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MEDLINE; 2022.
Preprint in English | MEDLINE | ID: ppcovidwho-329703


Understanding immune memory to Common Cold Coronaviruses (CCCs) is relevant for assessing its potential impact on the outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and for the prospects of pan-corona vaccines development. We performed a longitudinal analysis, of pre-pandemic samples collected from 2016-2019. CD4+ T cells and antibody responses specific for CCC and to other respiratory viruses, and chronic or ubiquitous pathogens were assessed. CCC-specific memory CD4+ T cells were detected in most subjects, and their frequencies were comparable to those for other common antigens. Notably, responses to CCC and other antigens such as influenza and Tetanus Toxoid (TT) were sustained over time. CCC-specific CD4+ T cell responses were also associated with low numbers of HLA-DR+CD38+ cells and their magnitude did not correlate with yearly changes in the prevalence of CCC infections. Similarly, spike RBD-specific IgG responses for CCC were stable throughout the sampling period. Finally, high CD4+ T cell reactivity to CCC, but not antibody responses, was associated with high pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 immunity. Overall, these results suggest that the steady and sustained CCC responses observed in the study cohort are likely due to a relatively stable pool of CCC-specific memory CD4+ T cells instead of fast decaying responses and frequent reinfections.

Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326837


SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccines elicit memory T cell responses. Here, we report the development of two new pools of Experimentally-defined T cell epitopes derived from the non-spike Remainder of the SARS-CoV-2 proteome (CD4RE and CD8RE). The combination of T cell responses to these new pools and Spike (S) were used to discriminate four groups of subjects with different SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccine status: non-infected, non-vaccinated (I-V-);infected and non-vaccinated (I+V-);infected and then vaccinated (I+V+);and non-infected and vaccinated (I-V+). The overall classification accuracy based on 30 subjects/group was 89.2% in the original cohort and 88.5% in a validation cohort of 96 subjects. The T cell classification scheme was applicable to different mRNA vaccines, and different lengths of time post-infection/post-vaccination. T cell responses from breakthrough infections (infected vaccinees, V+I+) were also effectively segregated from the responses of vaccinated subjects using the same classification tool system. When all five groups where combined, for a total of 239 different subjects, the classification scheme performance was 86.6%. We anticipate that a T cell-based immunodiagnostic scheme able to classify subjects based on their vaccination and natural infection history will be an important tool for longitudinal monitoring of vaccination and aid in establishing SARS-CoV-2 correlates of protection.