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1.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526823

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection leads to 5% to 16% hospitalization in intensive care units (ICU) and is associated with 23% to 75% of kidney impairments, including acute kidney injury (AKI). The current work aims to precisely characterize the renal impairment associated to SARS-CoV-2 in ICU patients. Forty-two patients consecutively admitted to the ICU of a French university hospital who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between 25 March 2020, and 29 April 2020, were included and classified in categories according to their renal function. Complete renal profiles and evolution during ICU stay were fully characterized in 34 patients. Univariate analyses were performed to determine risk factors associated with AKI. In a second step, we conducted a logistic regression model with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) analyses to assess major comorbidities as predictors of AKI. Thirty-two patients (94.1%) met diagnostic criteria for intrinsic renal injury with a mixed pattern of tubular and glomerular injuries within the first week of ICU admission, which lasted upon discharge. During their ICU stay, 24 patients (57.1%) presented AKI which was associated with increased mortality (p = 0.007), hemodynamic failure (p = 0.022), and more altered clearance at hospital discharge (p = 0.001). AKI occurrence was associated with lower pH (p = 0.024), higher PaCO2 (CO2 partial pressure in the arterial blood) (p = 0.027), PEEP (positive end-expiratory pressure) (p = 0.027), procalcitonin (p = 0.015), and CRP (C-reactive protein) (p = 0.045) on ICU admission. AKI was found to be independently associated with chronic kidney disease (adjusted OR (odd ratio) 5.97 (2.1-19.69), p = 0.00149). Critical SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with persistent intrinsic renal injury and AKI, which is a risk factor of mortality. Mechanical ventilation settings seem to be a critical factor of kidney impairment.

2.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major complication of COVID-19 and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. We aimed to assess whether intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) could improve outcomes by reducing inflammation-mediated lung injury. METHODS: In this multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, done at 43 centres in France, we randomly assigned patients (1:1) receiving invasive mechanical ventilation for up to 72 h with PCR confirmed COVID-19 and associated moderate-to-severe ARDS to receive either IVIG (2 g/kg over 4 days) or placebo. Random assignment was done with a web-based system and was stratified according to the participating centre and the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation before inclusion in the trial (<12 h, 12-24 h, and >24-72 h), and treatment was administered within the first 96 h of invasive mechanical ventilation. To minimise the risk of adverse events, the IVIG administration was divided into four perfusions of 0·5 g/kg each administered over at least 8 hours. Patients in the placebo group received an equivalent volume of sodium chloride 0·9% (10 mL/kg) over the same period. The primary outcome was the number of ventilation-free days by day 28, assessed according to the intention-to-treat principle. This trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04350580. FINDINGS: Between April 3, and October 20, 2020, 146 patients (43 [29%] women) were eligible for inclusion and randomly assigned: 69 (47%) patients to the IVIG group and 77 (53%) to the placebo group. The intention-to-treat analysis showed no statistical difference in the median number of ventilation-free days at day 28 between the IVIG group (0·0 [IQR 0·0-8·0]) and the placebo group (0·0 [0·0-6·0]; difference estimate 0·0 [0·0-0·0]; p=0·21). Serious adverse events were more frequent in the IVIG group (78 events in 22 [32%] patients) than in the placebo group (47 events in 15 [20%] patients; p=0·089). INTERPRETATION: In patients with COVID-19 who received invasive mechanical ventilation for moderate-to-severe ARDS, IVIG did not improve clinical outcomes at day 28 and tended to be associated with an increased frequency of serious adverse events, although not significant. The effect of IVIGs on earlier disease stages of COVID-19 should be assessed in future trials. FUNDING: Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e1762-e1765, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455264

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly discovered virus for which remdesivir is the only antiviral available. We report the occurrence of a mutation in RdRP (D484Y) following treatment with remdesivir in a 76-year-old female with post-rituximab B-cell immunodeficiency and persistent SARS-CoV-2 viremia. A cure was achieved after supplementation with convalescent plasma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(5): L847-L858, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403121

ABSTRACT

Increased blood fibrocytes are associated with a poor prognosis in fibrotic lung diseases. We aimed to determine whether the percentage of circulating fibrocytes could be predictive of severity and prognosis during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Blood fibrocytes were quantified by flow cytometry as CD45+/CD15-/CD34+/collagen-1+ cells in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia. In a subgroup of patients admitted in an intensive care unit (ICU), fibrocytes were quantified in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Serum amyloid P (SAP), transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), CXCL12, CCL2, and FGF2 concentrations were measured. We included 57 patients in the hospitalized group (median age = 59 yr [23-87]) and 16 individuals as healthy controls. The median percentage of circulating fibrocytes was higher in the patients compared with the controls (3.6% [0.2-9.2] vs. 2.1% [0.9-5.1], P = 0.04). Blood fibrocyte count was lower in the six patients who died compared with the survivors (1.6% [0.2-4.4] vs. 3.7% [0.6-9.2], P = 0.02). Initial fibrocyte count was higher in patients showing a complete lung computed tomography (CT) resolution at 3 mo. Circulating fibrocyte count was decreased in the ICU group (0.8% [0.1-2.0]), whereas BAL fibrocyte count was 6.7% (2.2-15.4). Serum SAP and TGF-ß1 concentrations were increased in hospitalized patients. SAP was also increased in ICU patients. CXCL12 and CCL2 were increased in ICU patients and negatively correlated with circulating fibrocyte count. We conclude that circulating fibrocytes were increased in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia, and a lower fibrocyte count was associated with an increased risk of death and a slower resolution of lung CT opacities.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD/blood , Blood Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Cytokines/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serum Amyloid A Protein/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Cell Count , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 40(4): 100931, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306763

