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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307197

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of smell or taste impairment in household contacts of mildly symptomatic home-isolated SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. Methods: Cross sectional study based on ad hoc questions. Results: Of 214 mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients managed at home under self-isolation, 179 reported to have at least one household contact, with the total number of no study participants contacts being 296. Among 175 household contacts not tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection, 67 (38.3%) had SARS-CoV-2 compatible symptoms, 39 (22.3%) had loss of smell or taste with 7 (4.0%) having loss of smell or taste in the absence of other symptoms. The prevalence of smell or taste impairment was 1.5% in patients tested negative compared to 63.0% of those tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (p<0.001). Conclusion: Smell or taste impairment are quite common in not-tested household contacts of mildly symptomatic home-isolated SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. This should be taken into account when estimating the burden of loss of sense of smell and taste during COVID-19 pandemic, and further highlights the value of loss of sense of smell and taste as a marker of infection.

2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Smell and taste dysfunction are frequently reported by SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. The degree of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction varies from a very mild reduction to their complete loss. Several studies have been performed to determine their prevalence in COVID-19 patients, mostly using subjective measurement methods. The literature lacks long-term studies regarding duration and recovery. METHODS: We assessed olfactory performance, using the Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test, in a group of patients who had not reported olfactory dysfunction, around 131 days after their COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: 11 out of 20 subjects showed no olfactory reduction (65%), while 9 subjects showed reduced TDI score (45%). A total of 13 subjects (65%) scored above the cutoff point for Threshold, 16 subjects (80%) scored above the cutoff point for discrimination and 13 subjects (65%) scored above the cutoff point for identification. CONCLUSION: Objective measurement methods of olfactory performance show a higher prevalence of olfactory reduction compared to patients' self-reported questionnaires. Olfactory dysfunction can last even months after its onset and because of its high prevalence, it could be a screening symptom for suspect COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19 Testing , Dentists , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell
3.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(12): e14829, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402928

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to develop and validate the CoronaVirus-Disease-2019 (COVID-19) Questionnaire (COVID-Q), a novel symptom questionnaire specific for COVID-19 patients, to provide a comprehensive evaluation that may be helpful for physicians, and evaluate the questionnaire's performance in identifying subjects at higher risk of testing positive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive non-hospitalised adults who underwent nasopharyngeal-throat swab for severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection at Treviso Hospital in March 2020, were enrolled. Subjects were divided into positive (cases) and negative (controls). All subjects answered the COVID-Q. Patients not able to answer COVID-Q because of clinical conditions were excluded. Parallel Analysis and Principal Component Analysis identified items measuring the same dimension. The Item Response Theory (IRT)-based analyses evaluated the functioning of item categories, the presence of clusters of local dependence among items, item fit within the model and model fit to the data. RESULTS: Answers obtained from 230 cases (113 males; mean age 55 years, range 20-99) and 230 controls (61 males; mean age 46 years, range 21-89) were analysed. Six components were extracted with parallel analysis: asthenia, influenza-like symptoms, ear and nose symptoms, breathing issues, throat symptoms, and anosmia/ageusia. The final IRT models retained 27 items as significant for symptom assessment. The total questionnaire's score was significantly associated with positivity to the molecular test: subjects with multiple symptoms were more likely to be affected (P < .001). Older age, male gender presence of breathing issues and anosmia/ageusia were significantly related to positivity (P < .001). Comorbidities had not a significant association with the COVID-19 diagnosis. CONCLUSION: COVID-Q could be validated since the evaluated aspects were overall significantly related to infection. The application of the questionnaire to clinical practice may help to identify subjects who are likely to be affected by COVID-19 and address them to a nasopharyngeal swab in order to achieve an early diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
5.
J Dr Nurs Pract ; 2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory infection Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has spread all over the world since December 2019. Treatment of the syndrome represents an important challenge for all physicians. Spread prevention relies on a correct diagnosis which is performed with nasopharyngeal swabs. OBJECTIVE: To describe the proper execution of the swab with a few simple steps. METHODS: Figures and video recording. RESULTS: A few simple steps are presented within this paper in order to perform easily nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-Cov-2 diagnosis and for other possible infectious diseases of the airways tract. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATION FOR NURSING: Nasopharyngeal swab may be performed in an easier way than usually thought. This method may also be used for any other microorganism detection. By following simple steps, a correct diagnosis can easily be obtained.

6.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital ; 41(2): 101-107, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241350

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may present with a wide range of symptoms. In this paper, a detailed characterisation of mild-to-moderate ear, nose nd throat (ENT) symptoms is presented with the aim of recognising the disease early to help reduce further spread and progression. METHODS: A total of 230 cases testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 134 negative controls were recruited for a case-control analysis. Symptoms were analysed using the Acute Respiratory Tract Infections Questionnaire, while other symptoms were investigated by ad hoc questions. RESULTS: Among the study samples (n = 364), 149 were males and 215 were females with age ranging from 20 to 89 years (mean 52.3). Four main groups of symptoms were obtained: influenza-like symptoms, ENT-symptoms, breathing issues and asthenia-related symptoms, representing 72%, 69%, 64% and 53% of overall referred clinical manifestations, respectively. ENT symptoms, breathing issues and influenza-like symptoms were associated with positivity to SARS-CoV-2, whereas asthenia-related symptoms did not show a significant association with SARS-CoV-2 infection after controlling for other symptoms, comorbidities and demographic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: ENT symptoms are equally represented with influenza-like ones as presenting symptoms of COVID-19. Patients with ENT symptoms should be investigated for early identification and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/diagnosis , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
7.
Acta Biomed ; 92(1): e2021105, 2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122048

