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J Public Health (Oxf) ; 2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612641


BACKGROUND: Despite generally high coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination rates in the UK, vaccination hesitancy and lower take-up rates have been reported in certain ethnic minority communities. METHODS: We used vaccination data from the National Immunisation Management System (NIMS) linked to the 2011 Census and individual health records for subjects aged ≥40 years (n = 24 094 186). We estimated age-standardized vaccination rates, stratified by ethnic group and key sociodemographic characteristics, such as religious affiliation, deprivation, educational attainment, geography, living conditions, country of birth, language skills and health status. To understand the association of ethnicity with lower vaccination rates, we conducted a logistic regression model adjusting for differences in geographic, sociodemographic and health characteristics. ResultsAll ethnic groups had lower age-standardized rates of vaccination compared with the white British population, whose vaccination rate of at least one dose was 94% (95% CI: 94%-94%). Black communities had the lowest rates, with 75% (74-75%) of black African and 66% (66-67%) of black Caribbean individuals having received at least one dose. The drivers of these lower rates were partly explained by accounting for sociodemographic differences. However, modelled estimates showed significant differences remained for all minority ethnic groups, compared with white British individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Lower COVID-19 vaccination rates are consistently observed amongst all ethnic minorities.

BMJ Open ; 11(7): e053402, 2021 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322829


OBJECTIVE: To examine inequalities in COVID-19 vaccination rates among elderly adults in England. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: People living in private households and communal establishments in England. PARTICIPANTS: 6 655 672 adults aged ≥70 years (mean 78.8 years, 55.2% women) who were alive on 15 March 2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Having received the first dose of a vaccine against COVID-19 by 15 March 2021. We calculated vaccination rates and estimated unadjusted and adjusted ORs using logistic regression models. RESULTS: By 15 March 2021, 93.2% of people living in England aged 70 years and over had received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. While vaccination rates differed across all factors considered apart from sex, the greatest disparities were seen between ethnic and religious groups. The lowest rates were in people of black African and black Caribbean ethnic backgrounds, where only 67.2% and 73.8% had received a vaccine, with adjusted odds of not being vaccinated at 5.01 (95% CI 4.86 to 5.16) and 4.85 (4.75 to 4.96) times greater than the white British group. The proportion of individuals self-identifying as Muslim and Buddhist who had received a vaccine was 79.1% and 84.1%, respectively. Older age, greater area deprivation, less advantaged socioeconomic position (proxied by living in a rented home), being disabled and living either alone or in a multigenerational household were also associated with higher odds of not having received the vaccine. CONCLUSION: Research is now urgently needed to understand why disparities exist in these groups and how they can best be addressed through public health policy and community engagement.

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , England , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Semantic Web , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 2021 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013060


BACKGROUND: COVID-19 mortality risk is associated with demographic and behavioural factors; furthermore, religious gatherings have been linked with the spread of COVID-19. We sought to understand the variation in risk of COVID-19-related death across religious groups in England and Wales both before and after the first national lockdown. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of usual residents in England and Wales enumerated at the 2011 Census (n=47 873 294, estimated response rate 94%) for risk of death involving COVID-19 using linked death certificates. Cox regression models were estimated to compare risks between religious groups. Time-dependent coefficients were added to the model allowing HRs before and after lockdown period to be estimated separately. RESULTS: Compared with Christians, all religious groups had an elevated risk of death involving COVID-19; the largest age-adjusted HRs were for Muslim and Jewish males at 2.5 (95% CI 2.3 to 2.7) and 2.1 (95% CI 1.9 to 2.5), respectively. The corresponding HRs for Muslim and Jewish females were 1.9 (95% CI 1.7 to 2.1) and 1.5 (95% CI 1.7 to 2.1), respectively. The difference in risk between groups contracted after lockdown. Those who affiliated with no religion had the lowest risk of COVID-19-related death before and after lockdown. CONCLUSION: The majority of the variation in COVID-19 mortality risk was explained by controlling for sociodemographic and geographic determinants; however, those of Jewish affiliation remained at a higher risk of death compared with all other groups. Lockdown measures were associated with reduced differences in COVID-19 mortality rates between religious groups; further research is required to understand the causal mechanisms.