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1.
Biomedicines ; 10(4):843, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1776130

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has raised concerns in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), not only due to consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 itself but also as a possible cause of IBD relapse. The main objective of this study was to assess the role of SARS-CoV-2 in IBD clinical recurrence in a cohort of patients undergoing biological therapy. Second, we evaluated the difference in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels between the start and end of the follow-up period (ΔCRP) and the rate of biological therapy discontinuation. Patients with IBD positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection were compared with non-infected patients. IBD recurrence was defined as the need for intensification of current therapy. We enrolled 95 IBD patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and 190 non-infected patients. During follow-up, 11 of 95 (11.6%) SARS-CoV-2-infected patients experienced disease recurrence compared to 21 of 190 (11.3%) in the control group (p = 0.894). Forty-six (48.4%) SARS-CoV-2-infected patients discontinued biological therapy versus seven (3.7%) in the control group (p < 0.01). In the multivariate analysis, biological agent discontinuation (p = 0.033) and ΔCRP (p = 0.017), but not SARS-CoV-2 infection (p = 0.298), were associated with IBD recurrence. SARS-CoV-2 infection was not associated with increased IBD recurrence rates in this cohort of patients treated with biological agents.

2.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 11(7):1774, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762610

ABSTRACT

Background: Endothelial dysfunction has a role in acute COVID-19, contributing to systemic inflammatory syndrome, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and vascular events. Evidence regarding COVID-19 middle- and long-term consequences on endothelium are still lacking. Our study aimed to evaluate if COVID-19 severity could significantly affect the endothelial function after three months from the acute phase. Methods: We assessed endothelial function in outpatients with previous COVID-19 three months after negative SARS-CoV-2 molecular test by measuring flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in patients categorized according to a four-variable COVID-19 severity scale ('home care';;'hospital, no oxygen';;'hospital, oxygen';;'hospital requiring high-flow nasal canula, non-invasive ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation';). FMD difference among COVID-19 severity categories was assessed with analysis of variance;we further clarified the relationship between FMD and previous COVID-19 severity with multivariate logistic models. Results: Among 658 consecutive COVID-19 subjects, we observed a significant linear trend of FMD reduction with the increase of the COVID-19 category (p < 0.0001). The presence of endothelial dysfunction was more frequent among hospitalized patients (78.3%) with respect to home-care patients (21.7%;p < 0.0001). COVID-19 severity was associated with increased endothelial dysfunction risk (OR: 1.354;95% CI: 1.06–1.71;p = 0.011) at multivariate binary logistic analysis. FMD showed a significant direct correlation with PaO2 (p = 0.004), P/F ratio (p = 0.004), FEV1 (p = 0.008), and 6MWT (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: Hospitalized COVID-19 subjects showed an impaired endothelial function three months after the acute phase that correlated with pulmonary function impairment. Further studies are needed to evaluate if these subjects are at higher risk of developing pulmonary disease or future cardiovascular events.

3.
Children (Basel) ; 9(3)2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715146

ABSTRACT

Currently, asthma represents the most common chronic disorder in children, showing an increasingly consistent burden worldwide. Childhood asthma, similar to what happens in adults, is a diversified disease with a great variability of phenotypes, according to genetic predisposition of patients, age, severity of symptoms, grading of risk, and comorbidities, and cannot be considered a singular well-defined disorder, but rather a uniquely assorted disorder with variable presentations throughout childhood. Despite several developments occurring in recent years in pediatric asthma, above all, in the management of the disease, some essential areas, such as the improvement of pediatric asthma outcomes, remain a hot topic. Most treatments of the type 2 (T2) target phenotype of asthma, in which IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 modulate the central signals of inflammatory reactions. Although, there may be an unresolved need to identify new biomarkers used as predictors to improve patient stratification using disease systems and to aid in the selection of treatments. Moreover, we are globally facing many dramatic challenges, including climate change and the SARS-CoV2 pandemic, which have a considerable impact on children and adolescent asthma. Preventive strategies, including allergen immunotherapy and microbiome evaluation, and targeted therapeutic strategies are strongly needed in this population. Finally, the impact of asthma on sleep disorders has been reviewed.

