on occurrence of ROCM and demonstrate the outcome based on medical and surgical interventions. METHODOLOGY: Prospective longitudinal study included patients diagnosed with acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis after a recent COVID-19 infection. Diagnostic nasal endoscopy (DNE) was performed on each patient and swabs were taken and sent for fungal KOH staining and microscopy. Medical management included Injection Liposomal Amphotericin B, Posaconazole and Voriconazole. Surgical treatment was restricted to patients with RT PCR negative results for COVID-19. Endoscopic, open, and combined approaches were utilized to eradicate infection. Follow-up for survived patients was maintained regularly for the first postoperative month. RESULTS: Out of total 131 patients, 111 patients had prior history of SARS COVID 19 infection, confirmed with a positive RT-PCR report and the rest 20 patients had no such history. Steroids were received as a part of treatment in 67 patients infected with COVID 19. Among 131 patients, 124 recovered, 1 worsened and 6 died. Out of 101 known diabetics, 98 recovered and 3 had fatal outcomes. 7 patients with previous history of COVID infection did not have any evidence of Diabetes mellitus, steroid intake or any other comorbidity. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that ROCM upsurge seen in the context of COVID-19 in India was mainly seen in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 infection and injudicious use of corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Mucormycosis/immunology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diagnostic Imaging , Endoscopy , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Clin Ophthalmol ; 15: 3505-3514, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379902

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To list the clinico-epidemiological profile and possible risk factors of COVID-19 associated rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (CA-ROCM) patients presenting to a COVID dedicated hospital during the second wave of COVID-19 in India. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, single-center study was done on 60 cases of probable CA-ROCM based on clinical features and supportive diagnostic nasal endoscopic findings and/or radiologic findings. Patients with recent or active COVID-19 were included. The demographic profile, clinical features, possible risk factors and diagnostic workup (microbiological, pathological and radiological) were analysed to identify the triggering factors for CA-ROCM. RESULTS: The age of patients ranged from 29 to 75 years and male-female ratio was 3:1. The duration between the first positive COVID report and onset of CA-ROCM was 0 to 47 days. Forty-nine (81.66%) patients had a recent COVID infection and 11 (18.33%) had active COVID infection at presentation. Thirty-five patients (58%) had ocular/orbital involvement at presentation. In the affected eye, 10 had no perception of light and in the rest visual acuity ranged from log MAR 0 to +1.5. Ocular manifestations were ptosis (29), ophthalmoplegia (23), periocular tenderness and edema (33), proptosis (14), black discoloration of eyelids (3), facial palsy (3), endophthalmitis (4), retinal artery occlusion (8), disc edema (4) and disc pallor (5). Twenty-two (25%) patients had neither received steroids nor oxygen. Thirty patients (50%) were managed with oxygen while 38 patients (63.3%) with systemic steroids. The most common risk factor was diabetes in 59 patients. The average glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was 10.31 ± 2.59%. Systemic Amphotericin B was started in all the patients. Radical surgical debridement was performed in 12 patients and the remaining were planned. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 variant with accompanying glycaemic dysregulation was found to be the triggering factor for the epidemic of CA-ROCM.

12.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4553-4558, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263100

ABSTRACT

A significant proportion of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) require timely hospitalization to reduce the risk of complications and mortality. We describe the trends of the age and gender stratified outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with moderate to severe illness at the largest dedicated tertiary care COVID-19 government hospital in New Delhi, India. A retrospective cohort study through secondary data analysis from in-patient hospital data of patients admitted from April 1 to November 15, 2020 was conducted. The data of 10,314 laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19 was analyzed, of which 8899 (86.28%) were discharged after recovery, and 1415 (13.72%) died. The mean (SD) age of the hospitalized patients was 46.43 (18.74) years (n = 10,309) including 6031 (58.50%) male and 4278 (41.50%) female patients (n = 10,309). On bivariate analysis, increasing age was associated with significantly higher odds of mortality in both gender (p < .001). The mortality rate in female patients was lower (11.92%) compared with male patients (15.75%) (p = .675). However, elderly women had the highest odds of mortality (p < .001), indicating the possible role of delayed health seeking behavior, secondary to familial, and social neglect. Mortality in the patients with COVID-19 also occurred early after admission suggesting rapid deterioration, delayed reporting by patients, or their late referral from other health facilities. However, the overall statewide recovery rate showed steady improvement since the onset of the pandemic. In contrast, the recovery rate among the moderate-severe cases that were hospitalized at this tertiary care center during the same period reflected a lower nonspecific zigzag pattern indicating limited effectiveness of the COVID-19 treatment regimens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , Tertiary Care Centers , Treatment Outcome
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4553-4558, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146976

