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1.
Research in Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging ; 1:100003-100003, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1755536

ABSTRACT

Objectives 1) To develop a deep learning (DL) pipeline allowing quantification of COVID-19 pulmonary lesions on low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). 2) To assess the prognostic value of DL-driven lesion quantification. Methods This monocentric retrospective study included training and test datasets taken from 144 and 30 patients, respectively. The reference was the manual segmentation of 3 labels: normal lung, ground-glass opacity(GGO) and consolidation(Cons). Model performance was evaluated with technical metrics, disease volume and extent. Intra- and interobserver agreement were recorded. The prognostic value of DL-driven disease extent was assessed in 1621 distinct patients using C-statistics. The end point was a combined outcome defined as death, hospitalization>10 days, intensive care unit hospitalization or oxygen therapy. Results The Dice coefficients for lesion (GGO+Cons) segmentations were 0.75±0.08, exceeding the values for human interobserver (0.70±0.08;0.70±0.10) and intraobserver measures (0.72±0.09). DL-driven lesion quantification had a stronger correlation with the reference than inter- or intraobserver measures. After stepwise selection and adjustment for clinical characteristics, quantification significantly increased the prognostic accuracy of the model (0.82 vs. 0.90;p<0.0001). Conclusions A DL-driven model can provide reproducible and accurate segmentation of COVID-19 lesions on LDCT. Automatic lesion quantification has independent prognostic value for the identification of high-risk patients.

2.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(3): 1063-1072, 2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439023

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the age-specific mortality of unselected adult outpatients infected with SARS-CoV-2 treated early in a dedicated COVID-19 day hospital and we assessed whether the use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) + azithromycin (AZ) was associated with improved survival in this cohort. A retrospective monocentric cohort study was conducted in the day hospital of our center from March to December 2020 in adults with PCR-proven infection who were treated as outpatients with a standardized protocol. The primary endpoint was 6-week mortality, and secondary endpoints were transfer to the intensive care unit and hospitalization rate. Among 10,429 patients (median age, 45 [IQR 32-57] years; 5597 [53.7%] women), 16 died (0.15%). The infection fatality rate was 0.06% among the 8315 patients treated with HCQ+AZ. No deaths occurred among the 8414 patients younger than 60 years. Older age and male sex were associated with a higher risk of death, ICU transfer, and hospitalization. Treatment with HCQ+AZ (0.17 [0.06-0.48]) was associated with a lower risk of death, independently of age, sex and epidemic period. Meta-analysis evidenced consistency with 4 previous outpatient studies (32,124 patients-Odds ratio 0.31 [0.20-0.47], I2 = 0%). Early ambulatory treatment of COVID-19 with HCQ+AZ as a standard of care is associated with very low mortality, and HCQ+AZ improve COVID-19 survival compared to other regimens.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Early Medical Intervention , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , France , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
4.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 16(12): 1159-1184, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032979

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 presents benign forms in young patients who frequently present with anosmia. Infants are rarely infected, while severe forms occur in patients over 65 years of age with comorbidities, including hypertension and diabetes. Lymphopenia, eosinopenia, thrombopenia, increased lactate dehydrogenase, troponin, C-reactive protein, D-dimers and low zinc levels are associated with severity.Areas covered: The authors review the literature and provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the natural history of and therapeutic options for COVID-19. Expert opinion: Diagnosis should rely on PCR and not on clinical presumption. Because of discrepancies between clinical symptoms, oxygen saturation or radiological signs on CT scans, pulse oximetry, and radiological investigation should be systematic. The disease evolves in successive phases: an acute virological phase, and, in some patients, a cytokine storm phase; an uncontrolled coagulopathy; and an acute respiratory distress syndrome. Therapeutic options include antivirals, oxygen therapy, immunomodulators, anticoagulants and prolonged mechanical treatment. Early diagnosis, care, and implementation of an antiviral treatment; the use of immunomodulators at a later stage; and the quality of intensive care are critical regarding mortality rates. The higher mortality observed in Western countries remains unexplained. Pulmonary fibrosis may occur in some patients. Its future is unpredictable.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Insights Imaging ; 11(1): 117, 2020 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-930571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low-dose chest CT (LDCT) showed high sensitivity and ability to quantify lung involvement of COVID-19 pneumopathy. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and risk factors for lung involvement in 247 patients with a visual score and assess the prevalence of incidental findings. METHODS: For 12 days in March 2020, 250 patients with RT-PCR positive tests and who underwent LDCT were prospectively included. Clinical and imaging findings were recorded. The extent of lung involvement was quantified using a score ranging from 0 to 40. A logistic regression model was used to explore factors associated with a score ≥ 10. RESULTS: A total of 247 patients were analyzed; 138 (54%) showed lung involvement. The mean score was 4.5 ± 6.5, and the mean score for patients with lung involvement was 8.1 ± 6.8 [1-31]. The mean age was 43 ± 15 years, with 121 males (48%) and 17 asymptomatic patients (7%). Multivariate analysis showed that age > 54 years (odds ratio 4.4[2.0-9.6] p < 0.001) and diabetes (4.7[1.0-22.1] p = 0.049) were risk factors for a score ≥ 10. Multivariate analysis including symptoms showed that only age > 54 years (4.1[1.7-10.0] p = 0.002) was a risk factor for a score ≥ 10. Rhinitis (0.3[0.1-0.7] p = 0.005) and anosmia (0.3[0.1-0.9] p = 0.043) were protective against lung involvement. Incidental imaging findings were found in 19% of patients, with a need for follow-up in 0.6%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of lung involvement was 54% in a predominantly paucisymptomatic population. Age ≥ 55 years and diabetes were risk factors for significant parenchymal lung involvement. Rhinitis and anosmia were protective against LDCT abnormalities.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241407, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-902052