ABSTRACT

AIM: Describing acute respiratory distress syndrome patterns, therapeutics management, and outcomes of ICU COVID-19 patients and indentifying risk factors of 28-day mortality. METHODS: Prospective multicentre, cohort study conducted in 29 French ICUs. Baseline characteristics, comorbidities, adjunctive therapies, ventilatory support at ICU admission and survival data were collected. RESULTS: From March to July 2020, 966 patients were enrolled with a median age of 66 (interquartile range 58-73) years and a median SAPS II of 37 (29-48). During the first 24 h of ICU admission, COVID-19 patients received one of the following respiratory supports: mechanical ventilation for 559 (58%), standard oxygen therapy for 228 (24%) and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) for 179 (19%) patients. Overall, 721 (75%) patients were mechanically ventilated during their ICU stay. Prone positioning and neuromuscular blocking agents were used in 494 (51%) and 460 (48%) patients, respectively. Bacterial co-infections and ventilator-associated pneumonia were diagnosed in 79 (3%) and 411 (43%) patients, respectively. The overall 28-day mortality was 18%. Age, pre-existing comorbidities, severity of respiratory failure and the absence of antiviral therapy on admission were identified as independent predictors of 28-day outcome. CONCLUSION: Severity of hypoxaemia on admission, older age (> 70 years), cardiovascular and renal comorbidities were associated with worse outcome in COVID-19 patients. Antiviral treatment on admission was identified as a protective factor for 28-day mortality. Ascertaining the outcomes of critically ill COVID-19 patients is crucial to optimise hospital and ICU resources and provide the appropriate intensity level of care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial
8.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 39(6): 743-744, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146070
9.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 9, 2021 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for high morbidity and mortality worldwide, mostly due to the exacerbated inflammatory response observed in critically ill patients. However, little is known about the kinetics of the systemic immune response and its association with survival in SARS-CoV-2+ patients admitted in ICU. We aimed to compare the immuno-inflammatory features according to organ failure severity and in-ICU mortality. METHODS: Six-week multicentre study (N = 3) including SARS-CoV-2+ patients admitted in ICU. Analysis of plasma biomarkers at days 0 and 3-4 according to organ failure worsening (increase in SOFA score) and 60-day mortality. RESULTS: 101 patients were included. Patients had severe respiratory diseases with PaO2/FiO2 of 155 [111-251] mmHg), SAPS II of 37 [31-45] and SOFA score of 4 [3-7]. Eighty-three patients (83%) required endotracheal intubation/mechanical ventilation and among them, 64% were treated with prone position. IL-1ß was barely detectable. Baseline IL-6 levels positively correlated with organ failure severity. Baseline IL-6 and CRP levels were significantly higher in patients in the worsening group than in the non-worsening group (278 [70-622] vs. 71 [29-153] pg/mL, P < 0.01; and 178 [100-295] vs. 100 [37-213] mg/L, P < 0.05, respectively). Baseline IL-6 and CRP levels were significantly higher in non-survivors compared to survivors but fibrinogen levels and lymphocyte counts were not different between groups. After adjustment on SOFA score and time from symptom onset to first dosage, IL-6 and CRP remained significantly associated with mortality. IL-6 changes between Day 0 and Day 3-4 were not different according to the outcome. A contrario, kinetics of CRP and lymphocyte count were different between survivors and non-survivors. CONCLUSIONS: In SARS-CoV-2+ patients admitted in ICU, a systemic pro-inflammatory signature was associated with clinical worsening and 60-day mortality.

10.
La Presse Médicale Formation ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1009722
11.
Blood ; 136(20): 2290-2295, 2020 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-950941

ABSTRACT

Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies are widely used for the treatment of hematological malignancies or autoimmune disease but may be responsible for a secondary humoral deficiency. In the context of COVID-19 infection, this may prevent the elicitation of a specific SARS-CoV-2 antibody response. We report a series of 17 consecutive patients with profound B-cell lymphopenia and prolonged COVID-19 symptoms, negative immunoglobulin G (IgG)-IgM SARS-CoV-2 serology, and positive RNAemia measured by digital polymerase chain reaction who were treated with 4 units of COVID-19 convalescent plasma. Within 48 hours of transfusion, all but 1 patient experienced an improvement of clinical symptoms. The inflammatory syndrome abated within a week. Only 1 patient who needed mechanical ventilation for severe COVID-19 disease died of bacterial pneumonia. SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia decreased to below the sensitivity threshold in all 9 evaluated patients. In 3 patients, virus-specific T-cell responses were analyzed using T-cell enzyme-linked immunospot assay before convalescent plasma transfusion. All showed a maintained SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response and poor cross-response to other coronaviruses. No adverse event was reported. Convalescent plasma with anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies appears to be a very promising approach in the context of protracted COVID-19 symptoms in patients unable to mount a specific humoral response to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immune Sera/administration & dosage , Lymphopenia/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , France , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Lymphopenia/etiology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Prat Anesth Reanim ; 24(4): 225-229, 2020 Sep.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-765502

ABSTRACT

SARS-coV2 infection may induce a severe pneumonia that may lead to an acute respiratory distress syndrome. Hypoxaemia is the key symptom of the disease but other features are different such as pulmonary compliance that is most of the time initially normal. The mechanisms of the pulmonary damage are not completely understood. A new ventilation strategy has been set up to prevent ventilator induced lung injury (VILI).

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