4.
Biofactors ; 48(2): 294-306, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712029

ABSTRACT

Microelements represent an emerging resource for medicine and its preventive branch. Zinc is the second most abundant element in our organism with peculiar physiologic functions and pathophysiologic implications in systemic and gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. It interacts very often with gut microbiota (GM) and can affect natural course of GI diseases through a bidirectional relationship with intestinal bugs. We aimed to review literature data regarding zinc chemistry, role in health, and GI diseases in man with a special focus on its interaction with GM. We conducted a search on the main medical databases for original articles, reviews, meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials and case series using the following keywords and acronyms and their associations: zinc, microelements, gut microbiota, gut health, and COVID-19. Zinc has a rapid and simple metabolism and limited storage within our body. Its efficacy on immune system modulation reflects on improved response to pathogens, reduced inflammatory response, and improved atopic/allergic reactions. Zinc is also involved in cell cycle regulation (namely, apoptosis) with potential anti-cancerogenic effects. All these effects are in a "symbiotic" relationship with GM. Finally, zinc shows preliminary viral antireplicative effects. Zinc seems to gain more and more evidences on its efficacy in allergic, atopic and infectious diseases treatment, and prevention. COVID-19 can be the booster for research on future applications of zinc as perfect "postbiotic" in medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Humans , Immunity , Zinc/therapeutic use
5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305618

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged as a novel etiologic agent of viral pneumonia. We aimed to compare clinical features of 165 Italian patients with laboratory confirmed or unconfirmed 2019-nCoV pneumonia. Methods: : On March 31 2020, hospitalized patients who presented with fever and/or respiratory symptoms, exposures, and presence of lung imaging features consistent with 2019-nCoV pneumonia, were included. Before admission to a hospital ward, patients underwent RT-PCR based SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in their nasopharyngeal swab samples. Results: : Of 165 patients studied, 119 had positive RT-PCR results and 46 were RT-PCR negative for two days or longer (i.e., when the last swab sample was obtained). The median age was 70 years (IQR, 58–78), and 123 (74.6%) of 165 patients had at least one comorbidity. The majority of patients (101/165, 61.2%) had a mild pneumonia, and the remaining patients (64/165, 38.8%) a severe/critical pneumonia. We did not find any substantial difference in symptoms, incubation periods, and radiographic/CT abnormalities as well as in many of the biological abnormalities recorded. However, at multivariable analysis, higher concentrations of hemoglobin (OR, 1.34;95% CI, 1.11‒1.65;P = 0.003) and lower counts of leukocytes (OR, 0.81;95% CI, 0.72‒0.90;P <0.001) were statistically associated with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis. While mortality rates were similar, patients with confirmed diagnosis were more likely to receive antivirals (95% vs 19.6%, P <0.001) and to develop ARDS (63% vs 37%, P = 0.003) than those with unconfirmed COVID-19 diagnosis. Conclusions: : Our findings suggest that unconfirmed 2019-nCoV pneumonia cases may be actually COVID-19 cases and that clinicians should be cautious when managing patients with presentations compatible with COVID-19.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317607

