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1.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(10): e04828, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460156

ABSTRACT

A multidisciplinary approach appears to be fundamental for the treatment of critically ill patients with COVID-19, improving clinical outcomes, even in the most severe cases. Such severe cases are advisable to be collegially discussed between intensivists, surgeons, infectious disease, and other physicians potentially involved.

2.
Chest ; 159(4): 1426-1436, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sigh is a cyclic brief recruitment maneuver: previous physiologic studies showed that its use could be an interesting addition to pressure support ventilation to improve lung elastance, decrease regional heterogeneity, and increase release of surfactant. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is the clinical application of sigh during pressure support ventilation (PSV) feasible? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter noninferiority randomized clinical trial on adult intubated patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure or ARDS undergoing PSV. Patients were randomized to the no-sigh group and treated by PSV alone, or to the sigh group, treated by PSV plus sigh (increase in airway pressure to 30 cm H2O for 3 s once per minute) until day 28 or death or successful spontaneous breathing trial. The primary end point of the study was feasibility, assessed as noninferiority (5% tolerance) in the proportion of patients failing assisted ventilation. Secondary outcomes included safety, physiologic parameters in the first week from randomization, 28-day mortality, and ventilator-free days. RESULTS: Two-hundred and fifty-eight patients (31% women; median age, 65 [54-75] years) were enrolled. In the sigh group, 23% of patients failed to remain on assisted ventilation vs 30% in the no-sigh group (absolute difference, -7%; 95% CI, -18% to 4%; P = .015 for noninferiority). Adverse events occurred in 12% vs 13% in the sigh vs no-sigh group (P = .852). Oxygenation was improved whereas tidal volume, respiratory rate, and corrected minute ventilation were lower over the first 7 days from randomization in the sigh vs no-sigh group. There was no significant difference in terms of mortality (16% vs 21%; P = .337) and ventilator-free days (22 [7-26] vs 22 [3-25] days; P = .300) for the sigh vs no-sigh group. INTERPRETATION: Among hypoxemic intubated ICU patients, application of sigh was feasible and without increased risk. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT03201263; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.


Subject(s)
Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , Female , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Mechanics
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138734

ABSTRACT

Among patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) syndrome, one of the worst possible scenarios is represented by the critical lung damage caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced cytokine storm, responsible for a potentially very dangerous hyperinflammatory condition. Within such a context, interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a key pathogenic role, thus being a suitable therapeutic target. Indeed, the IL-6-receptor antagonist tocilizumab, already approved for treatment of refractory rheumatoid arthritis, is often used to treat patients with severe COVID-19 symptoms and lung involvement. Therefore, the aim of this review article is to focus on the rationale of tocilizumab utilization in the SARS-CoV-2-triggered cytokine storm, as well as to discuss current evidence and future perspectives, especially with regard to ongoing trials referring to the evaluation of tocilizumab's therapeutic effects in patients with life-threatening SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/chemistry , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/physiology
4.
Front Oncol ; 10: 599502, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045512

ABSTRACT

Since SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in December 2019, world health-system has been severely impacted with increased hospitalization, Intensive-Care-Unit (ICU) access and high mortality rates, mostly due to severe acute respiratory failure and multi-organ failure. Excessive and uncontrolled release of proinflammatory cytokines (cytokine release/storm syndrome, CRS) have been linked to the development of these events. The recent advancements of immunotherapy for the treatment of hematologic and solid tumors shed light on many of the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, thus rendering desirable a multidisciplinary approach to improve COVID-19 patients' outcome. Indeed, currently available therapeutic-strategies to overcome CRS, should be urgently evaluated for their capability of reducing COVID-19 mortality. Notably, COVID-19 shares different pathogenic aspects with acute graft-versus-host-disease (aGVHD), hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), myelofibrosis, and CAR-T-associated CRS. Specifically, similarly to aGVHD, an induced tissue damage (caused by the virus) leads to increased cytokine release (TNFα and IL-6) which in turn leads to exaggerated dendritic cells, macrophages (like in HLH) and lymphocytes (as in CAR-T) activation, immune-cells migration, and tissue-damage (including late-stage fibrosis, similar to myelofibrosis). Janus Kinase (JAK) signaling represents a molecular hub linking all these events, rendering JAK-inhibitors suitable to limit deleterious effects of an overwhelming inflammatory-response. Accordingly, ruxolitinib is the only selective JAK1 and JAK2-inhibitor approved for the treatment of myelofibrosis and aGVHD. Here, we discuss, from a molecular and hematological point of view, the rationale for targeting JAK signaling in the management of COVID-19 patients and report the clinical results of a patient admitted to ICU among the firsts to be treated with ruxolitinib in Italy.

5.
Med Leg J ; 89(1): 40-53, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039970

ABSTRACT

The activity of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has not yet been studied in a post-mortem setting. The absence of these data has led to the prohibition of exposure of infected corpses during burial procedures. Our aim was to assess the virus's persistence and the possibility of transmission in the post-mortem phase including autopsy staff. The sample group included 29 patients who were admitted to our Covid-19 Centre who died during hospitalisation and the autopsy staff. All the swabs were subjected to a one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with cycle threshold (Ct) values. Swab collection was performed at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 12 h, over 24 since death. The following were the analysis of patients' swabs: 10 cases were positive 2 h after death; 10 cases positive 4 h after death; 9 cases were found positive 6 h after death; 7 cases positive 12 h after death; 9 cases remained positive 24 h after death. The swabs performed on all the forensic pathologist staff on duty who performed the autopsies were negative. The choice to avoid rituals and the display of corpses before and at the burial procedures given appears cautiously valid due to the persistence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the post-mortem period. Although the caution in choosing whether or not to perform an autopsy on infected corpses is acceptable, not to perform autopsies is not biologically supported.


