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1.
Sn Computer Science ; 3(2):137, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1827658

ABSTRACT

With the commencement of the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing and quarantine are becoming essential practices in the world. IoT health monitoring systems prevent frequent visits to doctors and meetings between patients and medical professionals. However, many individuals require regular health monitoring and observation through medical staff. In this proposed work, we have taken advantage of the technology to make patients life easier for earlier diagnosis and treatment. A smart health monitoring system is being developed using Internet of Things (IoT) technology which is capable of monitoring blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen level, and temperature of a person. This system is helpful for rural areas or villages where nearby clinics can be in touch with city hospitals about their patient health conditions. However, if any changes occur in a patient's health based on standard values, then the IoT system will alert the physician or doctor accordingly. The maximum relative error (%E r) in the measurement of heart rate, patient body temperature and SPO2 was found to be 2.89%, 3.03%, 1.05%, respectively, which was comparable to the commercials health monitoring system. This health monitoring system based on IoT helps out doctors to collect real-time data effortlessly. The availability of high-speed internet allows the system to monitor the parameters at regular intervals. Furthermore, the cloud platform allows data storage so that previous measurements could be retrieved in the near future. This system would help in identifying and early treatment of COVID-19 individual patients.

2.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S320, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746559

ABSTRACT

Background. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infection with widely varying clinical severity. Severe COVID-19 was initially proposed to be secondary to cytokine storm syndrome (CSS). However, studies since showed that patients with severe COVID-19 rarely display CSS cytokine phenotypes, and may have more limited inflammatory responses instead. Methods. Prospective cohorts, aged 0-90 years of age who tested positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 were enrolled from inpatient hospitals and outpatient testing centers in Memphis, TN from May 2020-January 2021. Longitudinal blood samples were obtained including acute, sub-acute and convalescent timepoints. Severity scores of asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 were assigned at time of convalescent assessment. Plasma was analyzed with a quantitative human magnetic 38-plex cytokine assay. Results. : 169 participants were enrolled, including 8 asymptomatic, 117 mild, 22 moderate and 17 severe cases, and 5 children with post-COVID-19 multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). All moderate and severe patients were hospitalized and received treatment (39%). Clear distinctions were seen between asymptomatic-mild cases and moderate-severe cases at acute timepoints and during disease progression for GCSF, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-1Ra, IP-10, MIP-1a, MIP-1β, and TGFα. There was a significant difference between participants who did and did not require hospitalization for acute timepoint levels of IL-10, IL-15, MIP-1 β and TGFα (p< 0.01). Only 4 participants with active COVID-19 were found to meet criteria for CSS (2%), only 3 of which were severe. MIS-C participants showed nearly universally elevated cytokine levels compared to those with active COVID-19. Conclusion. Moderate and severe acute COVID-19 has a distinct cytokine profile from asymptomatic and mild cases, as detected from acute, subacute and convalescent plasma.

3.
5th World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability, WS4 2021 ; 334:785-800, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1611372

ABSTRACT

The COVID pandemic has opened the eyes of numerous nations about their medical services framework. The short blast and uncontrolled overall spread of COVID-19 show the constraints of existing medical services frameworks to handle general wellbeing crises conveniently. The disease and demise numbers detailed by World Health Organization (WHO) about this pandemic is an expanding danger to the lives of individuals and the financial matters of nations. The greatest challenge that most governments are experiencing is the absence of a precise mechanism to recognize obscure contaminated cases and anticipate the disease danger of COVID-19 infection. Numerous countries have been utilizing a scope of devices to battle the pandemic, looking for data about development, checking just as the releasing the private data of the occupants. This research paper plans to help tainted individuals with care utilizing the Internet of Things (IoT) and blockchain innovations. From one viewpoint, blockchain can battle pandemics by empowering early discovery of the cases, securing client protection, and guaranteeing a compacted clinical flexibly chain during the pandemic attack. Then again, IoT-based medical services accumulate valuable data, give advanced knowledge through indications and practices, permit far-off checking, and essentially give individuals better self-assurance and medical services. A proposed layer consists of four-layer architecture utilizing IoT and blockchain to identify and predict people to be COVID-19. This idea provides a framework for patients with COVID-19 irresistible infection and perceives medical problems and determinations. The proposed approach is anticipated to deliver a robust framework ready to help governments, healthcare specialists, and residents make basic choices concerning disease recognition, disease forecast, and disease avoidance. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