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is impressively challenging the healthcare system. Several prognostic models have been validated but few of them are implemented in daily practice. The objective of the study was to validate a machine-learning risk prediction model using easy-to-obtain parameters, potentially available at home, to help identifying patients with COVID-19 who are at higher risk of death. Methods: The training cohort included all patients admitted to Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli with COVID-19 from March 5, 2020 to November 5, 2020. Afterwards, the model was tested on all patients admitted to the same hospital with COVID-19 from November 6, 2020 to February 5 2021. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality.The out-of-sample performance of the model was estimated from the training set in terms of Area under the Receiving Operator Curve (AUROC) and classification matrix statistics by averaging the results of 5-fold cross validation repeated 3-times and comparing the results with those obtained on the test set. An explanation analysis of the model, based on the SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP), is also presented. To assess the subsequent time evolution, the change in paO2/FiO2 (P/F) at 48 hours after the baseline measurement was plotted against its baseline value. Results: Among the 921 patients included in the training cohort, 120 died (13%). Variables selected for the model were age, platelet count, SpO2, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, neutrophil count, and sodium. The results of the 5-fold cross-validation repeated 3-times gave AUROC of 0.87, and statistics of the classification matrix to the Youden index as follows: sensitivity 0.840, specificity 0.774, negative predictive value 0.971. Then, the model was tested on a new population (n=1463) in which the mortality rate was 22.6 %. The test model showed AUROC 0.818, sensitivity 0.813, specificity 0.650, negative predictive value 0.922. Considering the first quartile of the predicted risk score (low-risk score group), the mortality rate was 1.6%, 17.8% in the second and third quartile (high-risk score group) and 53.5% in the fourth quartile (very high-risk score group). The three risk score groups showed good discrimination for the P/F value at admission, and a positive correlation was found for the low-risk class to P/F at 48 hours after admission (adjusted R-squared= 0.48). Conclusions: We developed a predictive model of death for people with SARS-CoV-2 infection by including only easy-to-obtain variables (abnormal blood count, BUN, C-reactive protein, sodium and lower SpO2). It demonstrated good accuracy and high power of discrimination. The simplicity of the model makes the risk prediction applicable for patients at home, in the Emergency Department, or during hospitalization.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316219

ABSTRACT

We analyzed the bacterial communities of the nasopharynx in 40 SARS-CoV-2 infected and uninfected patients. All patients had a mild COVID-19 disease. We did not find statistically significant differences in either bacterial richness and diversity or composition. These findings suggest a nasopharyngeal microbiota at least early resilient to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

8.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 217: 106655, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic affected healthcare systems worldwide. Predictive models developed by Artificial Intelligence (AI) and based on timely, centralized and standardized real world patient data could improve management of COVID-19 to achieve better clinical outcomes. The objectives of this manuscript are to describe the structure and technologies used to construct a COVID-19 Data Mart architecture and to present how a large hospital has tackled the challenge of supporting daily management of COVID-19 pandemic emergency, by creating a strong retrospective knowledge base, a real time environment and integrated information dashboard for daily practice and early identification of critical condition at patient level. This framework is also used as an informative, continuously enriched data lake, which is a base for several on-going predictive studies. METHODS: The information technology framework for clinical practice and research was described. It was developed using SAS Institute software analytics tool and SAS® Vyia® environment and Open-Source environment R ® and Python ® for fast prototyping and modeling. The included variables and the source extraction procedures were presented. RESULTS: The Data Mart covers a retrospective cohort of 5528 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. People who died were older, had more comorbidities, reported more frequently dyspnea at onset, had higher d-dimer, C-reactive protein and urea nitrogen. The dashboard was developed to support the management of COVID-19 patients at three levels: hospital, single ward and individual care level. INTERPRETATION: The COVID-19 Data Mart based on integration of a large collection of clinical data and an AI-based integrated framework has been developed, based on a set of automated procedures for data mining and retrieval, transformation and integration, and has been embedded in the clinical practice to help managing daily care. Benefits from the availability of a Data Mart include the opportunity to build predictive models with a machine learning approach to identify undescribed clinical phenotypes and to foster hospital networks. A real-time updated dashboard built from the Data Mart may represent a valid tool for a better knowledge of epidemiological and clinical features of COVID-19, especially when multiple waves are observed, as well as for epidemic and pandemic events of the same nature (e. g. with critical clinical conditions leading to severe pulmonary inflammation). Therefore, we believe the approach presented in this paper may find several applications in comparable situations even at region or state levels. Finally, models predicting the course of future waves or new pandemics could largely benefit from network of DataMarts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Decision-Making , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649786

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 show a high prevalence of liver injury. The pattern of this liver damage is still not fully understood. Different etiopathogenetic factors may concur; from a direct cytopathic effect, once the virus binds to the ACE-2 receptors, to the immune-mediated collateral damage, due to cytokine storm. The presence of pre-existing chronic liver disease is a contributing factor for acute organ damage during SARS-CoV2 infection. Last but not least, treatments probably play a role, also, in determining hepatotoxicity: many of the drugs we have used or are still using to treat COVID-19, combined with non-invasive ventilation, are known to sometimes determine acute liver injury. Although liver damage associated with COVID-19 is often transient and can resolve without any special treatment, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms, particularly to better treat its more severe forms.

