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1.
Respir Care ; 66(1): 113-119, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low airway surface pH is associated with many airway diseases, impairs antimicrobial host defense, and worsens airway inflammation. Inhaled Optate is designed to safely raise airway surface pH and is well tolerated in humans. Raising intracellular pH partially prevents activation of SARS-CoV-2 in primary normal human airway epithelial (NHAE) cells, decreasing viral replication by several mechanisms. METHODS: We grew primary NHAE cells from healthy subjects, infected them with SARS-CoV-2 (isolate USA-WA1/2020), and used clinical Optate at concentrations used in humans in vivo to determine whether Optate would prevent viral infection and replication. Cells were pretreated with Optate or placebo prior to infection (multiplicity of infection = 1), and viral replication was determined with plaque assay and nucleocapsid (N) protein levels. Healthy human subjects also inhaled Optate as part of a Phase 2a safety trial. RESULTS: Optate almost completely prevented viral replication at each time point between 24 h and 120 h, relative to placebo, on both plaque assay and N protein expression (P < .001). Mechanistically, Optate inhibited expression of major endosomal trafficking genes and raised NHAE intracellular pH. Optate had no effect on NHAE cell viability at any time point. Inhaled Optate was well tolerated in 10 normal subjects, with no change in lung function, vital signs, or oxygenation. CONCLUSIONS: Inhaled Optate may be well suited for a clinical trial in patients with pulmonary SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, it is vitally important for patient safety that formulations designed for inhalation with regard to pH, isotonicity, and osmolality be used. An inhalational treatment that safely prevents SARS-CoV-2 viral replication could be helpful for treating patients with pulmonary SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Glycine/pharmacology , Isotonic Solutions/pharmacology , Lung/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/drug effects , Administration, Inhalation , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Glycine/administration & dosage , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration/drug effects , Isotonic Solutions/administration & dosage
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11130, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246392

ABSTRACT

The sex discordance in COVID-19 outcomes has been widely recognized, with males generally faring worse than females and a potential link to sex steroids. A plausible mechanism is androgen-induced expression of TMPRSS2 and/or ACE2 in pulmonary tissues that may increase susceptibility or severity in males. This hypothesis is the subject of several clinical trials of anti-androgen therapies around the world. Here, we investigated the sex-associated TMPRSS2 and ACE2 expression in human and mouse lungs and interrogated the possibility of pharmacologic modification of their expression with anti-androgens. We found no evidence for increased TMPRSS2 expression in the lungs of males compared to females in humans or mice. Furthermore, in male mice, treatment with the androgen receptor antagonist enzalutamide did not decrease pulmonary TMPRSS2. On the other hand, ACE2 and AR expression was sexually dimorphic and higher in males than females. ACE2 was moderately suppressible with enzalutamide administration. Our work suggests that sex differences in COVID-19 outcomes attributable to viral entry are independent of TMPRSS2. Modest changes in ACE2 could account for some of the sex discordance.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Lung/drug effects , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Androgen Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Androgens , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Benzamides/pharmacology , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Sequencing , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Nitriles/pharmacology , Phenylthiohydantoin/pharmacology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Smokers
3.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(8): 1859-1867, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597152

ABSTRACT

Unprecedented opportunities and daunting difficulties are anticipated in the future of pediatric pulmonary medicine. To address these issues and optimize pediatric pulmonary training, a group of faculty from various institutions met in 2019 and proposed specific, long-term solutions to the emerging problems in the field. Input on these ideas was then solicited more broadly from faculty with relevant expertise and from recent trainees. This proposal is a synthesis of these ideas. Pediatric pulmonology was among the first pediatric specialties to be grounded deliberately in science, requiring its fellows to demonstrate expertise in scientific inquiry (1). In the future, we will need more training in science, not less. Specifically, the scope of scientific inquiry will need to be broader. The proposal outlined below is designed to help optimize the practices of current providers and to prepare the next generation to be leaders in pediatric care in the future. We are optimistic that this can be accomplished. Our broad objectives are (a) to meet the pediatric subspecialty workforce demand by increasing interest and participation in pediatric pulmonary training; (b) to modernize training to ensure that future pediatric pulmonologists will be prepared clinically and scientifically for the future of the field; (c) to train pediatric pulmonologists who will add value in the future of pediatric healthcare, complemented by advanced practice providers and artificial intelligence systems that are well-informed to optimize quality healthcare delivery; and (d) to decrease the cost and improve the quality of care provided to children with respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Pediatrics , Pulmonary Medicine , Artificial Intelligence , Child , Delivery of Health Care , Health Workforce , Humans , Pediatrics/education , Pulmonary Medicine/education
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