4.
Clin Exp Pharmacol ; 11(5), 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1346950

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 disease on health and economy has been global, and the magnitude of devastation is unparalleled in modern history. Any potential course of action to manage this complex disease requires the systematic and efficient analysis of data that can delineate the underlying pathogenesis. We have developed a mathematical model of disease progression to predict the clinical outcome, utilizing a set of causal factors known to contribute to COVID-19 pathology such as age, comorbidities, and certain viral and immunological parameters. Viral load and selected indicators of a dysfunctional immune response, such as cytokines IL-6 and IFNα which contribute to the cytokine storm and fever, parameters of inflammation D-Dimer and Ferritin, aberrations in lymphocyte number, lymphopenia, and neutralizing antibodies were included for the analysis. The model provides a framework to unravel the multi-factorial complexities of the immune response manifested in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Further, this model can be valuable to predict clinical outcome at an individual level, and to develop strategies for allocating appropriate resources to manage severe cases at a population level.

5.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 29(1):231, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1249830

ABSTRACT

Background: Youth living with HIV (YLWH) have low rates of viral suppression (VS). We evaluated the impact of a 12-week intervention using remote coaching, electronic dose monitoring (EDM) and tailored outreach (the Triggered Escalating Real-Time Adherence [TERA] intervention) compared to standard of care (SOC) on VS and electronic dose monitored adherence of antiretroviral therapy (ART), among viremic (HIV-1 RNA≥200 copies/ml) youth (ages 13-24 yrs) in the United States. Methods: 89 YLWH were randomized to TERA intervention versus SOC and followed for 48 weeks with study visits at weeks 0, 4, 12, 24, 36 and 48. Remote coaching sessions were delivered at Weeks 0, 4 and 12, with continuous EDM monitoring for delayed or missed ART doses and as needed outreach from coach by text and phone in the TERA arm. Primary outcome was VS at week 12 (HIV-1 RNA <200 cp/ml at 10-14 weeks). RNA ≥ 200 cp/ml (10-14 wks) or missing set to failure. Proportions with VS were compared by arm (Fisher's exact test and log binomial regression for adjusted comparisons). Secondary outcomes included EDM adherence summarized in 12-week intervals using percent days device was opened (PCT12) and incidence rates (IR) of number of ≥7-day gaps between openings (GAPIR), compared using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Results are reported using data collected before the study paused due to COVID-19 in March 2020. Results: 88 YLWH completed study entry: 55% male, 85% Black/African American, median age 22 (range 13-24 yrs), 44% acquired HIV perinatally and 30% on ≥3rd ART regimen. VS was achieved in 15/43 (35%;95% CI: 21%, 51%) TERA arm and 16/45 (36%;95% CI: 22%, 51%) SOC arm participants;difference (TERA-SOC) was-1% (95% CI:-21%, 20%). No differences by arm were apparent at weeks 24, 36 or 48 or after adjusting for sex, age or mode of transmission. Of 54 participants with opportunity for follow-up to week 48, 14% (4/29) and 8% (2/25) in the TERA and SOC arms, respectively, achieved consistent VS (TERA-SOC: 6%;95% CI: 15%, 25%). Median (Q1, Q3) PCT12 over the first 12 weeks was 72% (47%, 89%) versus 41% (21%, 59%) in the TERA and SOC arms, respectively (p<0.001). GAPIRs were higher in the SOC arm than TERA arm with SOC/TERA IR ratio of 2.51 (95% CI: 1.90, 3.33). Conclusion: The 12-week TERA intervention improved adherence to ART but not VS among YLWH failing treatment. TERA will be further assessed for indication, timing, and outcome duration in YLWH.

6.
Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion ; 36(1 SUPPL):S68, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1092790

ABSTRACT

Aims & Objectives: Anemia commonly aggravates the severity of all respiratory illness. There are few studies exploring the relationship between anemia and severity of Covid 19. Patients/Materials & Methods: This single center retrospective observational study is based on recently published guidelines and imported according to PRISMA. The study was conducted in September 2020 covering 20 Covid positive anemic patients. We have used clinical characteristics and laboartory findings to analyse the prognosis. Results: Covid positive anemic patients show more co- morbid conditions than non anemic patients. In Covid positive patients,there is an increase in ferritin levels, LDH and CRP levels. Ferritin is known to be elevated in inflammatory conditions, with hyperferritinemia being a key acute phase reactant used by the clinicians as a marker for key response. Moreover, many of the patients also developed cellulitis over time. Discussion & Conclusion: Anemia is an independent and very important risk factor for complicating the severity in Covid positive patients. Also, high ferritin levels are a major finding in elderly males who are hypertensive. Therefore, clinician should be more sensitive on level of hemoglobin on admission of the patients in order to avoid the complications due to anemia. (Table Presented).

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