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose is to assess the ability of low-dose CT (LDCT) to determine lung involvement in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and to describe a COVID19-LDCT severity score. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by RT-PCR were retrospectively analysed. Clinical data, the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) and imaging features were recorded. Lung features included ground-glass opacities (GGO), areas of consolidation and crazy paving patterns. The COVID19-LDCT score was calculated by summing the score of each segment from 0 (no involvement) to 10 (severe impairment). Univariate analysis was performed to explore predictive factor of high COVID19-LDCT score. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was used to compare groups and a Spearman correlation used with p<0.05 for significance. RESULTS: Eighty patients with positive RT-PCR were analysed. The mean age was 55 years ± 16, with 42 males (53%). The most frequent symptoms were fever (60/80, 75%) and cough (59/80, 74%), the mean NEWS was 1.7±2.3. All LDCT could be analysed and 23/80 (28%) were normal. The major imaging finding was GGOs in 56 cases (67%). The COVID19-LDCT score (mean value = 19±29) was correlated with NEWS (r = 0.48, p<0.0001). No symptoms were risk factor to have pulmonary involvement. Univariate analysis shown that dyspnea, high respiratory rate, hypertension and diabetes are associated to a COVID19-LDCT score superior to 50. CONCLUSIONS: COVID19-LDCT score did correlate with NEWS. It was significantly different in the clinical low-risk and high-risk groups. Further work is needed to validate the COVID19-LDCT score against patient prognosis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Rate , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
7.
Eur Radiol ; 30(12): 6537-6544, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-629862

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the impact of the COVID-19 on the CT activities in French radiological centers during the epidemic peak. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective CT scan survey was conducted between March 16 and April 12, 2020, in accordance with the local IRB. Seven hundred nine radiology centers were invited to participate in a weekly online survey. Numbers of CT examinations related to COVID-19 including at least chest (CTcovid) and whole chest CT scan activities (CTchest) were recorded each week. A sub-analysis on French departments was performed during the 4 weeks of the study. The impact of the number of RT-PCRs (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions) on the CT workflow was tested using two-sample t test and Pearson's test. RESULTS: Five hundred seventy-seven structures finally registered (78%) with mean response numbers of 336 ± 18.9 (323; 351). Mean CTchest activity per radiologic structure ranged from 75.8 ± 133 (0-1444) on week 12 to 99.3 ± 138.6 (0-1147) on week 13. Mean ratio of CTcovid on CTchest varied from 0.36 to 0.59 on week 12 and week 14 respectively. There was a significant relationship between the number of RT-PCR performed and the number of CTcovid (r = 0.73, p = 3.10-16) but no link with the number of positive RT-PCR results. CONCLUSION: In case of local high density COVID-19, CT workflow is strongly modified and redirected to the management of these specific patients. KEY POINTS: • Over the 4-week survey period, 117,686 chest CT (CTtotal) were performed among the responding centers, including 61,784 (52%) CT performed for COVID-19 (CTcovid). • Across the country, the ratio CTcovid/CTtotal varied from 0.36 to 0.59 and depended significantly on the local epidemic density (p = 0.003). • In clinical practice, in a context of growing epidemic, in France, chest CT was used as a surrogate to RT-PCR for patient triage.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Triage/methods , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 36: 101791, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In our institute in Marseille, France, we initiated early and massive screening for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Hospitalization and early treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (HCQ-AZ) was proposed for the positive cases. METHODS: We retrospectively report the clinical management of 3,737 screened patients, including 3,119 (83.5%) treated with HCQ-AZ (200 mg of oral HCQ, three times daily for ten days and 500 mg of oral AZ on day 1 followed by 250 mg daily for the next four days, respectively) for at least three days and 618 (16.5%) patients treated with other regimen ("others"). Outcomes were death, transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU), ≥10 days of hospitalization and viral shedding. RESULTS: The patients' mean age was 45 (sd 17) years, 45% were male, and the case fatality rate was 0.9%. We performed 2,065 low-dose computed tomography (CT) scans highlighting lung lesions in 592 of the 991 (59.7%) patients with minimal clinical symptoms (NEWS score = 0). A discrepancy between spontaneous dyspnoea, hypoxemia and lung lesions was observed. Clinical factors (age, comorbidities, NEWS-2 score), biological factors (lymphocytopenia; eosinopenia; decrease in blood zinc; and increase in D-dimers, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine phosphokinase, troponin and C-reactive protein) and moderate and severe lesions detected in low-dose CT scans were associated with poor clinical outcome. Treatment with HCQ-AZ was associated with a decreased risk of transfer to ICU or death (Hazard ratio (HR) 0.18 0.11-0.27), decreased risk of hospitalization ≥10 days (odds ratios 95% CI 0.38 0.27-0.54) and shorter duration of viral shedding (time to negative PCR: HR 1.29 1.17-1.42). QTc prolongation (>60 ms) was observed in 25 patients (0.67%) leading to the cessation of treatment in 12 cases including 3 cases with QTc> 500 ms. No cases of torsade de pointe or sudden death were observed. CONCLUSION: Although this is a retrospective analysis, results suggest that early diagnosis, early isolation and early treatment of COVID-19 patients, with at least 3 days of HCQ-AZ lead to a significantly better clinical outcome and a faster viral load reduction than other treatments.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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