Subject(s)
Autopsy , COVID-19/transmission , Cadaver , Postmortem Changes , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Time Factors , Young Adult
6.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(3): 1049-1054, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014014

ABSTRACT

In COVID-19 patients receiving enoxaparin and antiplatelets therapy, aggregometry and thromboelastography might be considered an adjunctive tool to identify the time to perform procedures at risk of bleeding, such as tracheostomy.

7.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 10(12)2020 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Resilience is defined as the capacity to cope successfully with change or adversity. The aims of our study were to investigate levels of resilience in Italian healthcare professionals (HCPs) during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to identify potential predictors of resilience. METHODS: We performed a web-based survey of HCPs (n = 1009) working in Italian hospitals during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey contained a 14-item resilience scale (RS14) and questionnaires to evaluate depression and anxiety symptoms. Non-HCP individuals (n = 375) from the general population were used for comparison. RESULTS: HCPs showed significantly lower resilience compared to the control group (p = 0.001). No significant differences were observed after stratification for geographical area, work setting, role, or suspected/confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. In a linear regression analysis, RS14 was inversely correlated with depression (R2 = 0.227, p < 0.001) and anxiety (R2 = 0.117, p < 0.001) and directly correlated with age (R2 = 0.012, p < 0.001) but not with body mass index (BMI, R2 = 0.002, p = 0.213). In male HCPs, higher depression score (odds ratio (OR) 1.147, p < 0.001) or BMI (OR 1.136, p = 0.011) significantly predicted having low resilience. In female HCPs, higher depression score (OR 1.111, p < 0.0001) and working in a COVID-19 free setting (OR 2.308, p = 0.002) significantly predicted having low resilience. HCPs satisfied with personal protective equipment had higher levels of resilience (p < 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that resilience was lower in Italian HCPs than in the general population after the first COVID-19 wave. Specific factors can be identified, and targeted interventions may have an important role to foster resilience of HCPs.

8.
World J Emerg Surg ; 15(1): 43, 2020 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-621542

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since its first documentation, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection has emerged worldwide, with the consequent declaration of a pandemic disease (COVID-19). Severe forms of acute respiratory failure can develop. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 may affect organs other than the lung, such as the liver, with frequent onset of late cholestasis. We here report the histological findings of a COVID-19 patient, affected by a tardive complication of acute ischemic and gangrenous cholecystitis with a perforated and relaxed gallbladder needing urgent surgery. CASE PRESENTATION: A 59-year-old Caucasian male, affected by acute respiratory failure secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection was admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU). Due to the severity of the disease, invasive mechanical ventilation was instituted and SARS-CoV-2 treatment (azithromycin 250 mg once-daily and hydroxychloroquine 200 mg trice-daily) started. Enoxaparin 8000 IU twice-daily was also administered subcutaneously. At day 8 of ICU admission, the clinical condition improved and patient was extubated. At day 32, patient revealed abdominal pain without signs of peritonism at examination, with increased inflammatory and cholestasis indexes at blood tests. At a first abdominal CT scan, perihepatic effusion and a relaxed gallbladder with dense content were detected. The surgeon decided to wait and see the evolution of clinical conditions. The day after, conditions further worsened and a laparotomic cholecystectomy was performed. A relaxed and perforated ischemic gangrenous gallbladder, with a local tissue inflammation and perihepatic fluid, was intraoperatively met. The gallbladder and a sample of omentum, adherent to the gallbladder, were also sent for histological examination. Hematoxylin-eosin-stained slides display inflammatory infiltration and endoluminal obliteration of vessels, with wall breakthrough, hemorrhagic infarction, and nerve hypertrophy of the gallbladder. The mucosa of the gallbladder appears also atrophic. Omentum vessels also appear largely thrombosed. Immunohistochemistry demonstrates an endothelial overexpression of medium-size vessels (anti-CD31), while not in micro-vessels, with a remarkable activity of macrophages (anti-CD68) and T helper lymphocytes (anti-CD4) against gallbladder vessels. All these findings define a histological diagnosis of vasculitis of the gallbladder. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic gangrenous cholecystitis can be a tardive complication of COVID-19, and it is characterized by a dysregulated host inflammatory response and thrombosis of medium-size vessels.


Subject(s)
Cholecystectomy/methods , Cholecystitis , Coronavirus Infections , Gallbladder , Gangrene , Omentum , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Spontaneous Perforation , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Cholecystitis/etiology , Cholecystitis/pathology , Cholecystitis/physiopathology , Cholecystitis/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Gallbladder/blood supply , Gallbladder/diagnostic imaging , Gallbladder/pathology , Gangrene/etiology , Gangrene/pathology , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Infarction/etiology , Infarction/pathology , Laparoscopy/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Omentum/blood supply , Omentum/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spontaneous Perforation/diagnosis , Spontaneous Perforation/etiology , Spontaneous Perforation/physiopathology , Spontaneous Perforation/surgery , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/pathology , Treatment Outcome
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