ABSTRACT

A significant proportion of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) require timely hospitalization to reduce the risk of complications and mortality. We describe the trends of the age and gender stratified outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with moderate to severe illness at the largest dedicated tertiary care COVID-19 government hospital in New Delhi, India. A retrospective cohort study through secondary data analysis from in-patient hospital data of patients admitted from April 1 to November 15, 2020 was conducted. The data of 10,314 laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19 was analyzed, of which 8899 (86.28%) were discharged after recovery, and 1415 (13.72%) died. The mean (SD) age of the hospitalized patients was 46.43 (18.74) years (n = 10,309) including 6031 (58.50%) male and 4278 (41.50%) female patients (n = 10,309). On bivariate analysis, increasing age was associated with significantly higher odds of mortality in both gender (p < .001). The mortality rate in female patients was lower (11.92%) compared with male patients (15.75%) (p = .675). However, elderly women had the highest odds of mortality (p < .001), indicating the possible role of delayed health seeking behavior, secondary to familial, and social neglect. Mortality in the patients with COVID-19 also occurred early after admission suggesting rapid deterioration, delayed reporting by patients, or their late referral from other health facilities. However, the overall statewide recovery rate showed steady improvement since the onset of the pandemic. In contrast, the recovery rate among the moderate-severe cases that were hospitalized at this tertiary care center during the same period reflected a lower nonspecific zigzag pattern indicating limited effectiveness of the COVID-19 treatment regimens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , Tertiary Care Centers , Treatment Outcome
15.
Cureus ; 13(1): e12751, 2021 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073766

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been associated with various complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney failure, myocardial infection, and thromboembolism. Cold agglutinin syndrome (CAS) has been associated with other viral infections such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), but there have been only a few reports of cold agglutination associated with COVID-19. In this report, we describe a case of transient cold agglutinin elevation in a COVID-19-infected patient. A 61-year-old man with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) presented with shortness of breath, cough, and lethargy for five days. A clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 infection was made. The COVID-19 RNA qualitative real-time polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay tested positive. During the hospital stay, he had progressive dyspnea requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. During the third week of hospital stay, an acute drop in the hemoglobin (Hb) level to 4.5 g/dl (baseline Hb: 9 g/dl) was observed. The workup for acute anemia revealed a positive result for cold agglutinins, direct antibody test (C3d), and agglutination of the red blood cells were apparent on the peripheral blood smear. Further, cold agglutinin titers peaked during the third week of the onset of illness and significantly declined during the fifth week. These observational findings indicate that cold agglutinin titers might correlate with the disease activity.

16.
Rev Recent Clin Trials ; 16(3): 258-261, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has posed a major threat to people's lives across the globe. It has drastically changed the way we perceive this world. A paradigm shift was observed globally as the world's emphasis shifted to testing, diagnosis, treatment, and developing a coronavirus cure. Clinical trials were also not untouched by this. The coronavirus pandemic has abhorrently affected the day-to-day clinical trial activities at sites. METHODS: The status of various ongoing clinical trials was assessed through a literature search, which also includes clinical trial portals. Our evaluations were based on these observations. RESULTS: Multiple challenges were present in clinical trials as recruitment, retention, the safety of trial subjects, protocol compliance, and this made the world to re-think to incorporate newer strategies and to cope with this untoward situation. CONCLUSION: Digitalization of clinical trials as virtual management of adverse events, remote monitoring visits, and web-based consulting with trial subjects are potential directions that can be applied to better manage clinical trials worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic/organization & administration , Pandemics , Humans
17.
Indian Heart J ; 73(1): 109-113, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is no large contemporary data from India to see the prevalence of burnout in HCWs in covid era. Burnout and mental stress is associated with electrocardiographic changes detectable by artificial intelligence (AI). OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to estimate the prevalence of burnout in HCWs in COVID-19 era using Mini Z-scale and to develop predictive AI model to detect burnout in HCWs in COVID-19 era. METHODS: This is an observational and cross-sectional study to evaluate the presence of burnout in HCWs in academic tertiary care centres of North India in the COVID-19 era. At least 900 participants will be enrolled in this study from four leading premier government-funded/public-private centres of North India. Each study centre will be asked to recruit HCWs by approaching them through various listed ways for participation in the study. Interested participants after initial screening and meeting the eligibility criteria, will be asked to fill the questionnaire (having demographic and work related with Mini Z questionnaire) to assess burnout. The healthcare workers will include physicians at all levels of training, nursing staff and paramedical staff who are involved directly or indirectly in COVID-19 care. The analysis of the raw electrocardiogram (ECG) data and development of algorithm using convolutional neural networks (CNN) will be done by experts. CONCLUSIONS: In Summary, we propose that ECG data generated from the people with burnout can be utilized to develop AI-enabled model to predict the presence of stress and burnout in HCWs in COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Electrocardiography , Health Personnel , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2
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