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by SARS-CoV2 has stressed health care systems worldwide. The high volume of patients, combined with an increased need for intensive care and potential transmission, has forced reorganization of hospitals and care delivery models. In this article, are presented approaches to minimize risk to Otolaryngologists during their patients infected with COVID-19 care. We performed a narrative literature review among PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science electronic databases, searching for studies on SARS-CoV2 and Risk Management. Standard operating procedures have been adapted both for facilities and for health care workers, including the development of well-defined and segregated patient care areas for treating those affected by COVID-19. Personal protective equipment (PPEs) availability and adequate healthcare providers training on their use should be ensured. Preventive measures are especially important in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, as the exposure to saliva suspensions, droplets and aerosols are increased in the upper aero-digestive tract routine examination. Morever, the frequent invasive procedures, such as laryngoscopy, intubation or tracheotomy placement and care, represent a high risk of contracting COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Otolaryngologists , Risk Management , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Tracheostomy
8.
Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol ; 5(6): 1019-1028, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954943

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of olfactory and taste dysfunction (OD; TD) among COVID-19 positive health care workers (HCWs), their associated risk factors and prognosis. METHODS: Between May and June 2020, a longitudinal multicenter study was conducted on symptomatic COVID-19 PCR confirmed HCWs (COVID-19 positive) in London and Padua. RESULTS: Hundred and fourteen COVID-19 positive HCWs were surveyed with a response rate of 70.6% over a median follow-up period of 52 days. UK prevalence of OD and TD was 73.1% and 69.2%, respectively. There was a male to female ratio of 1:3 with 81.6% being white, 43.7% being nurses/health care assistants (HCAs), and 39.3% being doctors. In addition, 53.2% of them worked on COVID-19 wards. Complete recovery was reported in 31.8% for OD and 47.1% for TD with a 52 days follow-up. The job role of doctors and nurses negatively influenced smell (P = .04 and P = .02) and taste recovery (P = .02 and P = .01). Ethnicity (being white) showed to positively influence only taste recovery (P = .04). Sex (being female) negatively influenced OD and TD recovery only in Paduan HCWs (P = .02 and P = .011, respectively). Working on a COVID-19 ward did not influence prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of OD and TD was considerably higher in HCWs. The prognosis for OD and TD recovery was worse for nurses/HCAs and doctors but working on a COVID-19 ward did not influence prognosis. Sixty-eight percent of surveyed HCWs at 52 days continued to experience OD or TD requiring additional future medical management capacity. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.

9.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 146(8): 729-732, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-624510

ABSTRACT

Importance: An altered sense of smell and taste has been reported to be associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To understand the evolution of these symptoms during the course of the disease is important to identify patients with persistent loss of smell or taste and estimate the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on the burden of olfactory and gustative dysfunctions. Objective: To evaluate the evolution of the loss of sense of smell and taste in a case series of mildly symptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional survey-based study included 202 mildly symptomatic adults (≥18 years) consecutively assessed at Treviso Regional Hospital, Italy, between March 19 and March 22, 2020, who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal and throat swabs. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence of altered sense of smell and taste at follow-up and their variation from baseline. Results: Of 202 patients completing the survey at baseline, 187 (92.6%) also completed the follow-up survey (103 [55.1%] women; median age, 56 years). The evaluation of the evolution of altered sense of smell or taste in the 113 patients reporting sudden onset of these symptoms at baseline showed that 55 patients (48.7%; 95% CI, 39.2-58.3) reported complete resolution of smell or taste impairment, 46 (40.7%; 95% CI, 31.6-50.4) reported an improvement in the severity, and only 12 (10.6%; 95% CI, 5.6-17.8) reported the symptom was unchanged or worse. Persistent loss of smell or taste was not associated with persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusions and Relevance: At 4 weeks from the onset, 89% of the SARS-CoV-2-positive mildly symptomatic patients who had had a sudden onset of altered sense of smell or taste experienced a complete resolution or improvement of these symptoms. Persistent loss of smell or taste was not associated with persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
10.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 277(9): 2637-2640, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343393

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To estimate the prevalence of smell or taste impairment in household contacts of mildly symptomatic home-isolated SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on ad hoc questions. RESULTS: Of 214 mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients managed at home under self-isolation, 179 reported to have at least one household contact, with the total number of no study participants contacts being 296. Among 175 household contacts not tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection, 67 (38.3%) had SARS-CoV-2 compatible symptoms, 39 (22.3%) had loss of smell or taste with 7 (4.0%) having loss of smell or taste in the absence of other symptoms. The prevalence of smell or taste impairment was 1.5% in patients tested negative compared to 63.0% of those tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Smell or taste impairment are quite common in not-tested household contacts of mildly symptomatic home-isolated SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. This should be taken into account when estimating the burden of loss of sense of smell and taste during COVID-19 pandemic, and further highlights the value of loss of sense of smell and taste as a marker of infection.


Subject(s)
Dysgeusia/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste/physiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dysgeusia/diagnosis , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Family , Female , Humans , Male , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/virology
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