10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(12)2021 Dec 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572559

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has been shaking lives around the world for nearly two years. The discovery of highly effective vaccines has not been able to stop the transmission of the virus. SARS-CoV-2 shows completely different clinical manifestations. A large percentage (about 40%) of admitted patients require treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU). This study investigates the factors associated with admission of COVID-19 patients to the ICU and whether it is possible to obtain a score that can help the emergency physician to select the hospital ward. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively recorded 313 consecutive patients who were presented to the emergency department (ED) of our hospital and had a diagnosis of COVID-19 confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on an oropharyngeal swab. We used multiple logistic regression to evaluate demographic, clinical, and laboratory data statistically associated with ICU admission. These variables were used to create a prognostic score for ICU admission. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC) of the score for predicting ICU admission during hospitalization were calculated. Results: Of the variables evaluated, only blood type A (p = 0.003), PaO2/FiO2 (p = 0.002), LDH (p = 0.004), lactate (p = 0.03), dyspnea (p = 0.03) and SpO2 (p = 0.0228) were significantly associated with ICU admission after adjusting for sex, age and comorbidity using multiple logistic regression analysis. We used these variables to create a prognostic score called GOL2DS (group A, PaO2/FiO2, LDH, lactate and dyspnea, and SpO2), which had high accuracy in predicting ICU admission (AUROC 0.830 [95% CI, 0.791-0.892). Conclusions: In our single-center experience, the GOL2DS score could be useful in identifying patients at high risk for ICU admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(43): 7433-7445, 2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551644

ABSTRACT

In December 2019 a novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), started spreading from Wuhan city of Chinese Hubei province and rapidly became a global pandemic. Clinical symptoms of the disease range from paucisymptomatic disease to a much more severe disease. Typical symptoms of the initial phase include fever and cough, with possible progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Gastrointestinal manifestations such as diarrhoea, vomiting and abdominal pain are reported in a considerable number of affected individuals and may be due to the SARS-CoV-2 tropism for the peptidase angiotensin receptor 2. The intestinal homeostasis and microenvironment appear to play a major role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and in the enhancement of the systemic inflammatory responses. Long-term consequences of COVID-19 include respiratory disturbances and other disabling manifestations, such as fatigue and psychological impairment. To date, there is a paucity of data on the gastrointestinal sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Since COVID-19 can directly or indirectly affect the gut physiology in different ways, it is plausible that functional bowel diseases may occur after the recovery because of potential pathophysiological alterations (dysbiosis, disruption of the intestinal barrier, mucosal microinflammation, post-infectious states, immune dysregulation and psychological stress). In this review we speculate that COVID-19 can trigger irritable bowel syndrome and we discuss the potential mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Dysbiosis , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Gut Pathog ; 13(1): 62, 2021 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546792

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) has a tropism for the gastrointestinal tract and several studies have shown an alteration of the gut microbiota in hospitalized infected patients. However, long-term data on microbiota changes after recovery are lacking. METHODS: We enrolled 30 patients hospitalized for SARS­CoV­2-related pneumonia. Their gut microbiota was analyzed within 48 h from the admission and compared with (1) that of other patients admitted for suspected bacterial pneumonia (control group) (2) that obtained from the same subject 6 months after nasopharyngeal swab negativization. RESULTS: Gut microbiota alpha-diversity increased 6 months after the resolution of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Bacteroidetes relative abundance was higher (≈ 36.8%) in patients with SARS-CoV-2, and declined to 18.7% when SARS-CoV-2 infection resolved (p = 0.004). Conversely, Firmicutes were prevalent (≈ 75%) in controls and in samples collected after SARS-CoV-2 infection resolution (p = 0.001). Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Blautia increased after SARS-CoV-2 infection resolution, rebalancing the gut microbiota composition. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with changes in the gut microbiome, which tend to be reversed in long-term period.

13.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(8): 2335-2343, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 experienced an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. AIMS: To evaluate the effect of chronic oral anticoagulation (OAC) therapy, both with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), on prognosis of COVID-19 older patients. METHODS: Single-center prospective study conducted in the Emergency Department (ED) of a teaching hospital, referral center for COVID-19 in central Italy. We evaluated all the patients ≥ 65 years, consecutively admitted to our ED for confirmed COVID-19. We compared the clinical outcome of those who were on chronic OAC at ED admission with those who did not, using a propensity score matched paired cohort of controls. The primary study endpoint was all-cause in-hospital death. Patients were matched for age, sex, clinical comorbidities, and clinical severity at presentation (based on NEWS ≥ 6). Study parameters were assessed for association to all-cause in-hospital death by a multivariate Cox regression analysis to identify independent risk factor for survival. RESULTS: Although overall mortality was slightly higher for anticoagulated patients compared to controls (63.3% vs 43.5%, p = 0.012), the multivariate adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death was not significant (HR = 1.56 [0.78-3.12]; p = 0.208). Both DOACs (HR 1.46 [0.73-2.92]; p = 0.283) and VKAs (HR 1.14 [0.48-2.73]; p = 0.761) alone did not affect overall survival in our cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Among older patients hospitalized for COVID-19, chronic OAC therapy was not associated with a reduced risk of in-hospital death. Moreover, our data suggest similar outcome both for patients on VKAs or in patients on DOACs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin K
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21136, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493228

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is impressively challenging the healthcare system. Several prognostic models have been validated but few of them are implemented in daily practice. The objective of the study was to validate a machine-learning risk prediction model using easy-to-obtain parameters to help to identify patients with COVID-19 who are at higher risk of death. The training cohort included all patients admitted to Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli with COVID-19 from March 5, 2020, to November 5, 2020. Afterward, the model was tested on all patients admitted to the same hospital with COVID-19 from November 6, 2020, to February 5, 2021. The primary outcome was in-hospital case-fatality risk. The out-of-sample performance of the model was estimated from the training set in terms of Area under the Receiving Operator Curve (AUROC) and classification matrix statistics by averaging the results of fivefold cross validation repeated 3-times and comparing the results with those obtained on the test set. An explanation analysis of the model, based on the SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP), is also presented. To assess the subsequent time evolution, the change in paO2/FiO2 (P/F) at 48 h after the baseline measurement was plotted against its baseline value. Among the 921 patients included in the training cohort, 120 died (13%). Variables selected for the model were age, platelet count, SpO2, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, neutrophil count, and sodium. The results of the fivefold cross-validation repeated 3-times gave AUROC of 0.87, and statistics of the classification matrix to the Youden index as follows: sensitivity 0.840, specificity 0.774, negative predictive value 0.971. Then, the model was tested on a new population (n = 1463) in which the case-fatality rate was 22.6%. The test model showed AUROC 0.818, sensitivity 0.813, specificity 0.650, negative predictive value 0.922. Considering the first quartile of the predicted risk score (low-risk score group), the case-fatality rate was 1.6%, 17.8% in the second and third quartile (high-risk score group) and 53.5% in the fourth quartile (very high-risk score group). The three risk score groups showed good discrimination for the P/F value at admission, and a positive correlation was found for the low-risk class to P/F at 48 h after admission (adjusted R-squared = 0.48). We developed a predictive model of death for people with SARS-CoV-2 infection by including only easy-to-obtain variables (abnormal blood count, BUN, C-reactive protein, sodium and lower SpO2). It demonstrated good accuracy and high power of discrimination. The simplicity of the model makes the risk prediction applicable for patients in the Emergency Department, or during hospitalization. Although it is reasonable to assume that the model is also applicable in not-hospitalized persons, only appropriate studies can assess the accuracy of the model also for persons at home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Machine Learning , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Cell Count , Blood Chemical Analysis , COVID-19/blood , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Multivariate Analysis , Oxygen/blood , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , ROC Curve , Risk Factors , Rome/epidemiology
15.
J Clin Med ; 10(21)2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488629

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A prothrombotic state, attributable to excessive inflammation, cytokine storm, hypoxia, and immobilization, is a feature of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Up to 30% of patients with severe COVID-19 remain at high risk of thromboembolic events despite anticoagulant administration, with adverse impact on in-hospital prognosis. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 4742 patients with acute infectious respiratory disease (AIRD); 2579 were diagnosed to have COVID-19 and treated with heparin, whereas 2163 had other causes of AIRD. We compared the incidence and predictors of total, arterial, and venous thrombosis, both in the whole population and in a propensity score-matched subpopulation of 3036 patients (1518 in each group). RESULTS: 271 thrombotic events occurred in the whole population: 121 (4.7%) in the COVID-19 group and 150 (6.9%) in the no-COVID-19 group (p < 0.001). No differences in the incidence of total (p = 0.11), arterial (p = 0.26), and venous (p = 0.38) thrombosis were found between the two groups after adjustment for confounding clinical variables and in the propensity score-matched subpopulation. Likewise, there were no significant differences in bleeding rates between the two groups. Clinical predictors of arterial thrombosis included age (p = 0.006), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.034), peripheral artery disease (p < 0.001), and previous stroke (p < 0.001), whereas history of solid cancer (p < 0.001) and previous deep vein thrombosis (p = 0.007) were associated with higher incidence of venous thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 treated with heparin do not seem to show significant differences in the cumulative incidence of thromboembolic events as well as in the incidence of arterial and venous thrombosis separately, compared with AIRD patients with different etiological diagnosis.

16.
Liver Int ; 41(11): 2560-2577, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434779

ABSTRACT

Metabolic diseases are associated with a higher risk of a severer coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) course, since fatty liver is commonly associated with metabolic disorders, fatty liver itself is considered as a major contributor to low-grade inflammation in obesity and diabetes. Recently a comprehensive term, metabolic (dysfunction) associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), has been proposed. The hepatic inflammatory status observed in MAFLD patients is amplified in presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Intestinal dysbiosis is a powerful activator of inflammatory mediator production of liver macrophages. The intestinal microbiome plays a key role in MAFLD progression, which results in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis. Therefore, patients with metabolic disorders and COVID-19 can have a worse outcome of COVID-19. This literature review attempts to disentangle the mechanistic link of MAFLD from COVID-19 complexity and to improve knowledge on its pathophysiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metabolic Diseases , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2
17.
EClinicalMedicine ; 27: 100553, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 signal blockade showed preliminary beneficial effects in treating inflammatory response against SARS-CoV-2 leading to severe respiratory distress. Herein we describe the outcomes of off-label intravenous use of Sarilumab in severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia. METHODS: 53 patients with SARS-CoV-2 severe pneumonia received intravenous Sarilumab; pulmonary function improvement or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission rate in medical wards, live discharge rate in ICU treated patients and safety profile were recorded. Sarilumab 400 mg was administered intravenously on day 1, with eventual additional infusion based on clinical judgement, and patients were followed for at least 14 days, unless previously discharged or dead. FINDINGS: Of the 53 SARS-CoV-2pos patients receiving Sarilumab, 39(73·6%) were treated in medical wards [66·7% with a single infusion; median PaO2/FiO2:146(IQR:120-212)] while 14(26·4%) in ICU [92·6% with a second infusion; median PaO2/FiO2: 112(IQR:100-141.5)].Within the medical wards, 7(17·9%) required ICU admission, 4 of whom were re-admitted to the ward within 5-8 days. At 19 days median follow-up, 89·7% of medical inpatients significantly improved (46·1% after 24 h, 61·5% after 3 days), 70·6% were discharged from the hospital and 85·7% no longer needed oxygen therapy. Within patients receiving Sarilumab in ICU, 64·2% were discharged from ICU to the ward and 35·8% were still alive at the last follow-up. Overall mortality rate was 5·7%. INTERPRETATION: IL-6R inhibition appears to be a potential treatment strategy for severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and intravenous Sarilumab seems a promising treatment approach showing, in the short term, an important clinical outcome and good safety.

18.
Med Lav ; 112(4): 320-326, 2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377151

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Occupational hand dermatitis (OHD) is a skin disease occurring on employees' hands in certain jobs. Little is known about prevalence, incidence and characteristics of this adverse skin reaction and its associated risk factors during COVID-19 pandemic. To evaluate both prevalence and incidence of OHD and associated risk factors in Italian clinicians. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed using a self-report questionnaire. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty clinicians responded to the survey and 82% of responders did not report previous OHD history before the COVID-19 pandemic. Daily use of gloves was reported by 80% of responders. OHD prevalence was 18%, while incidence was 80%. We found a protective effect on symptom occurrence for vinyl/nitrile gloves if the time with gloves was ≥ 6 hours per day. CONCLUSIONS: This survey reveals a high OHD incidence in an Italian population of clinicians. Furthermore, wearing vinyl/nitrile gloves for at least 6 hours a day had a protective effect on symptom onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dermatitis, Occupational , Hand Dermatoses , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dermatitis, Occupational/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Occupational/etiology , Gloves, Protective , Hand Dermatoses/epidemiology , Hand Dermatoses/etiology , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(11): e14755, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373818

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The COVID-19 pandemic represents a source of stress and potential burnout for many physicians. This single-site survey aimed at assessing perceived stress and risk to develop burnout syndrome among physicians operating in COVID wards. METHODS: This longitudinal survey evaluated stress and burnout in 51 physicians operating in the COVID team of Gemelli Hospital, Italy. Participants were asked to complete the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Perceived Stress Questionnaire on a short run (PSQs) (referring to the past 7 days) at baseline (T0) and then for four weeks (T1-T4). Perceived Stress Questionnaire on a long run (PSQl) (referring to the past 2 years) was completed only at T0. RESULTS: Compared with physicians board-certified in internal medicine, those board-certified in other disciplines showed higher scores for the Emotional Exhaustion (EE) score of the MBI scale (P < .001). Depersonalisation (DP) score showed a reduction over time (P = .002). Attending physicians scored lower than the resident physicians on the DP scale (P = .048) and higher than resident physicians on the Personal Accomplishment (PA) scale (P = .04). PSQl predicted higher scores on the EE scale (P = .003), DP scale (P = .003) and lower scores on the PA scale (P < .001). PSQs showed a reduction over time (P = .03). Attending physicians had a lower PSQs score compared with the resident physicians (P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: Medical specialty and clinical position could represent risk factors for the development of burnout in a COVID team. In these preliminary results, physicians board-certified in internal medicine showed lower risk of developing EE during the entire course of the study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Burnout, Psychological/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic limited patients' access to hospital care. The aims of this study were to assess dietary nutritional status, quality of life (QoL), and adherence to dietary therapy before and after 30-day personalized diet therapy through telenutrition tools in patients with systemic nickel allergic syndrome (SNAS). METHODS: Each SNAS patient underwent the following allergological procedures: (a) face-to-face visit (nutritional visit and QoL evaluation) with prescription of one out of five personalized and balanced dietary plans different for calorie intake, (b) video call visit for dietary evaluation and assessment of adherence to diet after 15 days, and (c) video call visit for dietary and QoL evaluation and assessment of adherence to diet therapy after 30 days (end of study). RESULTS: We enrolled 20 SNAS patients. After 15 and 30 days, we found a statistically significant improvement in anthropometric findings after diet therapy, a significant adherence rate to low-nickel diet (60% and 80%, respectively), and an improvement in QoL with an increase in almost all psychometric indices. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that telenutrition can be a valid tool to monitor nutritional status and adherence to balanced low-Ni diet positively affecting QoL in SNAS patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet , Hypersensitivity/diet therapy , Nickel/immunology , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , Female , Food Hypersensitivity , Humans , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Hypersensitivity/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
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